Forum Forum Home FAQ Calendar Forum Actions Mark Forums Read Quick Links View Site Leaders What's New? Join Date Aug 2011 Posts20,395 Ministry of Defence Production Jobs 2016 - 03-08-2016 04:35 AM Ministry of Defence Production Jobs 2016, Jobs in Islamabad, Federal Government Jobs, Defence Jobs in Islamabad, All Defence Jobs 2016, Ministry of Defence Production Jobs and Career Ads for the Drivers Jobs, Naib Qasid Jobs and Sanitary Workers Jobs in Islamabad, Express Newspaper Jobs 08th March 2016. Thomas Grennes is a professor of economics at the North Carolina State University and a former visiting faculty member at the Stockholm School of Economics in Riga. The United States has experienced unprecedented increases in energy production recently, and political leaders from both parties have promised that greater energy abundance would bring back manufacturing jobs to the U.S.
The same shift in employment from manufacturing to services has occurred in nearly all high income countries. Measurement of manufacturing output faces serious problems related to outsourcing and offshoring, though.
The Obama administration, like every administration since Nixon, has named Energy Independence as a policy goal. The differences in natural gas prices among countries and regions are much more substantial.
It would be interesting to know the trends in the numbers of people employed globally relative to GDP and the portion of global GDP represented by manufacturing. I think overall the cheaper oil and gas are unlikely to make the US a very much more competitive manufacturer. The other difficulty the US faces is that much of its remaining manufacturing base eg machinery is vulnerable as developing countries develop the capital and expertise to be able to compete. It would be informative to obtain comparable data from China and India, but they do not currently provide it. Now how does all of this tie into the connection between manufacturing output and oil and gas production? Moreover, the regional market effect of gas and the international pricing system for oil also play a role.
In any case, I'm really not surprised that there is no beneficial relationship yet observed between increased energy production and manufacturing output.
Geothermal production managers oversee tasks and operations at power plants to generate power from geothermal energy.
In the search for new energy resources, scientists have discovered ways to use the Earth itself as a valuable source of power. Those with geothermal production manager jobs are responsible for directing, coordinating, planning and overseeing geothermal plant operations, maintenance, and repairs to ensure compliance with applicable standards or regulations. A big part of a geothermal production manager’s responsibilities is to supervise employees in geothermal power plants or well fields. As part of their job, geothermal production managers select and implement corrosion control or mitigation systems for geothermal plants. Geothermal production managers manage operations at geothermal power generation facilities. Geothermal production managers jobs have a bright outlook and will continue to growth due to the increase needs in the development of geothermal energy sources. Geothermal production managers are expected to growth between 3% to 9% from 2010 to 2020, a little slower than the average for all green jobs. Geothermal production managers split their time between the production area and their offices. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicates a bright outlook for geothermal production managers and expects employment of this field to grow between 3 to 9 percent from 2010 until 2020, a little slower than the average for all green jobs. The factory assembles both premium vehicles, including the Volkswagen Touareg, Audi Q7 and Porsche Cayenne SUVs and the high-volume Skoda Octavia.
A study by PwC (2011) claimed that a high-level of shale gas recovery could lead to approximately one million more manufacturing jobs by 2025 when compared to low shale gas recovery scenarios. China does not provide comparable employment data, but there is some evidence that even there the share of manufacturing employment is also decreasing relative to services (Economist).
If a domestic vertically integrated manufacturing firm employees its own designers to produce a new product, the resulting value-added is classified as manufacturing value added (Levinson).
However, the efforts of the Administration have mainly involved subsidizing “green energy” that included some prominent failures, such as corn ethanol, Solyndra solar panels, electric cars (Tesla), and LG battery production in Michigan. According to the IEA “at its lowest level in 2012, natural gas in the United States traded at around one-fifth of import prices in Europe and one-eighth of those in Japan”. That would allow us to judge what portions of the relatively reduced manufacturing activity and manufacturing employment were due to offshoring, the relatively faster growth of service output, and improved manufacturing productivity.
