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In general, a personal guaranty makes an individual or individuals liable for an entity’s debts or obligations.  A personal guaranty which guarantees a general contractor’s obligations to pay a subcontractor is rarely given, but it is common for the principal(s) of a subcontractor with unestablished credit to personally guarantee the debts and obligations of the subcontractor to a supplier in exchange for purchasing or renting materials on credit.
You should make the personal guaranty continuing, absolute and unconditional.  You should contact your attorney to help draft a form of personal guaranty so that you have it at your disposal when the need arises.
About Joe VireneJoe Virene represents clients in both the construction and oil & gas industries.
Targeted Partnership Tax Allocations: What Are They and Do They Have Substantial Economic Effect Under Sec 704(b)? Partnerships that use targeted allocations deviate from one of the three safe harbors for substantial economic effect in the section 704(b) regulations: liquidating distributions are not tied to positive ending capital account balances. Paradoxically, this does not mean that partnership agreements that utilize targeted tax allocation provisions are automatically in violation of section 704(b). Targeted allocations are often preferable because their use for allocating a partnership’s items of income and loss line up the tax consequences of partnership activity with the economics of the business deal. The simplest way to visualize the mechanics of targeted tax allocations is to start with the basic equation for tax capital accounts: beginning capital, plus contributions, plus or minus taxable income or loss, minus distributions equals ending capital accounts.
In partnership agreements utilizing targeted tax allocation provisions, liquidating distributions are not made in accordance with positive capital account balances. Targeted tax allocations are easier for clients to understand because the allocation of taxable income or loss typically follows cash distributions.
An experienced drafter, however, can anticipate these issues and formulate the targeted allocation provisions so that eventually the capital accounts return to the expected relative balances reflective of the business deal absent tax considerations. If you are preparing a partnership income tax return with targeted tax allocation provisions in which liquidating distributions are not in accordance with positive capital account balances should you be concerned that the allocations do not have SEE? Tax practitioners should be wary of targeted tax allocations because the IRS has not officially sanctioned them.
Let’s say you are preparing a partnership income tax return and suddenly in a particular year something unusual occurs and you are either unsure how to allocate the taxable income or loss or you don’t believe the allocation as called for in the partnership agreement has SEE.  At that point, you must alert the client that there could be a problem and ask your client to consult with tax counsel to resolve it.
The client may be reluctant to incur the time or expense or both and may try to reassure you that he or she is sure the partnership agreement should be interpreted a certain way. Without a clarification in writing you are taking a risk in preparing the partnership tax return. These simple examples illustrate the difference between “layer cake” partnership tax allocations and targeted tax allocation provisions.
Trump Towers, LLC is formed with a $90 cash capital contribution from Mary Moneybags and a $10 cash capital contribution from Dan Developer. Trump Towers, LLC is formed with a $90 cash capital contribution from Mary Moneybags and a $10 cash capital contribution from Dan Developer (same as Example 1).  The operating agreement calls for Mary to receive a 10% annual preferred distribution on her capital until it is repaid. Mary first receives an allocation of $9 (10% preferred return on her invested capital of $90). Trump Towers, LLC is formed with a $90 cash capital contribution from Mary Moneybags and a $10 cash capital contribution from Dan Developer (same as Example 1).  The operating agreement calls for Mary to receive a 10% annual preferred distribution on her capital until it is repaid (same as Example 2).
If the operating agreement has the safe harbor section 704(b) rules requiring liquidation in accordance with positive capital accounts, then Mary receives a liquidating distribution of $90 and Dan receives $10. Example 4 is the same as Example 3 except the operating agreement contains targeted allocation provisions. Targeted partnership tax allocations are quickly becoming the preferred method of allocating taxable income or loss to insure synergy between tax consequences and economics.  As tax professionals, we need to understand how targeted tax allocation provisions work and advise our clients that choose to use them whether they have substantial economic effect.
7 Responses to Targeted Partnership Tax Allocations: What Are They and Do They Have Substantial Economic Effect Under Sec 704(b)? Thanks Jeramie – I needed a tutorial on how to edit blog posts already published, but I think I got it now. Target allocations are great in theory,but f you have an entity with a large disparity between book and tax it can result in some unwanted results.
Before you even decide on your target market which becomes essential to the survival of your business, you have to have a clear purpose and identity of your own business. Target marketing is a very important aspect to consider when setting up any business, as it will allow you to find your specific niche, in which you can over time build a raving online audience and set yourself apart from your competition clearly, knowing what you have to offer is unique to the market place. World class training, from people whowalk their talk, real people getting results in their marketing, now, and you can click here for proof.
One of the most common questions business owners struggle with is understanding who their customer is. If you were to bet on the person who walked in the door as most likely to buy, who would they be? Once you know who the target (or core) audience is, you can better target your messages to get them to buy. This is a€?Selecting Business-Level Strategiesa€?, chapter 5 from the book Strategic Management: Evaluation and Execution (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. On January 13, 2011, Target Corporation announced its intentions to operate stores outside the United States for the first time. In addition to making its initial move beyond the United States, Target had several other sources of pride in early 2011. Concern also surrounded Targeta€™s possible vulnerability to competition within the retail industry. One important difference between Kmart and Target is that Target is viewed by consumers as offering relatively high-quality goods.
