Online video making using photos,player mp4 dvr,youtube seo training,media player classic 4k - .

30.07.2015
Business hand making internet purchase in online shop using mobile tablet concept vector illustration.
Graphic design and illustration knowledge as well as acquaintanceship with one of the graphic design or 2d photo editing software programs can easily help you to make money online. There are many successful websites dedicated to selling stock photography and stock videos online. On most stock websites the prices of the images depend on the size the buyer has decided to purchase.
When you go through all of those websites you will notice that part of them are exactly stock sites in the way discussed earlier , but some of them are a bit different.
Method 2: Making extra income designing T-shirts, clocks, cups, bottles and other merchandise the internet shops have to offer. Put your illustrations on t-shirts, clocks, mugs and other products the shop platforms have to offer. Like it was mentioned earlier , the web is constantly growing and we rely more and more on its services. Another relevantly new way to create an income from artistic skills is using online established shopping platforms.
Manufacturing process for making engine components of high carbon content steel using cold forming techniques - Defiance Precision Products, Inc. FIELD OF THE INVENTIONThe present invention relates to a method of making high carbon content steel engine components, and more particularly, it relates to a process of making high carbon content steel engine components using cold-forming techniques.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONThere are several known blanking processing techniques available for manufacturing engine components from steel. Logos design, typography styling or drawing cartoons they all can be your next source of income! In some cases those skills can not only be used as a source of additional money but actually enable you to get a full online income doing what you love.Doing what you love and getting money for it? Most of those websites are partly dedicated to selling stock illustrations and other graphic design artworks.How to sell your work on stock website?All you need to do is subscribe to one or preferably more than one stock images site.
Deviant art for example is actually used by many for selling art and not just stock of images.
The method includes pre-processing a supply wire of high strength steel having a spheroidized carbide microstructure and high-strength mechanical properties, applying a lubricant on the surface of the supply wire, and cold-forming the blank to substantially reduce or eliminate the need for any additional surface grinding operations.
The method of claim 1, wherein said reducing step is achieved by pealing said drawn supply wire to said second predetermined diameter. The method of claim 2, further including the step of wire brushing said drawn supply wire rod prior to said step of subjecting said supply wire rod to a second drawing operation. The method of claim 1, wherein said first drawing operation reduces the diameter of said supply wire rod by at least approximately 25%.
The method of claim 1, wherein said second drawing operation reduces the diameter of said supply wire rod by less than approximately 5%.
The method of claim 9, wherein said zinc-phosphate-free lubricant is one of a drawing soap calcium phosphate, molibdium sulfide, and Teflon. The method of claim 1, wherein said supply steel wire has a carbon content greater than approximately 0.90% by weight. The method of claim 1, wherein said cold forming operation is accomplished by one of heading and extrusion.
The method of claim 12, wherein said cold forming operation is performed in multiple stages in a progressive manner to minimize work hardening and cracking damage to the component being formed. The method of claim 15, wherein said second lubricating coating is one of a drawing soap, calcium phosphate, molibdium sulfide, and Teflon. The method of claim 15, further including checking said supply wire for deficiencies or imperfections after said second drawing operation. The method of claim 17, wherein said supply wire is checked by performing and eddy current check. Specific examples of such techniques include screw machining, warm forming, and hot forging. The prices are relatively low but since the works can be potentially purchased by a large amount of people, every such work can be a nice source of extra income. This is not very hard , but unlike the first 5 methods , it requires some knowledge on the subject. Screw machining involves taking bar stock and machining the stock, using a multi-spindle machine, into a raw shape, or starting blank. Let’s say every image is sold for 3$ and you get 1.5$ for each sale, if 200 people by that image you can make 300$ out of it.
They handle the website, the printing of the images and the shipping of the merchandise to the clients all you left with is collecting you earning. There are many websites that provide you with platforms to sell website templates, logo designs, email templates and more. The internet power over our lives is constantly increasing and therefore many companies, firms and private businesses may want to enter this industry or to increase their involvement in it.
After passing the review you will be able to upload images and sell them on those stock sites. While effective for generating a starting blank, material waste tends to be high for this operation.Warm forming involves heating a supply wire below a critical temperature to improve malleability.
Those firms need logo designs, brochure designs , letterhead designs and some of them might want to get an animated cartoon as their advertisement clip.


The secret of making extra money in stock image and photography sites is to upload a large amount of images. This article is aimed to introduce you to ways of making extra money online with your graphic design and illustration skills. However, the warm forming technique is disadvantageous because the shaped parts cannot meet the tight tolerances required for many applications.
More specifically, as the shaped part cools, it deforms, thereby requiring additional machining steps to achieve the desired shape.Hot forging starts with either bar stock, supply wire or a slug.
The starting material is heated in a manner similar to warm forming, but to a higher temperature. More specifically, the material is heated above the critical temperature but below its melting point.
Moreover, the tooling used to perform the hammering operation tends to be crude and imprecise such that additional machining is required to achieve the desired shape.After the shaped part is formed, the part is then heat treated. After heat treating, the shaped part is then subjected to multiple grinding operations; end grind, outside diameter grind, inside diameter grind and outside diameter finishing operations.
