Positive motivations are about changing perceptions or feelings, negative emotions deal with facts and figures (although the evidence may be limited). The link was developed by Rossiter and Percy, they suggested that these two elements play a big part in the learning and persuasion aspect of the message processing phase in advertising.
If we change our attention to a low involvement transformational brand attitude strategy we can see that it is for low-risk purchase items that can be classified as a reward or treat. The examples demonstrated above do not give you the facts about the product it just infers a perception that users will believe in (or not depending on their attitude to the brand). You will have noticed the similarities between the low and high involvement groups and may now be asking why split the groups?
There are anomalies with this model, jewellery will sit in both the low and high involvement transformational  groups because depending on the social classification of the consumer, they may or may not see it as a high risk purchase.
An Introduction to Digital Marketing Using the Extended Marketing Mix: Place, Process, People and Physical Evidence.
I dont usually post on many Blogs, still I just has to say thank you continue the astonishing work. Good question, I would argue that their focus should be on motivational advertising strategies.
This is a great way to think of the concept of advertising, good examples too, thanks for the post. Hi, this is jenny, as a newly graduated marketer in my first job I have found this very useful.
But what really interested me was the list in the comments that followed as to who, in the minds of readers, was even more responsible for misleading consumers.
If you look at some of the best advertising in the world, its purpose is often not to give consumers facts.
Credibility – the very presence of a brand in media often gives that brand credibility and of course familiarity. Personality – conveys character, and therefore what people expect in other parts of the experience chain.
Unless you are making ads that inspire and incite in ways that surprise and are true to what your customers hold dear, you’re not advertising, you’re blathering.
I guess part of it is our own fault, as consumers we wouldn’t get attracted to something that doesnt look good in print. If you find our thought pieces on brand strategy and brand management insightful and would like a deeper understanding for yourself, your marketing teams or leadership teams we can develop a tailored learning solution for you. Brand Education is a core competency of The Blake Project, the brand consultancy behind Branding Strategy Insider. Branding Strategy Insider helps marketing oriented leaders and professionals build strong brands. Subscribe to Branding Strategy Insider Now and get regular updates and two FREE Chapters of Brad VanAuken's best selling book Brand Aid direct to your inbox. One of the longest-running predictions in the history of marketing is the death of TV, a prediction that has been wrong decade after decade. By the late 1990s, the Internet was in full flower, with streaming and small screen videos being touted as the end of TV. Henry Blodget of Business Insider wrote last year that TV would crash into a wall just like newspapers because of fundamental, underlying changes in consumer behaviors that have antiquated its business model.
As for time and new technologies, there is another flaw in the thinking around the future of media. In fact, the biggest development in media is not the Internet but Internet TV.  Rather than squaring off, the Internet and TV are coming together. If TV endures because it evolves, then what is the essence of TV that is being carried forward?
At the bottom of the funnel, digital media have proven far more effective than traditional media.
Put TV together with digital media and brand marketers have the entire purchase funnel at their command.  But only deploy digital media and brand marketers are leaving money on the table because they are capturing no more than what trickles down rather than boosting the flow through the funnel.
The final thing to note about TV, and maybe the most important, is that whatever formats or times people select, they want to watch TV.
Nielsen figures show TV viewing unchanged over the past several years, and an in-depth look at these viewing figures belie many of the statistics cited as evidence of TV’s demise. The single test case that claimed to demonstrate the power of subliminal advertising was later exposed as a fraud, because the person performing the test falsified the results of the test.
Subliminal advertising can be accomplished by embedding images within the advertisement itself.
Embedded advertising in the form of product placement has been used in film and television for decades.
Any brand manager worth their salt is looking to cultivate and manage a brand that is noticed and valued.
You’re looking for a reaction to that of course – not just from customers but also from competitors and perhaps from the wider community – because a brand that is not noticed is nothing more than wallpaper. Provocative – an excellent way of getting attention for brands intending to start a conversation among customers and beyond. The debate you’re looking to provoke will almost certainly take place through social conversation.
Be provocative if you want to get noticed, widen circulation, garner headlines and drive social traffic. Controversial – if you’re intending to encourage others to side with your opinions, use controversy to express your point of view. This is a powerful approach if you are looking to attract like-minded consumers or if you want break-out in a sector that is normally circumspect. Offensive – brands are offensive when they choose to exploit a situation or attitude for their own gains and at the expense of those they have featured.
Often, brands that mishandle their marketing this badly defend what they are doing as freedom of expression or invoke the ‘no publicity is bad publicity’ defense.
I’m of the view, as I said, that every brand should look to push the boat out – but know why you’re pushing it, where you’re pushing it and who you’re taking with you when you do so.
Later I will illustrate the concept with real examples; this should give you a better understanding of the concept. The answer is high involvement brands will require additional promotional material to support the products.

