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Our aim in writing this book is to give you a hands-on introduction to the LEGOA® SERIOUS PLAYA® method. Well, you may read it because you have this nagging feeling that you are not making the most of the potential with which you were born.
As you will find out in the Introduction, LEGO SERIOUS PLAY has traveled a challenging patha€”one that has been far from straightforward.
Naturally, this understanding will continue to evolve; more will become clear, and new learning will emerge. We were part of developing the method when it was still a research idea, and managed it when it was owned by an independent company, Executive Discovery, and when it was a business unit inside LEGO. It is clear upon looking back at the history of LEGO SERIOUS PLAY that there have been moments when something special was requireda€”when the approach needed practitioners, believers, friends, allies, ambassadors, and the tenacity of these people to survive and maintain momentum. The LEGOA® SERIOUS PLAYA® method as we know it today is the result of a journey that took its first steps more than 15 years ago. LEGO was starting to feel the impact of these changes, so Kirk Kristiansen naturally turned his attention to the ways and techniques that he and his leadership team used when developing their strategies.
At the same time, professors Bart Victor and Johan Roos at IMD business school in Lausanne, Switzerland, were looking into different ways of creating strategies. Unfortunately, these tenets weren't playing; everyone did not live up to their full potential and the strategy was not something that could be lived.
Over the next couple of years, the business school professors practiced their strategy concept using LEGO bricks instead of the usual methods of words, Post-it Notes, and whiteboards. There was a lot of laughter and playing in the boardrooms during the first 45 minutes of these experimental sessions. These discouraging experiences led to the first of many critical junctions for the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY method.
Robert began investigating how he could apply his knowledge on how children learn and develop to an adult setting and strategy development. Reaching this goal took more than 20 iterations, tons of LEGO bricks, and the willingness of Robert's wife, Jette, to spend endless hours putting all of these bricks in small freezer bags for the trial kits. One of the themes that emerged from the development work was the value of getting groups to see the entire system that they were part of. Very few people at LEGO even knew about the venture that Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen had embarked upon during the early days of SERIOUS PLAY. A solid training model was in place by 2002, and we started to deliver programs for facilitators in the United States and Europe. The struggles for LEGO SERIOUS PLAY from 2002 until 2010 involved questions on how to fit the business model into LEGO's value chain. Why this construction with Executive Discoverya€”a sister company to the LEGO Companya€”when the reality was that Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen provided all the funding and it was a LEGO product? The fourth reason was the name a€?Executive Discovery.a€? Kirk Kristiansen worried that the LEGO name could become a disadvantage rather than a leverage point, which might happen if the a€?toya€? image turned people off instead of piquing their interest. In 2001, Per became one of the first employees to join Robert's team, and became responsible for bringing LEGO SERIOUS PLAY to the European markets. Choosing a partner model with authorized facilitators was a result of our early failed experiments. Though the method lived up to our expectations, marketing and selling the idea were much harder than anyone had expected. In the beginning of 2004 the LEGO Company itself was at the peak of its crisis and fighting for its own survival. Per's first task back at LEGO was to rethink the business model and revise the documentation material and the training format.
Alas, one of the first consequences of returning to the LEGO Company was that the original partner model was developed into a license fee-based model. The goal was to implement a strategy that could create enough revenue to afford a larger dedicated team within the company and further development of the business.
Things were becoming increasingly unstable by 2008; the team as a whole proved to have limited understanding of LEGO SERIOUS PLAY and for the LEGO culture and leadership. In May 2010, LEGO was ready to announce its new strategy to the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY community. The a€?grow-upa€? strategy made access to using the methodology more akin to open source; it became known as the community model. When the trial period ended in mid-2012, the conclusion from both inside and outside the LEGO Company was unanimous: LEGO SERIOUS PLAY and its community of believers and practitioners had actually grown up. Who is this grown-up community of LEGO SERIOUS PLAY facilitators, some of whom have been committed to the process since the very beginning?
You might be prompted to ask: how can a thinking, communication, and problem-solving methodology like LEGO SERIOUS PLAY, developed more than 10 years ago, still be relevant and appropriate today in its same form? With the advent of nanophotonics, there has been a considerable interest in studying the optical processes in semiconductors and their nanostructures. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Loss Prevention Engineering involves the engineering required to help us prevent accidental, undesired loss-producing incidents. However, because loss prevention engineering is such a diverse and broadly demanding application of engineering and scientific principles and even if we limit the subject to preventing accidental loss incidents (such as automobile crashes, sporting accidents, etc.), we would still never be able to cover all the relevant and important topics that would be needed in just one book. A diverse and detailed publication like this would not be possible without the input of many people of a multitude of experiences, languages, countries of origin, and industrial backgrounds.
