Communication barriers within nursing,it classroom management software,effective communication newspaper article,secrets playa mujeres opening date - New On 2016

You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. For example, a joke about someone's hair colour could be funny to someone without that hair colour but to the person with that hair colour it could be offensive.
This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Health and Social Care section. You should also confirm the message from the person, because you may have not got the right message and you may make a wrong decision. Family encouragement helps with motivation to stop Breathing will be much easier and will have more energy Visually will have clearer skin and hair will be in better condition New hobbies can create new friends and interests Pampering improves self esteem Money saved Family not always around when support is needed i.e. Consequently, it does not offer any better clarity to the complexities of health inequalities in society and so cannot be sustained.
Created by teachers, our study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know. Coaching designed for high performers preparing for new roles of increased responsibility in leadership.
Coaching designed for individuals and leaders who desire to make a career change, promotion, move within a firm or deeply explore what they really love to do and how to make a career out of it. Interviews, a survey and a 360 degree feedback tool help determine the current culture of a team, group or organization. 360 degree feedback should be a cornerstone of any leadership development initiative as well as values alignment, authenticity, effective communication, setting strategic direction, motivating and focusing people, collaboration, accountability and building trust.
Team effectiveness is used for new teams, new team leaders or teams that are not meeting performance outcomes. Creating a compelling strategic direction is critical to the long-term success of any organization. While most coaching engagements use elements of all the coaching types listed below, there are times where the goal is specific in nature and falls predominantly into one category. There can be no doubt that before the time of Eratosthenes the ideas of the learned world on the subject of geography had assumed a more regular and systematic form. It appears indeed from repeated statements of Strabo that Eratosthenes made it the object of his special attention to a€?reform the map of the world,a€? as it had existed down to his time, and to reconstruct it upon more scientific principles. With regard to the fundamental idea of all geography - the position and figure of the earth - Eratosthenes adopted the views that were current among the astronomers of his day, which had been received almost without exception from the times of Aristotle (ca. But Eratosthenes had the merit of making one valuable addition to the previously existing ideas upon this subject, by a more careful and successful measurement than had ever been previously attempted, of the magnitude of the earth, or circumference of the terrestrial globe. The method pursued by Eratosthenes was theoretically sound, and was in fact identical in principle with that which has been adopted by astronomers in modern day. While still keeping to the geocentric views of the universe, Eratosthenes started from the assumption that the sun was so distant that for practical purposes one could consider its rays parallel anywhere on earth. The only theoretical error in this mode of calculation was in the assumption - which was inevitable in the days of Eratosthenes - that the earth was exactly spherical, instead of being as it really is, a slightly oblate spheroid, and that therefore a meridian great circle was equal to that of the equator. In the first place, it was assumed that Syene lay directly under the tropic, it being a well-known fact that at the summer solstice the sun could be seen from the bottom of a deep well, and that at the same time the gnomon cast no perceptible shadow. It is remarkable that while the terrestrial measurement was thus grossly inaccurate, the observation of latitude as deduced from the gnomon at Alexandria was a very fair approximation to the truth: a fiftieth part of a great circle being equivalent to an arc of 7A°12a€™, thus exceeding by about 7a€™ only the true interval between Alexandria and Syene, while falling short of that between Alexandria and the real Tropic by about 30a€™ or half a degree.
It appears indeed almost certain that Eratosthenes himself was aware of the imperfection of his data, and regarded the result of his calculation only as an approximation to the truth. After all it must be admitted that the calculation of Eratosthenes, considering the disadvantages under which he labored, came surprisingly near the truth. Once the value of 252,000 stades was accepted, it was feasible also to work out the circumference of any parallel circle.