Once the part is complete it is fitted with mating components and assembled into final assembly.In addition to machining, warm forming and hot forging, it is known to employ cold forming techniques for produce complex parts to tight tolerances, or “near net shape”.
For example, it has been known to employ cold-forming techniques, such as upsetting, heading, and extrusion for the manufacture of high strength nuts and bolts. Previous attempts to cold form high carbon content steel have resulted in several problems. One problem experienced was that the near net shape components tended to crack due to work hardening of the supply material. Another problem experienced was increased wear on the forming tools, and in many instances failure of the tools.To alleviate the difficulty in cold forming high carbon content steel, specific processing steps have been employed to process the high carbon content steel prior to cold forming. Traditionally, processing of high carbon content steel wire has included multiple drawing operations to yield the desired physical properties. Because material volume is critical during the forming process to assure adequate die fill, steel supply wire processing has included a two step drawing process, with the first draw resulting in a major cross sectional area reduction of 25% or greater.
The second drawing operation is a more precisely controlled sizing draw with a 5% or less area reduction.An example for standard processing for supply wire is as follows. The wire then undergoes an eddy current check to check for defects and a zinc-phosphate coating is applied over the wire to act as a lubricant through further processing.While somewhat effective, as the number of operations required to process the wire increase, so do costs. The first step of processing the supply wire includes annealing to increase its formability, and then coating the supply wire with a lubricant, such as zinc phosphate. Next, the annealed supply wire is drawn to a first predetermined diameter, such that the supply wire undergoes at least a 25% reduction. After the drawing operation, the drawn supply wire is peeled to a second predetermined diameter to remove surface defects. The supply wire is then wire brushed.The brushed supply wire is next subjected to a second drawing operation. According to one aspect of the invention,.the drawn supply wire is annealed again to provide increased formability during cold forming. Finally, the annealed supply wire is coated with a lubricant, such as zinc phosphate or an organic material.Once preprocessed, the supply wire is next cold formed into a “near net shape” meaning that the part is produced substantially close to final dimensions. Due to the use of cold forming, the supply material is forced out into the near net shape, thus minimizing waste and reducing or eliminating grinding operations. In accordance with the present invention, the cold forming operation is performed in multiple operations and in progressive steps to avoid work hardening, thereby avoiding cracking and damaging to both the part being formed and the forming tools. 1 is a flow chart illustrating a method of processing high carbon content steel wire for cold forming operations.FIG. 2 is a flow chart illustrating an alternative method of processing high carbon content steel wire for cold forming operations.FIG.
3 illustrates the processing operations for manufacturing a cam follower roller in accordance with the present invention.FIG.
4 illustrates a cam follower roller at various stages of the processing operations in accordance with the present invention.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTSThe method of the present invention is useful for producing a wide variety of finished high carbon content steel parts, including, but not limited to, cam follower rollers for automotive applications. In a preferred embodiment for manufacturing a cam roller, the method of the present invention includes providing preprocessed wire of a predetermined high-strength and high carbon content steel material, having a microstructure of large, spheroidized carbide structures. The steel wire preferably has the following properties, an ultimate yield strength expressed as Z% (% area reduction at yield) greater than approximately 63%, an ultimate tensile strength expressed as Rm greater than approximately 610 Mpa and a hardness reading of less than approximately 200 Brinell to provide an engine component that is free from cracks.To begin, a supply wire is preferably provided that has been specially processed so as to have a controlled, predetermined surface finish and surface finish direction. The surface finish is critical because small discontinuities in the surface finish act as stress risers and may propagate into cracks. Accordingly, the smoother the surface, the less stress risers and therefore, a lower potential to crack. The surface finish direction is also important because high stresses in the part are typically in one direction.
Thus, if the surface finish is not in that same direction, the part will again have a lower propensity to crack while being formed.Referring to the flowchart of FIG. 1, in accordance with one aspect of the present invention, to achieve the predetermined surface finish and surface finish direction, a supply wire rod 10 of high carbon content steel is processed accordingly. Supply wire rod 10 of high carbon steel (SAE 52100 or equivalent), with a carbon content of at least approximately 0.65% is provided. Supply wire 10 is then coated 14 with zinc phosphate or other suitable lubricant to lubricate supply wire 10.


Lubricated supply wire 10 is next drawn 16 to a predetermined diameter so as to undergo at least an approximately 25% reduction. Unlike the prior art, drawn and reduced supply wire 10 is next peeled 18 to a second predetermined diameter and then the exterior surface is wire brushed 20 to adhere the lubricating coating to supply wire 10. Drawing 22 is a more precise draw than initial draw 16 and involves a diameter reduction that is significantly less than the reduction in draw 16. Supply wire 10 may then subjected to an eddy current check 24.In accordance with the present invention, after an optional eddy current check 24, supply wire 10 is then subjected to a second annealing operation 26.
Unlike the prior art, second annealing operation 26 occurs after the peeling operation 18, and just prior to cold forming supply wire 10 into a near net shape (to be discussed in greater detailed below). Unexpectedly, it was determined that eliminating an annealing operation prior to peeling, as was done in the prior art, did not compromise peeling operation 18.