Business-level strategy addresses the question of how a firm will compete in a particular industry (Figure 5.1 "Business-Level Strategies").
Understanding the differences that underlie generic strategies is important because different generic strategies offer different value propositions to customers.
Analyzing generic strategies enhances the understanding of how firms compete at the business level. Create a new framework to examine generic strategies using different dimensions than the two offered by Portera€™s framework.
It is tempting to think of cost leaders as companies that sell inferior, poor-quality goods and services for rock-bottom prices. In contrast to firms such as Yugo whose failure is inevitable, cost leaders can be very successful.
Perhaps the most famous cost leader is Walmart, which has used a cost leadership strategy to become the largest company in the world. Many cost leaders rely on economies of scaleA cost advantage created when a firm can produce a good or service at a lower per-unit price due to producing the good or service in large quantities.
Each generic strategy offers advantages that firms can potentially leverage to enhance their success as well as disadvantages that may undermine their success. Beyond existing competitors, a cost leadership strategy also creates benefits relative to potential new entrants. In many settings, cost leaders attract a large market share because a large portion of potential customers find paying low prices for goods and services of acceptable quality to be very appealing.
In some settings, the need for high sales volume is a critical disadvantage of a cost leadership strategy. Cost leaders tend to keep their costs low by minimizing advertising, market research, and research and development, but this approach can prove to be expensive in the long run.
Cost leadership is an effective business-level strategy to the extent that a firm offers low prices, provides satisfactory quality, and attracts enough customers to be profitable.
What are three industries in which a cost leadership strategy would be difficult to implement?
Name three examples of firms conducting a cost leadership strategy that use no advertising.
In terms of the two competitive dimensions described by Michael Porter, using a differentiation strategy means that a firm is competing based on uniqueness rather than price and is seeking to attract a broad market.Porter, M.
Colemana€™s patented stove was originally developed for use by soldiers during World War II.
Successful use of a differentiation strategy depends on not only offering unique features but also communicating the value of these features to potential customers.
FedEx and Nike are two other companies that have done well at communicating to customers that they provide differentiated offerings.
Express Oil Change and Service Centers is a chain of auto repair shops that stretches from Florida to Texas. In terms of customer convenience, Express Oil Change is faster than most of our competitorsa€”we do a ten-minute oil change while the customer stays in the car. I once had a franchisee candidate in New Jersey respond to a request by us for proof of his liquid assets by bringing to the interview about $100,000 in cash to the meeting.
Each generic strategy offers advantages that firms can potentially leverage to enjoy strong performance, as well as disadvantages that may damage their performance.
In turn, strong margins mean that the firm does not need to attract huge numbers of customers to have a good overall level of profit. To the extent that differentiation remains in place over time, buyer loyalty may be created. Meanwhile, Pepsi also has attracted a large set of brand-loyal customers that Coca-Cola struggles to steal. Beyond existing competitors, a differentiation strategy also creates benefits relative to potential new entrants.
The big risk when using a differentiation strategy is that customers will not be willing to pay extra to obtain the unique features that a firm is trying to build its strategy around. In other cases, customers desire the unique features that a firm offers, but competitors are able to imitate the features well enough that they are no longer unique. Firms following a differentiation strategy must a€?watcha€? out for counterfeit goods such as the faux Rolexes shown here. Differentiation can be an effective business-level strategy to the extent that a firm offers unique features that convince customers to pay a premium for their goods and services.
What are two industries in which a differentiation strategy would be difficult to implement? Name three ways businesses that provide entertainment that might better differentiate their services.
Companies that use a cost leadership strategy and those that use a differentiation strategy share one important characteristic: both groups try to be attractive to customers in general. Focused cost leadershipA generic business strategy that requires competing based on price to target a narrow market. Another important point is that the nature of the narrow target market varies across firms that use a focused cost leadership strategy. Focused differentiationA generic business strategy that requires offering unique features that fulfill the demands of a narrow market. While a differentiation strategy involves offering unique features that appeal to a variety of customers, the need to satisfy the desires of a narrow market means that the pursuit of uniqueness is often taken to the proverbial a€?next levela€? by firms using a focused differentiation strategy. Although many consumers consider Kopi Luwak to be disgusting, a relatively small group of coffee enthusiasts has embraced the coffee and made it a profitable product. The dedication of Mercedes-Benz to cutting-edge technology, styling, and safety innovations has made the firma€™s vehicles prized by those who are rich enough to afford them.
Augustino LoPrinzi Guitars and Ukuleles in Clearwater, Florida, builds high-end custom instruments.