Several industries around the world apply a multifaceted health, environmental, and safety (HES) program approach in reducing occupational HES incidents. Taking a look at the oil and gas industry for illustration purposes, statistics within the industry across the globe clearly show a consistent decline of total recordable incident rate (TRIR) from 2002 to 2009. To have an appreciation of loss prevention engineering management systems, a look at some relevant historical events that have helped shape the approach of industries to loss prevention is necessary. Process safety incident occurrences go far beyond all of the above-mentioned incidents and other similar high-profile process safety incidents well known to the public. Reacting to process safety incidents, the US government put in place laws that led to the creation of the Risk Management Program (RMP) in 1999, being managed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Similarly to the above, the European Union also maintains a database for all process-related incidents a€“ the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) database (Nivolianitou, Konstandinidou, and Michalis, 2006).
Considering past incident occurrences and the outcome of the analysis of historical data indifferent studies, there is still a great need for industries to continue to work at initiatives that will guarantee the success achieved in the occupational safety, health, and environment field. A schematic of the basic management system standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is shown in Figure 1.3. Plan a€“ Establish objectives and make plans (analyze your organization's situation, establish your overall objectives, and set your interim targets, and develop plans to achieve them). Act a€“ Correct and improve your plans and how you put them into practice (correct and learn from your mistakes to improve your plans in order to achieve better results next time). Within any establishment, the HES function with support of the executive leadership will need to define and establish a fit-for-purpose management system that is based on the basic model discussed above. Engineering in loose terms will be the utilization of mathematical, socioeconomic, practicability, and scientific expertise to design and build functional structures that allow for the enhancement of quality of life.
Considering the industry at large, there are huge upsides to having functional loss prevention management systems in place; this allows companies to understand their risks and proactively mitigate their exposures.
Regarding cost savings, as a case study for illustration purposes, we can refer to a publication by the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an arm of the US Department of Transportation, on the topic a€?The Economic Burden of Traffic Crashes on Employersa€? (NHTSA, 2003). The NHTSA estimated that the potential savings for employers could be up to $15 billion annually if these two root causes of crashes are eliminated. We now change gear to focus on the insurance industry and their perception of a customer with adequate safety training being less of a liability, hence reducing insurance premiums. As indicated by the sample size involved, all but one insurance company offers a discount of one form or another whether or not a specific percentage was stipulated.
Regardless of the industry, it should be clear at this point that having a functional loss prevention engineering program could influence the bottom line of a company by minimizing financial losses. Considering the range and complexity of loss prevention engineering processes and tools, it becomes an exceptional candidate for the implementation of management systems to deliver success. A schematic diagram that shows the six basic stages of the loss prevention engineering management system cycle is presented in Figure 1.4.
Figure 1.4 depicts a system with a scope that goes beyond traditional loss prevention engineering which focuses more on the technical part of HES. Executives and top leadership managerial teams are responsible for setting precise HES visions that offer clarity.
Prevent injury and illness and pursue improvements in safety and health to achieve industry leadership. Attain industry leadership in environmental stewardship; operate with minimal environmental footprint.
The set HES vision and objectives will form the foundation for all other tools and processes. Set HES objectives are only as good as the available enabling tools, supporting processes, and competent workforce for implementation.
The above organizational structure is generic enough and HES positions can go from simple to more complex, as shown in the schematic on the right in Figure 1.5, depending on the needs of the organization (which may even be much more complex if needed). The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region.
In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions.
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000.
An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage.
In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v.
Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v.
The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members.
New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation.
In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director.
In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president.
In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W.
As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006.
22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents.
30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000.
33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video).
37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations".
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J.
In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. ACTUALLY DIED AT AGH, WHICH OF COURSE THEY ACCOMPLISHED (even though Canonsburg General Hospital is the rehab's NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR!). No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. We will explain why and how it was developed and what theories came together in order to support it, and offer a number of examples of how this approach has helped organizations all over the world.