And there the biggest hope is that developing countries will push back some of the manufacturing that moved there in recent decades as their wages rise and assets re-rate.
Potential for re-shoring is I think small and mainly in products where US tastes or needs are distinct from elsewhere. They both have important state-owned enterprises, and these firms have not provided comparable employment information. It's often easy to lump oil and gas together but as we can observe in the shale plays, sometimes they are in direct competition for capital.

The former means that increased production will drive down end-user costs substantially while the latter is contingent on more exogenous factors for pricing.
One needs to look deeper into what kind of energy is produced, how efficient the production techniques are and only then how they may impact manufacturers.
There is currently a contentious discussion in the North Carolina legislature about whether to reduce legal barriers to fracking in the state. As far back as the 1800s, people extracted water from geothermal hot springs to use in homes or businesses.
They identify and evaluate equipment, procedural, or conditional inefficiencies involving geothermal plant systems. They also maintain and monitor geothermal plant equipment for efficient and safe plant operations. When they are working in the production area, they may need to wear protective equipment such as a helmet or safety goggles. While the degree may be in any field, many geothermal production managers have a bachelor’s degree in business administration or industrial engineering.
The BLS projected 49,000 geothermal production manager job openings between 2010 and 2020, and noted 150,000 jobs are currently filled. The latest car segment contraction news is linked to Volkswagen, who reduced production by 44 percent at its Slovak production site last year - this led to a 17 percent job cut, as Agence France Presse reports.
However, the company says that the future of the plant looks good, as it announced its plans to debut the production of a new range of small vehicles at the factory starting next year. There has thus been no correlation between the price of energy and the share of manufacturing in U.S.
In spite of the decrease in employment, manufacturing production (value added) increased during this period.  Production increased because increases in output per worker dominated decreases in the number of workers employed in manufacturing. The relentless decline in manufacturing employment over long periods that included both increases and decreases in the price of oil casts doubt on the importance of oil for manufacturing employment. However, If they outsource design services by hiring a domestic design firm, the resulting value added is treated as services, even though the final product is identical in the two cases. In fact, the growth in shale gas production accounts for more than the entire increase in marketed production of U.S.
Relative to shale oil, the administration continues to block the proposed Keystone Pipeline that would bring oil from Alberta to Texas, even though a change in the route of the pipeline has caused the governor of Nebraska to drop his earlier objection on environmental grounds.
Lower oil and gas prices would lower manufacturing costs, but with globalization in effect the price of natural gas or a given variety of oil in the longer term would tend to converge in all countries net of transport costs. The general pattern has been from the Rustbelt to the Sunbelt, and the auto industry is a vivid example of the relocation of plants and workers. The employment decline accelerated with the Great Recession, although there has been a small increase in manufacturing employent since 2010 as the economy recovers from the recession. As the price of natural gas slid, more and more equipment, manpower and capital began to shift from gas extraction to shale oil extraction.
That is to say that the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) in these plays is high in comparison to its sister shale oil developments. In 2010, geothermal energy accounted for 3 percent of renewable energy-based electricity consumption in the U.S. Geothermal production managers perform or direct the performance of preventative maintenance on geothermal plant equipment. Most geothermal production managers work full time and many work more than 40 hours per week. Sometimes, geothermal technicians with many years of experience take management classes and become a geothermal production manager.
Titles include Operations Manager, Maintenance Manager, Operations Supervisor, Plant Manager, Site Manager, Plant Supervisor, and Power Plant Operations Manager. VW will invest $400 million to develop the project - this will create 1,500 direct jobs and 7,000 indirect jobs during the course of the following year. Bureau of Labor Statistics appears to be considerably more skeptical and is forecasting a slight further decline in manufacturing employment by 2020 despite a considerable increase in real output (Henderson). GDP as, for example, this period includes both the oil price peaks of the 1970s as well as the “oil glut” period of the 1980s. To the extent that Increases in worker productivity were a result of technological innovation, jobs will not come back. The measurement problem becomes more severe when the domestic firm outsources to a foreign firm (offshoring), as is common with iPhones and many electronic products. The observed increases in oil and gas production have occurred without direct support from the Federal Government. Recent temporary differences between prices of Brent crude and WTI crude have been significant due to various bottlenecks in the transportation system and limited refinery capacity in the U.S.