Were there other entrepreneurial opportunities you considered before you began making guitars? I originally thought of pursuing a career in commercial art, but I found my true love was in classical guitar building. A second advantage of using a focus strategy is that firms often develop tremendous expertise about the goods and services that they offer.
In contrast to tacky Hawaiian souvenirs, the quality of Kamaka ukuleles makes them a favorite of ukulele phenom Jake Shimabukuro and others who are willing to pay $1,000 or more for a high-end instrument. Finally, damaging attacks may come not only from larger firms but also from smaller ones that adopt an even narrower focus. Focus strategies can be effective business-level strategies to the extent that a firm can match their goods and services to specific niche markets. What are three different demographics that firms might target to establish a focus strategy?
What is an example of a business that you think is focused in too narrow a fashion to be successful?
Some executives are not content to have their firms compete based on offering low prices or unique features.
According to government statistics, women are 60 percent less likely than men to become entrepreneurs. Plain Ivey Jane sells overstock from Anthropologie, Urban Outfitters, Bloomingdales, and other high-end and small designers.
Ia€™m one of the lowest-priced retailers in the shopping district that people in Austin call the Second Street area. The success that 2007 college graduate Sarah Reeves has enjoyed with Plain Ivey Jane may inspire other young women to become entrepreneurs. One route toward a best-cost strategy is for a firm to adopt a business model whose fixed costs and overhead are very low relative to the costs that competitors are absorbing (Figure 5.10 "Driving toward a Best-Cost Strategy by Reducing Overhead"). Moving toward a best-cost strategy by dramatically reducing expenses is also possible for firms that cannot rely on the Internet as a sales channel. A best-cost strategy can be an effective business-level strategy to the extent that a firm offers differentiated goods and services at relatively low prices. What is an example of a firm following a best-cost strategy near your college or university? Understand why trying to please everyone often creates problems when crafting a business-level strategy.
Michael Porter has noted that strategy is as much about executives deciding what a firm is not going to do as it is about deciding what the firm is going to do.Porter, M. This illustration from 1887 captures the lesson of Aesopa€™s fable a€?The Miller, His Son, and Their Assa€?a€”a lesson that executives need to follow.
The fable a€?The Miller, His Son, and Their Assa€? told by the ancient Greek storyteller Aesop helps illustrate this idea. He has successfully handled various matters, including filing and prosecuting material men, mineral, and maritime liens, among others. On the contrary, properly drafted targeted tax allocation provisions can make it easier to split taxable income and loss in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership.
However instead of deriving ending capital accounts, targeted allocations solve for  the allocation of taxable income or loss among the partners.
The IRS indicated in unofficial discussions that they are working on guidance that will bless targeted tax allocations as long as they achieve the ultimate goals of section 704(b). While your client may believe he or she knows the appropriate interpretation, if the language is unclear, then most likely the partnership agreement must be amended.
This creates a nightmare of tracking layers of preferred return that is accrued versus paid.
The business deal has been impacted: Mary does not receive the expected $9 preferred return.
This means that (1) liquidating distributions are made in the same manner as current distributions (instead of in accordance with positive capital account balances), and (2) taxable income or loss is allocated to mirror the way cash is distributed (instead of referring to the layers). This could be done one of two ways: (a) Giving Mary a guaranteed payment for the $9 preferred return on her capital and allocating the resulting $9 loss all to Dan, or (b) Specially allocating $9 of income to Mary and a $9 loss to Dan.
I had a client who at the start of this recession when banks were failing etc bought distressed debt for as little as 30 cents on the dollar.
When I was deciding on what my core purpose would be in my online business, I had to consider a number things relating to a number of issues. Said another way, it’s the customer who is most likely to buy from you and continue to use your products or services.

Male, female, age, income, with children, no children, education, live locally, own home, rent, employed, retired, etc. They will also use targeted advertising on Google, Facebook or through other opportunities. Audiences without children may not be as enamored with photos of children as those with children. Employers want to see that you have a clear idea of what you want to do because it matters to their business. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. The company claimed that 96 percent of American consumers recognized its signature logo, surpassing the percentages enjoyed by famous brands such as Apple and Nike. Since its creation in the early 1960s, Target executives had carved out a lucrative position for the firm. After some struggles in the 2000s, the mammoth retailera€™s performance was strong enough that it ranked well above Target on Fortunea€™s list of the a€?Worlda€™s Most Admired Companiesa€? (eleventh vs.
A generic strategyA general way of positioning a firma€™s business-level strategy within an industry. A firm focusing on cost leadership will have a different value chain configuration than a firm whose strategy focuses on differentiation. Firms derive such strategies by executives making decisions about whether their source of competitive advantage is based on price or differentiation and whether their scope of operations targets a broad or narrow market.
The Yugo, for example, was an extremely unreliable car that was made in Eastern Europe and sold in the United States for about $4,000. A firm following a cost leadershipGeneric strategy that offers products or services with acceptable quality and features to a broad set of customers at a low price. In the case of cost leadership, one advantage is that cost leadersa€™ emphasis on efficiency makes them well positioned to withstand price competition from rivals (Figure 5.3 "Executing a Low-Cost Strategy"). Specifically, the presence of a cost leader in an industry tends to discourage new firms from entering the business because a new firm would struggle to attract customers by undercutting the cost leadersa€™ prices.