Maybe you've observed childrena€”yours or other people'sa€”at play, and wondered if there was a way to bring the power of that interaction into organizations. We've made it our goal to help you find answers to these issuesa€”and, we hope, also to others that might emerge as you read on. We have spent the past decade working on projects and initiatives intricately interwoven with LEGO SERIOUS PLAY.
We developed and delivered the first facilitator training programs and the first facilitator manuals.
We develop and deliver customized workshops to global organizations, and run facilitator certification programs in the method. Though there are countless examples, we will limit ourselves here to mentioning Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen, LEGO owner and the grandson of its founder. It did not come about because of a conscious, long-term, premeditated strategy to expand the LEGO Company's reach into a new market segment.

It was as an idea for internal use, a wish for more imaginative ways of developing the company's strategic direction and plans, for unlocking the human potential in the organization. Owner Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen, whom we introduced in the Preface, was also the CEO of the company at the time.
LEGO had a close relationship with IMD for several years, as the business school played a significant role in the company's leadership development. Kirk Kristiansen agreed to fund research on this conundrum by creating a separate LEGO subsidiary called Executive Discovery Ltd.
The basic assumption was that if you threw a huge pile of bricks on the board table and asked people to a€?build their strategic ideas,a€? their imaginations would flourish like children'sa€”and the exercise would give life to the strategy-building concepts such as identity, landscape, and Simple Guiding Principles.
Instead, they asked Roberta€”who was director of research and development for LEGO Education at the timea€”if he would take a look at the feasibility of the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY idea.
He and a small team of part-time freelancers set out to crack this code, and over a period of less than two years they developed the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY method. Nor did the development of the methodology happen within the physical walls of the LEGO Company in Denmark. It has faced several existential challenges over the course of that decade, none of which were related to the quality of the process itself. In 2004, Per revised the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY training program for facilitators to emphasize further the fact that the method has a number of applications.
Because the idea was Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen's brainchild and therefore very consistent with his values, by 2002 Executive Discovery Ltd. First, he knew that a small pet project like this would never fit into the company's streamlined mass production of toys. Likewise, he wanted the initiative's name to signal that this was for the boardroom and corner officea€”the places where strategies were decided.
Together we also formed the master trainer team for the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY certification program.
The value in the method does not come from the LEGO bricks, but rather from the combination of the bricks and the facilitation of the process. In this climate there was little interest in doing anything with the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY idea. In addition, he set out to prove the business he was asked to deliver on both bottom line and top line. This was done to supplement the revenue generated by the sales of the special LEGO SERIOUS PLAY kits that still could be purchased only with a valid partner and license contract with LEGO. The mantra was to keep it alive, keep it growing, and do so with the lowest possible cost and investments. It was maintenance of the idea and slow growth, but ideas were emerging that this could only be a temporary approach; something had to happen.
The chosen strategy was two-pronged: grow the partner business by appointing a lead partner within each geographical region, and develop internal competences to deliver the service to end customersa€”that is, develop a LEGO SERIOUS PLAY consultancy service. A new leader was hired for the business, who began building the internal team and preparing the rollout of the new strategy in 2008. Eventually, by the end of the year, Robert saw no other opportunity than to leave LEGO and the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY team.
Gone were the requirements for a LEGO-delivered certification training, or for a partner and license contract with LEGO in order to be able to purchase the special LEGO SERIOUS PLAY kits. They lived up to the expectations of maintaining the quality of the brand and the delivery.
It appears from the literature that the investigations have been carried out on the assumption that the carrier energy spectra are invariant quantities in the presence of intense light waves, which is not fundamentally true. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form a€” by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means a€” nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers.
It is a diverse application of engineering that can call upon every engineering discipline and many other scientific and social science disciplines as well as just about every aspect of industrial life.
So, we have chosen to cover the topics relating to engineering industrial processes to prevent or reduce loss from accidental and undesired incidents.
Our authors hail from nine different countries, represent nearly 20 different industry categories, and have an average of about 20 years of experience in their fields. Arguably, it is conventional wisdom within most industries that not a single safety or environmental or health process or tool has been proven to act independently to reduce or eliminate workplace incidents directly. Figure 1.1 represents the data across 102 countries where member companies have operations (OGP, 2010).