His main interests are in strategy development, social marketing, digital marketing, advertising, consumer behaviour and marketing application. I know I spent 6 months looking at different universities and possible supervisors before embarking on my PhD. The only think I would say is, I haven’t written an essay or a peer reviewed article, it is a blog to share my thoughts. It implies of course that people can’t see that they are being told things that are, how shall I put this, overly optimistic. It may have been once but in today’s world, with so many channels, instant search, review sites and social communities, the details and the realities are fairly easy to find elsewhere. A lightning rod for likeability if it’s done well because it gives a brand immediacy and humanity, providing of course the feeling holds true at every touchpoint. Vital for NGOs of course – but increasingly important for opinionated brands looking to build affinity with consumers through common beliefs.
Particularly useful for brands looking to change a consumer habit (or indeed looking to instil one).
A powerful indicator of a change in attitude within the brand, or a call for the consumer to rethink their own view of a brand they felt they knew. At its worst, and sadly in its most common expression, advertising is anything but inspiring or truthful – loud, intrusive, stupid, self-centered and above all boring. The answer to this question would probably be a negative one, however, Porsche still makes commercials.
That’s actually a topic of frequent conversation around our agency, in no small part because creating work that treats people with respect is one of our founding tenets. As practitioners and educators we deliver interactive brand education workshops and keynote speeches designed to align individuals and organizations on essential concepts in brand management and empower them to release the full potential of their brands. Army and Wyndham Worldwide are some of the organizations that have turned to The Blake Project for help in meeting learning objectives.
We focus on sharing thought provoking expertise that promotes an elevated conversation on brand strategy and brand management and fosters community among marketers.
From the very outset of broadcast TV to this day, lowest-common-denominator content and consumer resistance to advertising have been proclaimed as nails in its coffin. But what Blodget characterizes as ‘hurting’ TV is really nothing more than the evolutionary essence of TV that has been true throughout its history. Newspapers lost their audience and rate base because the Internet gave rise to better ways of serving newspapers advertisers. First, it is often noted that if there is no audience for TV, it doesn’t matter if there is no direct substitute for TV advertising because nobody wants anything of that sort.  Second, many argue that it is only a matter of time and a technological innovation or two before a new medium emerges that will be a direct substitute. It is no less nimble today, which is why it is moving forward with new media rather than, like newspapers, in competition. This is another contrast with newspapers, which made only sporadic and inconsequential attempts to stay on the cutting-edge of technology. Or does the continual evolution of TV betray the lack of any real identity?  Is TV just a revenue model and not really a singular medium? For example, search ads are the best way to connect with people when they want something specific, and thus search ads have diverted marketing dollars spent to close the sale. For example, hours spent watching TV always skews older, making it no surprise that point in time studies show a weakness among younger consumers. Spending on TV advertising is strong and growing.  It’s clear that brand marketers don’t need much convincing about the power of TV. An audience at a theater was exposed to very short duration messages flashed onto the screen, encouraging people to purchase certain food products. If the label on a bottle of Coca-Cola is visible, you can be sure that someone is paying for that exposure.
In fact, no such legislation was passed (although it was in a number of other countries including the UK and Australia).
One of the conclusions was that a bigger impact is achieved, on a subliminal level, by pointing out negative points of your competitors then in the case where you focus on your own qualities.
People might like or dislike the conversation that you are starting, depending on whether they side with what you are saying. Not for profit brands use this technique to get issues out into the open and to stimulate consideration. Be aware though that it can be hard to convert provocation directly to sales (usually because the message overshadows the call to action). Dove’s “Choose Beautiful” campaign is a classic example of pushing people’s buttons in terms of what can and should be considered beautiful. There will be complaints because as soon as you step outside the norm, there are bound to be reactions.
Join us for The Un-Conference: 360 Degrees of Brand Strategy for a Changing World, May 2-4, 2016 in San Diego, California. They generally relate to every day consumer goods (FMCG, clothing and cosmetics are some good examples). However before doing this it will be worth explaining the relationship between involvement and motivation in the advertising planning process.
But should remark on few general things, The site style is great, the articles is really excellent : D. Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one these days.. I wouldn’t say it was the money that pushed it into the category, it was more about finding the details of the course. It’s about CONVINCING people to do some they might or might not otherwise do (ie buy something). As he says, they always seem to be pieces of furniture that are bathed in sunlight, and that are owned by people who have three pairs of identical and very clean pants or skirts, but never anything unshapely like an accordion, or hockey stick. Yet research by Lab 42 seems to show that consumers are very aware that what they are seeing may not end up being what they get. The key role of advertising now is to pitch an impression, a simple gem that catches people’s eyes and locks with a worldview that they have. Often, such ads act as a telegraph for what consumers should look for, or seek information on, elsewhere.
Take a look at the brutally direct Crisis Relief Singapore campaign in the Best Press Ads for a stunning example of directing people what they can really do to help.