Highly fragmented markets and markets that involve a lot of brand loyalty may not offer much of an opportunity to attract a large segment of customers.
A relative lack of market research can lead cost leaders to be less skilled than other firms at detecting important environmental changes.
A firm following a differentiation strategyA generic positioning that attempts to convince customers to pay a premium price for its good or services by providing unique and desirable features. As a result, advertising in general and brand building in particular are important to this strategy. FedExa€™s former slogan a€?When it absolutely, positively has to be there overnighta€? highlights the commitment to speedy delivery that sets the firm apart from competitors such as UPS and the US Postal Service.
Based in Birmingham, Alabama, the firm has more than 170 company-owned and franchised locations under its brand.
How is Express Oil Change being positioned relative to other firms, such as Super Lube, American LubeFast, and Jiffy Lube? The key to our success is to be more convenient and provide a better overall experience for the customer.
We use a payroll system that provides incentives to the store staff on how many cars are serviced each day and on the total sales of the store, rather than on increasing the average transactions by selling the customer items they did not come in for, which is what most of the industry does. In the case of differentiation, a key advantage is that effective differentiation creates an ability to obtain premium prices from customers (Figure 5.5 "Executing a Differentiation Strategy").
Loyal customers are very desirable because they are not price sensitiveThe extent to which a price increase makes a buyer less likely to purchase an item..
Specifically, the brand loyalty that customers feel to a differentiated product makes it difficult for a new entrant to lure these customers to adopt its product. In 2007, department store Dillarda€™s stopped carrying mena€™s sportswear made by Nautica because the seafaring theme of Nauticaa€™s brand had lost much of its cache among many men.Kapner, S. For example, products that imitate the look and feel of offerings from Ray-Ban, Tommy Bahama, and Coach are attractive to many value-conscious consumers. Rivals such as Dell were able to offer service that was just as good as IBMa€™s while also charging lower prices for personal computers than IBM charged.
These efforts to appeal to broad markets can be contrasted with strategies that involve targeting a relatively narrow niche of potential customers. Thus the unique features provided by firms following a focused differentiation strategy are often specialized. This illustrates the essence of a focused differentiation strategya€”effectively serving the specialized needs of a niche market can create great riches.
Although most grocery stores devote a section of their shelves to natural and organic products, Whole Foods Market works to sell such products exclusively. The founder of the company, Augustino LoPrinzi, has been a builder of custom guitars for five decades. I was trained by my father to be a barber from a very young age, and after my term in the service, I opened a barbershop.
We do this by reading several music industry publications, talking with suppliers, and keeping an eye on the trends going on in other countries because usually they come full circle.
In the case of focus differentiation, one advantage is that very high prices can be charged. In markets such as camping equipment where product knowledge is important, rivals and new entrants may find it difficult to compete with firms following a focus strategy. A sporting goods store that sells camping, hiking, kayaking, and skiing goods, for example, might lose business to a store that focuses solely on ski apparel because the latter can provide more guidance about how skiers can stay warm and avoid broken bones.
The firm charges prices that are relatively low among retailers while at the same time attracting trend-conscious consumers by carrying products from famous designers, such as Michael Graves, Isaac Mizrahi, Fiorucci, Liz Lange, and others.
Meanwhile, succeeding within the specialty fashion retailing market is notoriously difficult. We offer high end designer names at a discount, and the new overstocked apparel is handpicked from over 70 different brands to offer exactly what Austin needs at a price every girl can afford.
Although I buy from the same designers as the big and famous retailers, our dresses and accessories are sold at a fraction of their prices.
My niche in the fashion retailing business is that my merchandise is overstock from great brands.
I thought getting it out of my system now was a good idea, and it was a good time since I was able to get a great deal on my lease.
This firm is able to offer customers a far greater variety of movies and charge lower prices than video rental stores by conducting all its business over the Internet and via mail. A firm is said to be stuck in the middleA situation in which a business-level strategy does not offer features that are unique enough to convince customers to buy its offerings and its prices are too high to compete effectively on based on price. Do your clients ask you to review the tax provisions in their partnership or LLC operating agreements? Since the allocation provisions by definition do not meet the 704(b) safe harbor, you will have to test them to make sure they have SEE.
However, until such guidance is released, tax practitioners must carefully evaluate allocations to insure they are consistent with the partners’ interests in the partnership.
The 704(b) regulations require that Mary receive a priority allocation of taxable income to the extent of her preferred distribution. At its worst, forced application of the 704(b) safe harbor can actually impact the economics of the business deal as illustrated by Example 3.
Either way, Mary receives cash of $99 and Dan receives cash of $1, and Mary receives taxable income of $9 and Dan has a taxable loss of $9. I started the Tax Maven Blog to share what I've learned and hopefully play a (small) role in elevating the quality of tax advice in our profession.