Further, by eliminating an annealing step prior to peeling operation 18, processing steps for supply wire 10 did not increase, and nor did costs.
Moreover, it was determined that incorporating second annealing operation 26 after second drawing 22 operation improved the formability of supply wire 10 for subsequent processing, reducing cracking problems and increasing tool life.
After annealing operation 26, supply wire 10 is coated 28 with either zinc phosphate or dipped in soap to lubricate supply wire 10 prior to undergoing a part forming process.In one preferred embodiment, to alleviate the problems associated with the use of low melting point materials, in accordance with the present invention, zinc-phosphate-free wire lubricant coatings are employed as lubricant coatings. Suitable coatings include drawing soaps, calcium phosphate, molibdium sulfide, Teflon or other organic coatings.When using an organic lubricant, such as soap, in place of a zinc phosphate the progressive die design and overall forming process must be one such that steel movement against the outside diameter forming surface is minimized. This is undertaken such that the part sensitive die tooling life is not compromised when switching from a zinc phosphate lubricant to soap. This approach is also done to prevent the risk of cold welding between the die and the blank that may occur if the soap lubricant is missing from a significant length of supply wire.An example of a preprocessing supply wire 10 in accordance with the present invention is as follows.
A supply wire rod 10 having greater than 0.70% carbon content and having an 18 mm diameter is provided. Supply wire 10 is annealed and then coated with zinc phosphate or other suitable lubricant. An eddy current check is employed and supply wire 10 is then annealed for increased formability and coated with lubricant, such as zinc phosphate, or subjected to soap dipping, prior to forming operations.An alternative method for preprocessing high carbon content steel supply wire for use in cold forming operations is also disclosed. Drawn supply wire 30 is then subjected to an eddy current check 40 and then subjected to a second annealing operation 42 for increased formability, in accordance with the present invention. Finally, supply wire 30 is then lubricated 44 with zinc phosphate or subjected to soap dipping.An example of a preprocessing supply wire 30 in accordance with the present invention is as follows. A supply wire rod 30 having greater than 0.70% carbon content and having a 16 mm diameter is provided. After peeling operation 34, supply wire 30 is wire brushed 36 and drawn to a 14.5 mm diameter (9% reduction). Finally, supply wire 10 is eddy current checked 40, annealed 42 a second time, and lubricated 44 with zinc phosphate or other suitable lubricant.In accordance with the present invention, once a preprocessed supply wire 10 or 30 is provided, it is cold formed. Cold forming reduces material waste as compared to traditional machining processing, such as screw forming.
In the preferred embodiment, preprocessed wire 10 or 30 is cold formed using extrusion, heading, or other suitable cold forming process.Extrusion involves forcing the wire blank 10 or 30 through a die orifice of a predetermined cross-section to produce a length of substantially uniform cross section. As supply wire 10 or 30 is forced through the die, and due to the increased formability supply wire 10 or 30 caused by the preprocessing step, supply wire 10 or 30 flows over and around the pin or pins. Thus, the resulting blank is formed into a predetermined contour with minimal waste material.In a heading operation, a die is provided and supply wire 10 or 30 is positioned in the die with one end in contact with a pin or plurality of pins. The pin is hammered into the supply wire 10 or 30 in the die, such that supply wire 10 or 30 flows around the pin in the die. In accordance with the present invention, engine components formed using cold forming are performed in a multi-stage process 50, as may be seen in FIG.
The multi-stage process 50 may use one or more different cold forming techniques.The cold formed blank produced via the preprocessed supply wire shall result in a crack free surface, crack free sub-layer surface. The aforementioned properties are required in the cold formed blanks to prevent spalling, cracking or any other defect that may occur on a finished engine roller when used in the application or when subjected to a 1000-hour or longer engine cycle test as specified by the engine's original equipment manufacturer.After the cold-forming operation, the processed blank is then pre-washed, heat treated and quenched at predetermined temperatures and for predetermined time periods based on the nominal chemistry for the grade of steel being employed.
The heat treat and quenching operations alleviate all induced stresses caused by the cold forming operation so as to retain a high degree of wear and fatigue resistance.In accordance with one aspect of the invention, because the method of the present invention permits forming a near net shape for the part without over stressing the forming tooling or pushing the supply material beyond its yield strength, cracking problems are minimized. Thus, the method of the present invention reduces manufacturing time and expense, and increases the strength of the blank or tool life.While it is understood that many different engine components may be formed using the above described process, FIGS. 3-5 illustrate a cam follower roller that is manufactured in accordance with the present invention. Finally, the thinned out inside diameter 60 is punched out 64 resulting in a completed cam follower roller 66 that has a near net shape. Because cam follower roller 66 is formed in a progressive manner to avoid work hardening, damage and cracking to both cam follower roller 66 and tooling is avoided. A person of ordinary skill in the art would realize, however, that certain modifications would come within the teachings of this invention. Therefore, the following claims should be studied to determine the true scope and content of the invention.



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