The 1984 Union Carbide Bhopal gas leak disaster (at a pesticide plant in India) remains one of the major industrial catastrophes that have played a role in looking beyond loss prevention from a mere occupational health and safety perspective. It is important to remember that process safety incidents include the release of hazardous materials from leaks within systems, spills, equipment malfunctions that result from exceeding design temperatures and pressures, system integrity issues that include corrosion, metal fatigue, and other similar conditions. This program required process industries to log their facility information and incident history, incident consequences, and preventive programs that have been introduced as a result of the incidents. A report prepared by Pitblado in 2004 indicated that the outcome of the DNV Energy examination of the data in the MARS database showed no trends; however, the data set showed a steady average level of incident severity. Engineering processes and controls to keep the plants inherently safe will be an area for continuous improvement and focus to steer industry along this path. Process safety programs specifically focus on the design and engineering of facilities, hazard assessments, management of change, inspection, testing, and maintenance of equipment, effective alarms, effective process control, procedures, training of personnel, and human factors. The reward for having such systems backed up with data showing its success is passed back to the company in the form of cost savings from reduced incidents and by insurers offering lower premiums.
This could be achieved by implementing motor vehicle safety programs that include a€?drug and alcohol policiesa€? forbidding operation of vehicles while under the influence, and a policy governing the proper use of seat belts by employees during commuting. This is not an uncommon practice in the insurance industry beyond motorcycle or motor vehicle insurance.
In line with industry practice, management systems for loss prevention will be made up of the overarching cycle of defined stages, hinged around leadership commitment as the most important factor.
It will be implemented with equal consideration to building a safety culture within the enterprise that believes that all incidents are preventable. Management systems have been known to fail for lack of leadership support and the absence of providing visibility to the system by leadership. While recognizing the different degrees of responsibility and influence of individuals who make up the strata of leadership within any enterprise, every leader ranging from executives to front-line supervisors have unique roles to play in running the management system. The HES vision should support the company's philosophy and be written such that every employee could be held accountable for its execution at every level. This will be needed to break the vision further into more executable and measurable umbrella statements that summarizes all pillars that support the vision.
Depending on the industry of interest, a benchmarking exercise will be very beneficial in establishing existing industry approaches, checking the industry pulse, and projected future direction prior to setting a vision.
All leaders will always use the vision as a primer for discussions or workforce engagements to ensure that the workforce understands that these expressed values are important to their leadership. Success relies on leadership demonstrating commitment by providing adequate resources to support the loss prevention management system. The questions to ask in order to test criticality of any HES process is a€?What impact will the absence of the process have on meeting set HES objectives?a€? Depending on the immediate need of the organization, processes should be ranked according to their criticality to the success of the business objectives; ranked high, medium, or low risk.
The HES defined positions along with the support of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) will support process implementation (Table 1.2) and manage HES human resources and workforce HES competency development down the chain. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S.
Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890.
In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I.
Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress.
Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process.
The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation.
Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.
On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know?
Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012.
The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts.
Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391).
Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220.
Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. This book is not meant to be a handbook that provides you with five easy steps to improve your business by using the process. Perhaps you believe that creativity is a team process and you want to find a way to unlock it. But perhaps the most important challenge has been developing an understanding of what defines the method.
It has been more than 10 years since we trained the first facilitators, and the method has been put to work in organizations of all sorts all over the world. Over the years, we've facilitated workshops and conducted training programs for teams all over the world, initially as employees of Executive Discovery and then of LEGO itself.
These programs are also delivered globally and partly under the shared brand of a€?the Association of Master Trainers in the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY method.a€? Finally, we act in an advisory function to LEGO, a role that allows us to work closely with the company to support the method's continued growth. It was Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen's vision of a different way of leading that gave birth to LEGO SERIOUS PLAY. It was not the brainchild of a marketing department reacting to market demand or coming up with a new bright idea.
LEGO had being riding a wave of success for more than 20 years; the outlook for the future was bright. While their business was about creativity and imagination, the way that they went about developing a new strategy and a new strategic direction felt decidedly unimaginative.
The research would lead to a process where LEGO could use the approach internally, and the professors could advance their academic work in a real-world setting. These concepts remain an essential part of many LEGO SERIOUS PLAY applications to this day. There were some interesting strategy concepts, but no process for how to work with these using the bricks. This helped confirm a pattern of working with the bricks that produced consistent results across different groupsa€”the origin of the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY etiquette.