I came to the conclusion that my expertise in health and fitness and also my knowledge and interest in NLP, would serve me well in helping home business owners keep fit, whilst using my knowledge of NLP and marketing psychology to improve marketing and sales performance in online business.
If your business is more broad, but still mostly attracts people from a certain geographic area, you could use local publications in print or online, or radio or television opportunities to reach your target audience.
Focus groups to review advertisements are always a great idea – even if you just show them to a few honest people.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (134 MB) or just this chapter (18 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
Target offers relatively low prices on brand-name consumer staples such as cleaning supplies and paper products, but it also offers chic clothing and household goods. Retail chains such as Kohla€™s and Old Navy offered fashionable clothing at prices similar to Targeta€™s. Although Walmarta€™s products tended to lack the chic appeal of Targeta€™s, Walmart had begun offering better products during the recession of the late 2000s in an effort to expand its customer base.
This dimension involves whether a firm tries to gain an edge on rivals by keeping costs down or by offering something unique in the market. For example, marketing and sales for a differentiation strategy often requires extensive effort while some firms that follow cost leadership such as Waffle House are successful with limited marketing efforts. For example, one way that cost leaders generally keep costs low is by not spending much on advertising.
Despite its attractive price tag, the Yugo was a dismal failure because drivers simply could not depend on the car for transportation.
Economies of scale are created when the costs of offering goods and services decreases as a firm is able to sell more items. Kmarta€™s ill-fated attempt to engage Walmart in a price war ended in disaster, in part because Walmart was so efficient in its operations that it could live with smaller profit margins far more easily than Kmart could. Thus a cost leadership strategy helps create barriers to entry that protect the firma€”and its existing rivalsa€”from new competition.
The need for efficiency means that cost leadersa€™ profit margins are often slimmer than the margins enjoyed by other firms.
In both the soft drink and cigarette industries, for example, customers appear to be willing to pay a little extra to enjoy the brand of their choice. Meanwhile, downplaying research and development can slow cost leadersa€™ ability to respond to changes once they are detected. Nike differentiates its athletic shoes and apparel through its iconic a€?swoosha€? logo as well as an intense emphasis on product innovation through research and development.
Express Oil Change tries to provide a unique level of service, and the firm is content to let rivals offer cheaper prices. Express Oil Change and Service Centers outperform the industry significantly in terms of customer transactions per day and store sales, for a host of reasons. We dona€™t sell customers things they dona€™t yet need, like air filters and radiator flushes.
Overall, the firm made a profit of just under $12 billion on sales of just over $35 billion in 2010. In other words, buyer loyalty makes a customer unlikely to switch to another firma€™s products if that firm tries to steal the customer away through lower prices. In contrast, store-brand sodas such as Sama€™s Choice (which is sold at Walmart) seldom attract loyalty. A new soda brand, for example, would struggle to take customers away from Coca-Cola or Pepsi. Firms such as these must work hard at product development and marketing to ensure that enough customers are willing to pay a premium for their goods rather than settling for knockoffs.
IBM experienced the pain of this scenario when executives tried to follow a differentiation strategy in the personal computer market. From a customera€™s perspective, a person would be foolish to pay more for an IBM personal computer since IBM did not offer anything unique.
A focused cost leadership strategy requires competing based on price to target a narrow market (Figure 5.6 "Focused Cost Leadership"). Clairea€™s, for example, seeks to appeal to young women by selling inexpensive jewelry, accessories, and ear piercings. A focused differentiation strategy requires offering unique features that fulfill the demands of a narrow market (Figure 5.7 "Focused Differentiation"). In 1970, acid-rocker Janis Joplin recorded a song called a€?Mercedes Benza€? that highlighted the automakera€™s allure. While a reasonably good mass-produced guitar can be purchased elsewhere for a few hundred dollars, LoPrinzia€™s handmade models start at $1,100, and some sell for more than $10,000. Aesthetics are very important to the Japanese along with high-quality materials and workmanship. Also, for the past several years by following the Internet forums and such has been extremely beneficial.
Indeed, these firms often price their wares far above what is charged by firms following a differentiation strategy (Figure 5.8 "Executing a Focus Strategy").
Once its target market is being well served, expansion to other markets might be the only way to expand, and this often requires developing a new set of skills.
In his continued effort to be the most cutting-edge designer in the fashion industry, Mugatu developed a new line of clothing inspired a€?by the streetwalkers and hobos that surround us.a€? His new product line, Derelicte, characterized by dresses made of burlap and parking cones and pants made of garbage bags and tin cans, was developed for customers who valued the uniqueness of hisa€¦eclectic design.
Firms that charge relatively low prices and offer substantial differentiation are following a best-costA business-level strategy followed by firms that charge relatively low prices and offers substantial differentiation. These trends do not worry Sarah Reeves, a young entrepreneur and 2007 graduate of Auburn University who is rapidly becoming a key player within the Austin, Texas, retail scene by offering high-end fashion at low prices.