Having thus laid the foundation of what has been called in modern times a€?geodesya€? - the determination of the figure and dimensions of the earth, considered in its entirety, as a part of the system of the universe, Eratosthenes next proceeded to consider that portion of it which was in his time geographically known, or supposed to be inhabited. In his Geographica Eratosthenes discussed the best method of drawing a map of the inhabited area of the earth as known. Therefore, as with earlier map construction, the length of the oikumene greatly exceeds the width, though by what proportion depends on how much of the northern, eastern and southern extremities were regarded as inhabited. As approximations to sizes and shapes of parts of the world, Eratosthenes first divided the inhabited world by a line stretching from the Pillars of Hercules [Straits of Gibraltar] to the Taurus Mountains and beyond, then subdivided each of these two sections into a number of irregular shapes, or sphragides, which literally meant a€?an official seala€™ and later was extended to represent a plot of land numbered by a government surveyor, then by extrapolation to a numbered area on a map. Eratosthenes undoubtedly conceived, in accordance with the prevalent belief in his day, that the Ocean was found immediately to the east of India, and that the Ganges flowed directly into it. From that point he supposed the coast to trend away towards the northwest, so as to surround the great unknown tracts of Scythia on the north, but sending in a deep inlet to the south, which formed the Caspian Sea. His ideas of the geographical position and configuration of India were also in great measure erroneous.
Physical geography, in the modern sense of the term, was still quite in its infancy in the days of Eratosthenes, and it cannot be said that he did much to impart to it a scientific character. Eratosthenes also adopted, and apparently developed at considerable length, an idea first suggested by the physical philosopher Strabo, that the Mediterranean and the Euxine [Black] Seas had originally no outlet, and stood in consequence at a much higher level, but that they had burst the barriers that confined them, and thus given rise to the Straits of the Bosphorus, the Hellespont and that of the columns. This map of the known world was a very striking achievement and may be considered to be the first really scientific Greek map.
The schism generated by two fundamentally different theoretical approaches on each side on the Iron Curtain – i.e. For example at airports, shopping centres and tourist places there are signs on the toilet doors to separate the different genders. Inappropriate behaviours Inappropriate behaviour in a classroom from one pupil can affect communication between the teacher and other pupils.
No, because I am mostly stressed and also I donât have contact with my family, which makes my life sad. There have been a number of studies that have used different measures of class and health and all have shown similar patterns. All Rights Reserved.Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. These areas are observable and measurable such as communication, setting strategic direction, performance goal setting, performance feedback, time management, influencing etc..
Often the responsibilities of a current role cannot prepare someone for a future role and additional resources are needed to give the individual the skills, knowledge, behaviors and mindset necessary for success in the new role. Significant mindset shifts occur through this type of coaching which focuses on the deepest level of barriers to personal performance.
This coaching is a 6 month engagement and involves a number of assessments and exercises that provide a variety of perspectives and lensa€™ to better understand desired vocations, strengths, needs and what is most valuable for the individual.
The team leader would engage the coach to help improve the performance of the team through observing the team as it interacts on a regular basis in meetings, off-sites, project work etc.
This is compared with the desired culture that best serves the team, group or organization in meeting their performance outcomes.
Our experience designing leadership development programs gives us access to many different approaches ensuring that we can create one that will work for your organization. Interviews with all team members, including the team leader provide the background information and challenges as seen by each member of the team.
Building in flexibility so the strategy may adapt to changing market conditions is equally critical.
More symmetrical than accurate, its partitions were the forerunners of parallels and meridians after DicA¦archus (#111). And it is certain also that these had been embodied in the form of maps, which, however imperfect, were unquestionably very superior to anything that had preceded them. It is this enlarged and philosophical view of the subject that constitutes his special merit, and entitles him to be justly called as the a€?parent of scientific geographya€?. Once the idea of a spherical earth was accepted, and that it was a perfect sphere, the measurement of this body was a logical step, even to Greek scholars who were more given to philosophical speculation than to quantification and experimentation.
The method pursued by Eratosthenes is fully stated and explained by the astronomer Cleomedes, in his work on the Circular Motion of the Heavenly Bodies. He observed that the rays of the sun, at midday, at the time of the summer solstice, fell directly over Syene [modern-day Aswan] and that the vertical rod of the sun dial (gnomon or style) would not cast a shadow (predicated on the assumption that Syene was situated exactly under the Tropic of Cancer). But, though these facts were perfectly correct as matters of rough observation, such as could be made by general travelers, they were far from having the precise accuracy requisite as the basis of scientific calculations. Hence, as mentioned above, he felt himself at liberty to add 2,000 stades to the 250,000 obtained by his process, in order to have a number that would be readily divisible into sixty parts, or into degrees of 360 to a great circle.