Take a look at the way Penguin pitch their audiobooks in the Best Press Ads for a gorgeous example of this idea at work. It offends because it patronizes, and it patronizes because it’s made by brand owners who have failed to see that the premise of effective advertising has shifted. On the other hand, there are inferior products or services that have enjoyed substantial success through strong and continuous promotion. I am not sure, on the other hand, that the life insurance market would even exist at first place, if there wasn’t so much hard marketing applied by salespeople. Having said that, it is always better to tell the truth as that will endear your brands to more loyal customers. BSI is a service of The Blake Project, a leading brand consultancy based in the United States, serving marketers around the world.
That, wrote Blodget, is why the current success of TV is not a relevant guide to the future. New devices and new ways of connecting, especially social media, are used to amplify TV and build upon the TV platform, not the other way around. But in the several years that this sort of innovative content has been around, not only has TV continued to thrive, TV producers have found ways to use such innovations to enhance TV content.
But it’s not as if all the new stuff is only happening with TV.  New TV technologies are just as much a part of today’s scene as new non-TV technologies.
TV has a long history of evolving its delivery, technology, content, interfaces and advertising formats in order to adapt to new innovations and changing consumer behaviors. But search ads only work if consumers are searching, which is to say that search ads are great at converting active interest that gets to the bottom of the funnel but poor at energizing latent interest or creating new interest at the top of the funnel. Similarly, people are choosing many new ways to watch TV content, making it no surprise that as new forms of purchase, subscription, ownership and viewing rise, others decline.  Additionally, people are using more forms of media these days, often simultaneously, so the rise of new media usage does not presage or predict the decline of TV usage. Such messages are limited in duration by the refresh rate of television systems, but can be made much shorter with films by using a separate projector to flash extremely short duration messages.
However, the level of fear generated by the concept of subconscious persuasion was so high that subliminal advertisements were strongly discouraged, even though they were rarely used, apart from testing audience reaction, and did not produce the desired results. It requires you to fashion a way of working and a way of promoting what you do that fundamentally challenges at least one previously-unquestioned assumption.
I’ll go further and suggest that if you are not seeking to create waves in some form then in all likelihood you are not doing your job as a brand owner. Challenger brands looking to get a rise out of the incumbent they are targeting also use this approach.
Benetton is another example of a brand that has continued to challenge what can and should be spoken about in public.
It’s just dumb because, unless your whole brand is built around this premise, such advertising simply positions you as out-of-touch or as a brand with literally nothing to say that’s of any value.
The critical judgment calls come down to knowing why you are taking the approach you are taking, how it differentiates you as a brand and why it aligns with your business strategy. If you’re ever tempted to adopt a message that belittles the vulnerable or reinforces someone’s uphill battle, have the guts to recognize that is unacceptable, and walk away. A fun, competitive-learning experience reserved for 50 marketing oriented leaders and professionals. I guess because of the price it is kind of high risk, but it would also bring status, in some cultures more than others. Either way it does not even provide a platform for students on the best way to practice marketing. When I was a neophyte researcher in the early 1980s, cable was heralded as the end of networks and thus the end of TV as we knew it. But Blodget is not clear on what he means by TV because TV is not, nor has it ever been, any one sort of content or business model. A medium with little history of content and revenue evolution is absolutely doomed in today’s digital universe. Indeed, this shift is no surprise because people always opt for greater convenience, as noted in a prior post about innovation.
Additionally, TV producers have even created popular new TV shows that highlight or repurpose digital content, not to mention developing new ways to distribute and sell TV content. TV aggregates eyeballs like no other medium ever, so it is highly efficient at creating brand awareness. Provocative brands are looking for both actions and reactions, and the interplay between pro and con. While controversial advertising often focuses on issues that some might consider beyond the natural talking points of advertisers, it can be a highly effective way to state where they stand on particular matters and therefore to establish boundaries.
Inevitably, the initial defiance of the marketing team to the reaction they generate is followed by a back-down as brand managers find themselves on the receiving end of consumer actions that quickly affect their bottom line. The beautifully art directed Harvey Nichols ad in the Best Press Ads may be for a sale but there’s nothing downmarket about the look and feel – nor should there be. Adapting to changing behaviors and a preference for greater convenience is what TV has always done so well, which is what TV is in the process of doing right now. TV engages viewers emotionally like few other media, so it is highly effective at building emotional engagement for brands.
On the other hand, products or their identifying labels might be obscured in some fashion to avoid displaying a company’s trademark without paying rights to the trademark holder. So while they want some people to agree with what they are doing, they need others to be disturbed by what is being suggested.
A lot more thought is spent deciding if the goods or services should be bought or used, they may require some form of loan or consume an individual’s savings. TV is a robust medium unique among other media in its ability to morph its content and sources of revenue to stay current. TV captures attention when people are in the mood to be entertained, distracted or informed, all storytelling moments, so it is the best medium ever for communicating positioning stories to consumers.

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