I see the same group of people every few months, but getting in new faces is the challenge. I thought that people who owned their own business must know what they are doing, but many people dona€™t. Amazon, for example, can charge low prices in part because it does not have to endure the expenses that firms such as Walmart and Target do in operating many hundreds of stores.
Then you need to understand how targeted tax allocation provisions work, when they are beneficial, and whether they comply with section 704(b). The partnership agreement must clearly spell out the partners’ interests in the partnership (the business deal), and also carefully define how capital accounts will be derived.
Remember section 761(c) allows a partnership agreement to be amended up until the original due date of the return (April 15 for a calendar year partnership). At this point, Mary’s capital account is $171 and Dan’s is $19 assuming no distributions have been made.
Upon liquidation, Mary and Dan each receive a distribution equal to their ending capital accounts: $135 for Mary and $14 for Dan. The stronger your core values as a person, the stronger your business values will be and the more effective your target marketing will become, especially in the long run. The chances are the younger crowd may not be able to  afford it, this does tend to be hit and miss online. This will change the entire way you market to people, as you are going to be pointing out more benefits with luxury items, whereas you will need to stress more the quality of a needed product.
If Walmart executives chose to match Targeta€™s quality while charging lower prices, Target could find itself without a unique appeal for customers.
Focusing on generic strategies allows executives to concentrate on the core elements of firmsa€™ business-level strategies.
This chapter presents each generic strategy and the a€?recipea€? generally associated with success when using that strategy.
At Waffle House restaurants, for example, customers are served cheap eats quickly to keep booths available for later customers. However, cost leadersa€™ ability to make a little bit of profit from each of a large number of customers means that the total profits of cost leaders can be substantial. Lower-end brands of soda and cigarettes appeal to a minority of consumers, but famous brands such as Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Marlboro, and Camel still dominate these markets. Lagging rivals in terms of detecting and reacting to external shifts can prove to be a deadly combination that leaves cost leaders out of touch with the market and out of answers.
The message that such a firm conveys to customers is that you will pay a little bit more for our offerings, but you will receive a good value overall because our offerings provide something special. This would seemingly make creating a differentiated brand in the salt business next to impossible. We focus on building trust, by acting with integrity, to get the customer to come back and build the daily car count.

We get what we pay for though; we have approximately 41% higher sales per store than the industry average.
Coca-Cola, for example, currently enjoys a profit margin of approximately 33 percent, meaning that about thirty-three cents of every dollar it collects from customers is profit. As a result, they must be offered at very low prices to move from store shelves into shopping carts. Thus a differentiation strategy helps create barriers to entry that protect the firm and its industry from new competition. A firm that follows this strategy does not necessarily charge the lowest prices in the industry.
Clairea€™s use of a focused cost leadership strategy has been very successful; the firm has more than three thousand locations and has stores in 95 percent of US shopping malls. Because these inexpensive pizzas are baked at home rather than in the store, the law allows Papa Murphya€™s to accept food stamps as payment. As with a focused low-cost strategy, narrow markets are defined in different ways in different settings.
Indeed, the supermarketa€™s reputation for high prices has led to a wry nicknamea€”a€?Whole Paychecka€?a€”but a sizable number of consumers are willing to pay a premium to feel better about the food they buy. Since then Mercedes-Benz has used the song in several television commercials, including during the 2011 Super Bowl.
The US market seems to care in general less about ornamentation and more about quality workmanship, tone, and playability. REI (Recreational Equipment Inc.), for example, commands a hefty premium for its outdoor sporting goods and clothes that feature name brands, such as The North Face and Marmot. Emphasizing unique products is typical of a company following a differentiation strategy; however, Mugatu targeted a very specific set of customers. What makes my concept different is that it has the feel of a high-end retail store versus a basement feel of the typical discount retailer. I think a lot of people walk by and assume that our clothes are expensive, but nothing could be further from the truth.
Food trucks that serve high-end specialty dishes at very economical prices are becoming a popular trend in cities around the country. If the LLC then liquidates, Mary receives her capital account balance of $171 and Dan receives his $19. For me it was the burning desire to help people live better lives through improving health and fitness and giving people a chance to take control of their lives through online marketing. News stories in the second half of 2010 about Targeta€™s donations to political candidates had created controversy and unwanted publicity. Although Target counts many college students and senior citizens among its devotees, the typical Target shopper is forty-one years old and has a household income of about $63,000 per year. Maxx, Marshalls, and Ross offered designer clothing and chic household goods for prices that often were lower than Targeta€™s.