By having a complete picture of their current systema€”a perspective that involved team roles, relationships, and culturea€”and testing the system with specific scenarios, team members gained more confidence, insight, and commitment in dealing with future events. Robert's basea€”LEGO Education's research and developmenta€”was located in a remote farmhouse in the state of Connecticut, United States. Indeed, the approach has proven to be even more robust and generic than originally imagined. In 2006 Robert defined and structured the Application Techniques with the purpose of making the process easier to apply to a broader range to topics within business, team, and personal development.
Johan Roos and Bart Victor remained involved, respectively, in a board position and as part-time CEO, while they continued their academic careers.
We decided to develop a partnership business model, where organizations would sign a partner contract once they had qualified and had completed Executive Discovery's authorized facilitator training. The model made it possible for us to control who had access to the intellectual property and to the accompanying kits. There were bright spots and success stories, but overall, we were far from reaching our aspirations.
Fortunately, the initiative has had several dedicated ambassadors inside the company throughout its life without whom it would not be alive today. Then in early 2009, just as implementation was getting off the ground, the new leader was fireda€”thereby putting the new growth and gear-up strategy on hold and bringing LEGO SERIOUS PLAY to its fourth existential crisis. Ever since the business model's launch in 2002, the assumption had been that LEGO had to be in full control of who they would train, certify, and give the rights to deliver the services to the end customers. LEGO decided to give this strategy a two-year trial period, hoping that the concept now was so well known that the easier accessibility would lead to significant growth and that the established community would be strong enough to still secure a use that was consistent with the method's core values.
As a result, the LEGO Company committed to keeping the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY brand alive in the future.
The method has proven to work equally well in Europe, Asia, the Americas, Africa, and the Middle East, across cultures and in any language.
Think about it: although a 10-year-old car still fulfills the basic requirements for being able to transport you from A to B, it would not be especially appealing nowadays. The physical properties of semiconductors in the presence of light waves which change the basic dispersion relation are relatively less investigated in the literature. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.
It is generally assumed that, by definition, we do not want to experience this type of loss. It is the expectation of our authors to present to you, our readers, a thorough collection and summary of what is known in industry about preventing work related injuries and other undesired, accidental loss incidents. This book would not have been possible without them and I thank all of them for their significant and valuable contributions. To ensure that workplace incident prevention is achieved and sustained, an optimal mix of HES tools and processes needs to be implemented and managed (Shakioye and Haight, 2010). A process failure in this incident resulted in a leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant, causing undue exposure of thousands of people (Jackson Browning Report; Browning, 1993). In essence, several less severe process safety incidents occur every day across the industry with less media attention. Based on Lord Cullens recommendation, a leak database was created in the United Kingdom to record the count of leaks of process fluids (Pitblado, 2011). Having said this; we need to understand that to reach an incident and injury-free state, personal safety, process safety, and environmental issues need to be well understood. Management systems ensure that leadership has the needed framework to cascade their vision across the enterprise and it also establishes a platform for accountability at different strata of the organizational hierarchy. To ensure inherently safe design, construction, and operation, consideration of an engineering approach certainly offers the most logical course of action. Once our loss prevention system fails, then it becomes a case of loss control which may be out of range however planned for during the design phase. Installation of vehicle monitoring systems on company-owned vehicles to manage drivers' attitude on the roads will add some value to motor vehicle safety in addition to helping with accountability. The general theory is that insurance premiums are significantly higher for clients who show operationally higher risks which may introduce some level of ambiguity to the probability of an event occurring than those with inherently safer operations (Kunreuther et al., 1995). Leaders must take full ownership and set the expectations by demonstrating commitment through providing the right level of support and resources adequate for its full implementation.
The idea is to orchestrate the interactions of people with people and also the interactions of people with machines and the environment, ensuring alignment with incident-free strategic visions and objectives set by the corporate executives.

Public perception and confidence need to be considered in the HES vision statement considering the potential for the company's interaction with the public during the life of the operation. Personnel support can then be appropriated accordingly depending on availability, with priority given to the high and medium risk processes. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules.
Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909.
It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American.
Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests.
Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy.
He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low.
Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP.
Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12.
Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
Maybe you've simply observed well-meaning individuals pulled in different directions in professional projects time and again. Eventually, the definition proved itself robust; and from this, it has become clearer exactly what LEGO SERIOUS PLAY is, what it does, and how it can create value for groups of people. It has been used by local governments, global service companies, big banks, start-ups, international manufacturing companies, and other entities. We are now partners, and each owns and runs an organization that specializes in LEGO SERIOUS PLAY. He has always seen the LEGO bricks as a language that can help unlock human potential, and he quickly realized that LEGO SERIOUS PLAY could bring that language into the boardroom.
Professors Victor and Roos had experiences similar to Kirk Kristiansen's when it came to the quality of the traditional strategy development approaches for teams. Johan and Bart both had strong academic backgrounds in strategy making, complex adaptive systems, leadership, and organizational behavior. By the end of 2001, the process was working consistently across different groups in a robust and reproducible way. The second base was the Imagination Lab in Lausanne, Switzerland, from where Johan Roos, Bart Victor, and their team contributed with their theoretical knowledge and piloted the process and documentation. Finally, in 2010, we restructured and enhanced the training program; with minor updates, this is the certification program that is being used today.
The first facilitators were trained in September 2001, and in January 2002 LEGO SERIOUS PLAY was officially launched with the revised facilitator training. Combined with the discovery of financial skeletons in the closet dating back to the early days of the venture, Executive Discovery ceased to exist by end of December 2003. These individuals came to its rescue and secured the establishment of a LEGO SERIOUS PLAY business line inside the company with the necessary resources for continued development and distribution. Around 2007, the choice fell on the latter and the individuals responsible for the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY business line began developing their new strategy. In early 2008, he and his family moved back to Denmark and joined the LEGO SERIOUS PLAY team part-time while continuing his LEGO SERIOUS PLAY business in the United States. Since 2002 there had been a growing community of LEGO SERIOUS PLAY practitioners, whose main concern was figuring out how to continue their business with the method.
It was assumed that unless this process was under the complete control of LEGO, the risk of damaging the brand experience and becoming a fad simply was too high. It also accepted that the main reasons for doing so should not be dictated purely by the commercial bottom-line results for the business line.
Cars from both decades have the same basic components: four wheels, an engine, seats, and a steering wheel.
In this chapter we shall study the EEM in III–V, ternary and quaternary semiconductors and their nanostructure on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion law under external photo excitation under different physical conditions. In response to that, the authors of this book seek to inform the engineering community about what must be considered when designing, operating and maintaining systems and processes so that accidental and undesired failures or loss-producing incidents (including human injury) are less likely to occur or, if they do, that they result in lesser consequences.
Some of our readers will already be well-versed in such fields as safety engineering, process safety management, fire protection engineering, industrial hygiene, or environmental engineering, but it is expected that not many engineers are well-versed in all of these fields.
I would also like to thank the reviewers of our chapters as it is an important aspect of this book to ensure that you, our readers, get more than just the opinions of one author.
Another major process-related incident was the March 2005 British Petroleum Texas City Refinery explosion, which was caused by the ignition of a hydrocarbon vapor cloud. A decision was made by the government to restrict access to the data for national security reasons, the main reason being that the RMP database contains details of potential consequences of hypothetical worst-case scenarios of accidental releases.
Figure 1.2 shows a plot of the analysis of the leak database, which shows a slight decline in major leaks whereas trends for other minor leaks do not clearly show a decline. Management systems that support processes, based on facts and not just mere intuition, need to be put in place.
Having said this, a management system is incomplete without having the robustness to allow for continuous improvement of the organization's policies, procedures, and processes.
The root causes of the crashes reported in the study were primarily driving under the influence of alcohol and unrestrained driving (primarily non-use of seatbelts). These solutions may sound simplistic; the challenge to the safety policies is the implementation, which can only be achieved by the managers leading by example and holding employees accountable. Table 1.1 is a direct extract from the study, showing a market survey of some major insurance players in the United States.
We rely on the human element for design, preventive maintenance, following standard operating procedures while incorporating safe work practices, reacting and responding to emergencies, and so on a€“ the list can be endless. Vision must be communicated to the workforce using all avenues by leaders, including written statements and personal communications for the workforce to be convinced and hence buy in (Kouzes and Posner, 1987). Corporate visions of many companies are publicly available for reference, especially on the Internet; this certainly provides an opportunity to understand what minimum goals you need to set. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000.
More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975.
He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy.
Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel.