Total manufacturing employment has been declining since 1980, and manufacturing employment as a share of total employment has been decreasing since the 1950s, for reasons not closely related to energy. I don't know the specific manufacturing figures for Ohio, but there continues to be movement of employment among the states.

In 2012, the geothermal industry is developing 130 geothermal projects in 15 states, according to the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). They inspect geothermal plant or injection well fields to verify proper equipment operations. They also identify opportunities to improve plant electrical equipment, controls, or process control methodologies.
In some facilities, geothermal production managers work night or weekend shifts and must be on call to deal with emergencies at any time. At large plants, where managers have more oversight responsibilities, employers may look for geothermal production managers who have a Master of Business Administration (MBA) or a graduate degree in industrial management. The BLS further reports that the median annual wage for salaried geothermal production managers was $89,190 in 2012 with median hourly wage of $42.88. What is the relationship between output and employment in the manufacturing sector and the supply of domestic energy?
Since American firms specialize in creating new products, providing finance and marketing services, and offshoring more labor intensive assembly, the measurement problem for U.S. New technology (especially extracting oil from shale) has been a major source of production growth, and state governments have played a larger role in regulating new production than the federal government. Even with that, if the price of WTI crude were to fall to $70 per barrel, the gain to the US buyer compared to a buyer in Europe will be limited to the size of the negative spread with Brent price plus the difference in transport costs. In case of natural gas the price differences with the rest of the world are also likely to last longer.
Thus, if energy became more abundant, manufacturers might locate in states nearer to energy production or pipelines even if total employment remained constant. Long-term increases in output per worker have contributed to the general pattern of increases in manufacturing output combined with decreases in manufacturing employment. China especially has developed a concentration of related industries and economies of scale that will be hard to compete with.
The higher price of shale oil allowed for greater margins and we've undergone a rather rapid shift from gas production to oil production. As geothermal technologies become more cost-effective in comparison to other power sources, more development might occur.
On a daily basis, geothermal productions managers need to record, perform review and maintain logs, reports, maintenance, and other records associated with geothermal operations.
Geothermal production managers troubleshoot and make minor repairs to geothermal plant instrumentation or electrical systems.
Geothermal production managers are paid most highly in Texas, where they receive average job salaries of approximating $114,090.
Can cheaper and more abundant energy reverse the long-term trend in manufacturing employment?
Destruction of jobs in one sector is part of the process of creative destruction that generates economic growth. The biggest increases in production of shale oil have occurred in Texas and North Dakota, which has now become the second largest state producing oil after Texas. Globalization also implies that domestic oil buyers will be subject to the same price volatility with Energy Independence as they face now, although hedging techniques can be used to reduce it.
The study by PwC lists a number of investment projects, in particular, in the chemical industry that might be the direct result of the shale gas boom. Buyers would gain from buying local energy, but the gain would be limited to differences in transport costs between distant and local sources.
Greater abundance of domestic oil and gas can affect the location of manufacturing employment across states though, even if it is unlikely to positively affect total manufacturing employment.
They also obtain permits for constructing, upgrading, or operating geothermal power plants.
People working these jobs can get the best compensation in Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services, where they can get average job salaries of $112,570. To obtain the benefits from creative destruction workers must move out of the declining sector to an expanding sector. However, price relationships between regional gas markets are set to strengthen going forward as other countries follow suit with respect to shale gas exploration and liquefied natural gas trade becomes more flexible. Transportation costs are not declining and while utility costs may have benefited, the competition for oil over gas is actually stalling better competitive costs for manufacturers.
In the United States this movement has largely been out of manufacturing and into services, where more than 80% of Americans are now employed. The long term contribution of the shale gas boom to raising manufacturing output in the U.S. To be more competitive internationally, manufacturing firms require utility and transportation costs that are low enough to offset the additional cost of labour.

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