The resulting economies of scale meant that Walmart could undercut Targeta€™s prices anytime it desired. As 2011 continued, a big question loomed: could Target maintain its unique appeal to customers or would the competitive arrows launched by Walmart and others force Targeta€™s executives to quiver? Chances are that you live fairly close to some combination of McDonalda€™s, Subway, Chilia€™s, Applebeea€™s, Panera Bread Company, dozens of other national brands, and a variety of locally based eateries that have just one location. The most popular set of generic strategies is based on the work of Professor Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School and subsequent researchers that have built on Portera€™s initial ideas.Porter, M. This dimension involves whether a firm tries to target customers in general or whether it seeks to attract just a segment of customers. When firms follow these recipes, the result can be a strategy that leads to superior performance. While cost leaders such as Waffle House spend very little on advertising, Walmart spends considerable money on print and television advertising despite following a cost leadership strategy.
Its low-price strategy is communicated to customers through advertising slogans such as a€?Why pay more when you can Payless?a€? and a€?You could pay more, but why?a€? Little Debbie snack cakes offer another example. As part of the effort to be efficient, most cost leaders spend little on advertising, market research, or research and development. There is no appointment necessary for many mechanical services like tire rotation and balancing, and checking brakes.
In comparison, Walmarta€™s cost leadership strategy delivered a margin of under 4 percent in 2010. This comparison of profit margins and overall profit levels illustrates why a differentiation strategy is so attractive to many firms. Coca-Colaa€™s headquarters are in Atlanta, and loyalty to the firm is especially strong in Georgia and surrounding states. Specifically, IBM had enjoyed a great deal of success in the mainframe computer market by providing superior service and charging customers a premium for their mainframes. Instead, it charges low prices relative to other firms that compete within the target market.
This allows Papa Murphya€™s to attract customers that might not otherwise be able to afford a prepared pizza. Some firms using a focused differentiation strategy concentrate their efforts on a particular sales channel, such as selling over the Internet only.
Nat Nasta€™s focus differentiation strategy centers on selling mena€™s silk camp shirts with a 1950s retro flair.
Many gun stores have struggled and even gone out of business since Walmart and sporting goods stores such as Academy Sports and Bass Pro Shops have started carrying an impressive array of firearms. This strategy is difficult to execute in part because creating unique features and communicating to customers why these features are useful generally raises a firma€™s costs of doing business. In Portland, Oregon, a food truck called the Ninja Plate Lunch offers large portions of delectable Hawaiian foods such as pulled pork for around $5. Arbya€™s signature roast beef sandwiches are neither cheaper than other fast-food sandwiches nor standouts in taste. Not long after, father and son overheard a man claim that young people had no respect for the elderly.
They may be doing temporary work, be off work sick, be retraining or having a career break.
Given the close physical and cultural ties between the United States and Canada, entering the Canadian market seemed to be a logical move for Target.
And despite increasing sales and profits, Targeta€™s stock price fell about 20 percent during the first quarter of 2011. Approximately 45 percent of Target customers have children at home, and about 48 percent have a college degree.Target fact card. Closeout stores such as Big Lots offered a limited selection of electronics, apparel, and household goods but at deeply discounted prices. Each of these restaurants competes using a business model that is at least somewhat unique.
Four generic business-level strategies emerge from these decisions: (1) cost leadership, (2) differentiation, (3) focused cost leadership, and (4) focused differentiation. But when firms fail to follow logical actions associated with each strategy, the result may be a value proposition configuration that is expensive to implement and that does not satisfy enough customers to be viable. This is a huge number, but Walmart is so large that its advertising expenses equal just a tiny fraction of its sales. Morton has differentiated its salt by building a brand around its iconic umbrella girl and its trademark slogan of a€?When it rains, it pours.a€? Would the typical consumer be able to tell the difference between Morton Salt and cheaper generic salt in a blind taste test? Pepsi and other brands have a hard time convincing loyal Coca-Cola fans to buy their beverages, even when offering deep discounts. A business owner who relied on a mainframe to run her company could not afford to have her mainframe out of operation for long. The firm is still successful, however, within the mainframe market where its offerings remain differentiated. Redbox, for example, uses vending machines placed outside grocery stores and other retail outlets to rent DVDs of movies for $1.
In contrast to most fast-food restaurants, Checkers Drive In is a drive-through-only operation. By catering to a niche target market, Mugatu went from a simple differentiation strategy to a focused differentiation.
Focus differentiators such as Anthropologie that specialize in trendy clothing and home furnishings can take business from Target in those areas. Another Portland food truck is PBJa€™s, whose unique and inexpensive sandwiches often center on organic peanut butter. Firms that are stuck in the middle generally perform poorly because they lack a clear market or competitive pricing.
In other words, a firma€™s business-level strategy should not involve trying to serve the varied needs of different segment of customers in an industry. On hearing this opinion, the father told the boy to dismount the animal and he began to ride. However, your primary concern when looking for work is to look for a job which is relevant to your profession. A few years ago, Walmarta€™s victory in a price war over Kmart led the latter into bankruptcy. When an executive in the restaurant industry analyzes her company and her rivals, she needs to avoid getting distracted by all the nuances of different firma€™s business-level strategies and losing sight of the big picture. In rare cases, firms are able to offer both low prices and unique features that customers find desirable.