We will, throughout the book and in particular in Chapter 11, offer a varied set of examples. Robert is the principal of Rasmussen Consulting and Per is a partner in Trivium, both headquartered in Denmark, and working globally with the method. Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen's belief in the immense potential of the method has helped steady the ship several times.
New toys like video games were entering the market, and children were playing differently; growing older younger was the term often used.
Kristiansen connected with the two professors in 1996, and the three noted their similar frustration with traditional techniques for developing strategies. It was also in 2001 that the first facilitators were trained and that a team was formed in order to support the method. By keeping it small and outside mainstream LEGO, Kirk Kristiansen was able to minimize the risks.
The team was dissolved, the LEGO Company acquired all the intellectual property (IP), and the cooperation with Johan Roos and Bart Victor was terminated.
Per assumed the role of director of the business line working from his base in Milan, while Robert started building his own LEGO SERIOUS PLAY business in the United States.
However, he remained associated with LEGO SERIOUS PLAY through a position on an advisory board and, together with Robert, also continued to deliver facilitator training on behalf of LEGO. His responsibility was to train facilitators and investigate the development of new applications. Part of this was getting access to purchasing the special LEGO SERIOUS PLAY kits produced and distributed by the LEGO Company.
As a consequence, the responsibility for the business line was transferred partly to the LEGO Foundation, a not-for-profit foundation founded by the Kirk Kristiansen family and associated with the LEGO Company. But compared to an automobile from 2003, a 2013 model has much better fuel economy and safety, is more comfortable to ride in, has a sleeker design, and has a GPS so that it always knows where it is. Therefore, with the input of nearly 40 authors, and since many find themselves to be in need of information on any and all of these topic areas, the book encompasses parts of all of them. You will find that the material is widely accepted and is not just a a€?here's how we do things at our planta€?-type book.
Such complexity requires a systemic management of implemented HES programs to ensure that the programs are sustained and continuous improvements in the form of learnings are captured and incorporated into existing practices. The vapor cloud was created from a series of system malfunctions that eventually led to liquid hydrocarbon overfilling the blowdown drum and stack, then spilling over to the ground, creating the flammable vapor (The Baker Panel, 2007). With the agreement of the EPA, the Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania) conducted a preliminary analysis of historical process-related incident data from the RMP (non-security sensitive data). Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register.
Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization.
Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G.
Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts.
White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships.
At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
Without him, there would be no story to tell about LEGO SERIOUS PLAY, and, hence, this book would not have been possible. Third, he wanted this to be a long-lasting ideaa€”not the a€?next big thinga€? or a fad taken up with great enthusiasm for only a brief period of time. Per became a member of the newly formed partner council and functioned at times as an external resource to the team. The book is grouped into major topic areas of similar subject matter to lend cohesiveness to the information. All engineers are charged with a responsibility to protect people, equipment, facilities and operations and therefore, it is our hope that in reading this book you will learn something new and that you will enhance your organization's efforts to protect their operations and their people from injuries and other loss-producing incidents.
The Whartson School analyzed 10 years of process safety data, and identified only small improvements which may have been due to changes in the reporting attitude of companies rather than actual performance (Kleindorfer et al., 2007). The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. Our authors present a number of case studies and exercises that will help our readers to put the principles and theories of loss prevention engineering into proper day-to-day perspective. More recently, the April 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater blowout incident (Macondo well incident) was largely due to a succession of interrelated well design, construction, and temporary abandonment decisions that compromised the integrity of the well and compounded the risk of its failure (Transocean, 2010).
It is also the expectation of the authors that our readers will find this book to be a necessity any time each of you are tasked with solving an engineering problem that could lead to a loss-producing incident, any time you find yourself assigned to a job in which loss prevention engineering is part of the defined responsibilities or any time you want to learn about loss prevention engineering as an occupation or field of study.
This incident resulted in an explosion with 11 fatalities and an environmental disaster off the Gulf Coast of the United States.
86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come.
From several investigation reviews, and if history is anything to go by, the common theme of the root causes in the majority of these incidents was management system-related deficiencies, particularly in the area of process safety.
It is an excellent and thorough reference handbook that we hope you find useful in the everyday dispatch of your industrial duties. Davies, Physics of Low Dimensional Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998)18.S. Blundell, Magnetism in Condensed Matter, Oxford Master Series in Condensed Matter Physics (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001)19.C.

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