Indeed, depending on the nature of a firma€™s industry, tweaking the recipe of a generic strategy may be essential to cooking up success. This huge customer base includes people from all demographic and social groups within society. Meanwhile, the simplicity of Waffle Housea€™s menu requires little research and development. Also, cost leaders are often large companies, which allows them to demand price concessions from their suppliers.
If camping equipment such as sleeping bags, lanterns, and stoves fail during a camping trip, the result will be, well, unhappy campers. This helps keep Coca-Colaa€™s profits high because the firm does not have to match any promotions that its rivals launch to keep its customers. There are ways to view movies even cheaper, such as through the flat-fee streaming video subscriptions offered by Netflix. To serve customers quickly, each store has two drive-through lanes: one on either side of the building. Focused cost leaders such as Checkers Drive In do not charge high prices like REI and Nat Nast do, but their low cost structures enable them to enjoy healthy profit margins. Mugatua€™s Derelicte campaign in Zoolander is one illustration of how a particular firm might develop a focused differentiation strategy.
However, firms that manage to implement an effective best-cost strategy are often very successful.
Beyond keeping costs low, the mobility of food trucks offers important advantages over a traditional restaurant. Perhaps not surprisingly, parent company Wendya€™s has been trying to sell Arbya€™s despite having recently acquired the company in 2008. Does your job target relate closely to what you have done in your previous job or educational training? Walmart is notorious for squeezing suppliers such as Procter & Gamble to sell goods to Walmart for lower and lower prices over time. Colemana€™s sleeping bags, lanterns, and stoves are renowned for their reliability and durability. Yet Morton succeeds in convincing customers to pay a little extra for its salt through its brand-building efforts.
IBMa€™s message to customers was that they would pay more for IBMa€™s products but that this was a good investment because when a mainframe needed repairs, IBM would provide faster and better service than its competitors could. But among firms that rent actual DVDs, Redbox offers unparalleled levels of low price and high convenience. Checkers saves money in a variety of ways by not offering indoor seating to its customersa€”Checkersa€™ buildings are cheaper to construct, its utility costs are lower, and fewer employees are needed.
The firm operates seven tropical resorts where vacationers are guaranteed that they will not be annoyed by loud and disruptive children.
Maxx and Marshalls offer another viable alternative to shoppers because they offer designer clothes and furnishings at closeout prices. Some food trucks set up outside big-city nightclubs, for example, to sell partygoers a late-night snack before they head home.
Stockholders apparently agreed with the plan to cut Arbya€™s loosea€”the price of Wendya€™s stock rose 7 percent the day the plan was announced.McWilliams, J. Most consumers today would view the quality of Little Debbie cakes as a step below similar offerings from Entenmanna€™s, but enough people believe that they offer acceptable quality that the brand is still around eight decades after its creation.
The firm passes some of these savings to customers in the form of reduced prices in its stores.
These savings allow the firm to offer large burgers at very low prices and still remain profitable. A firm such as Target that uses a best-cost strategy also opens itself up to a wider variety of potentially lethal rivals.
Lovers of the outdoors must pay more to purchase Colemana€™s goods than they would to obtain lesser brands, but having equipment that you can count on to keep you warm and dry is worth a price premium in the minds of most campers. However, most candidates are completely unaware that their attitude is reflected in the tone of their CV by their sentence construction, choice of words and also in their covering letter. If you have the right attitude the opportunities for interviews will increase, but get your attitude wrong and your CV may never work for you!Your attitudeAttitude is the basis on which good management and careers are built, so the key is to be aware of the attitude you portray.
For example, arrogant people tend to write arrogant covering letters showing little or no respect for the prospective employer and they tend to overestimate their role and achievements in their CV.
Whereas shy or timid people tend to underestimate their role and focus more on their duties in their CV rather than their personal input or accomplishments. Also people lacking in confidence often try to compensate for this by bringing a touch of humour to the CV or covering letter or by focusing on their outside interests. Try to portray a range of skills and achievements and remember that although this approach may be time-consuming, you will benefit in the long run. Always refer to the job advertisement as this will give you an indication of the types of things to include. A covering letter is an absolute necessity because without it your application is incomplete. Writing covering letters is often harder than writing the CV itself because there is often doubt about what to include and how much to write. In fact they don't add anything to the application and sometimes can even undo the message of the CV itself.
Remember to explain your origin and expertise within the covering letter and to highlight rather than hide any disadvantages.
However, if you can demonstrate your personality in the CV, it increases your attractiveness as a candidate. What you need to do is to conjure up a picture of yourself rather than putting down things you think you should include.Choose words that are applicable to you, words that reflect something about you as a person.
Avoid words such as 'involved with' and 'responsible' but use words that communicate what you are like as a person.
For example, show your dependability by writing 'gets into the heart of problems by focusing on critical information and performing the work with minimal supervision'.
Be honest about yourself, focus on your strengths and be positive, and this will be communicated to the reader.Remember that the CV is the one aspect of your job hunt over which you have complete control.

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