His measurement of 250,000 stades (the immediate result of his calculation) would be equivalent to 25,000 geographical miles, while the actual circumference of the earth at the equator falls very little short of 25,000 English miles. Thus Eratosthenes calculated that the parallel at Rhodes, 36A°N., was under 200,000 stades in circumference. And here it must be observed that the relation between the habitable world, which was alone regarded as coming within the scope of the geographer (properly so called), and the terrestrial globe itself, was, in the days of Eratosthenes, and even long afterwards, a very different one from that which we now conceive as subsisting between them. The first task of the geographer therefore, according to the notions then prevailing, was to determine the limits and dimensions of the map of the world, which was to form the subject of his special investigations.
India he suggested drawing as a rhomboid; Ariana [the eastern part of the Persian Empire] would be illustrated as approximating a parallelogram.
Just to the north of the Ganges the great mountain chain of Imaus, which he regarded as the continuation of the Indian Caucasus and the Taurus, descended (according to his ideas) to the shores of the Eastern Ocean; and he appears to have given the name of Tarnarus to the headland which formed the termination of this great range.
Of the northern shores of Asia or Europe he had really no more knowledge than Herodotus (#109), but, unlike that historian, he assumed the fact that both continents were bounded by the Ocean on the north; a fact which is undoubtedly true, but in a sense so widely different from that supposed by Eratosthenes that a can hardly be held as justifying his theory.
As mentioned above, he conceived it to be of a rhomboidal form, which may be regarded as a rough approximation to the truth, and he even knew that the two sides, which enclosed the southern extremity, were longer than the other two. In treating the mountain chains of Asia as one continuous range, to which he applied the name of Taurus, he may be regarded as having made a first attempt, however crude, at that systematic description of mountain ranges to which we now give the name of orography. In proof of this theory he alleged the presence of marine shells far inland in Libya, especially near the temple of Jupiter Ammon, and on the road leading to it, as well as the deposits and springs of salt that were also found in the Libyan deserts. Although the dimensions are not known exactly, as it was presented to the Egyptian court a may be assumed to have been fairly large.
Each sector of the communication cycle needs to be followed for the cycle to be successful. For example, if there is a pupil turning around taking things of you it will affect you're communication between you and the teacher.
When dealing with cultural patients in a care home or hospital setting it can cause upset, confusion and misunderstanding.



This type of coaching is often used for individual contributors and in conjunction with Leadership Coaching.
This coaching may have some skill and knowledge components to the degree that a leader is missing this, but more often, this coaching will focus on what is preventing the leader from doing what must be done and in many cases what they know they are supposed to do.
This coaching ideally begins prior to a new role and continues through the first 6 months of the new role. The goal is to not only provide new skills and behaviors, it is to shift the individuals mindset about what is possible for them and help them fully leverage their capabilities in all aspects of their life.
You will discover the roles and environments best suited for you based on the assessments, exercises and coaching conversations. The coach would coach the team leader, interview the entire team for background data and then offer observations and suggestions as the coach observes the team in action. A one-day session identifies what needs to change in order to achieve the desired culture and how those changes will be implemented and measured. A one-day session is designed to bring out the issues in a safe manner so they may be discussed and new behaviors identified, agreed and implemented to build trust within the team. The coaching generally consists of one on one coaching, assessments (MBTI, LSI, TKI, Leadership Circle, Enneagram, Values Assessment, Competency Assessment, FIRO-B and Client Assessment), 360 interviews and preparation work for one on one sessions. Geographic information that was gathered by Alexander the Great and his successors was the primary source used by Eratosthenes, a scholar with vision large enough to put this information into a logical framework. The first use of world maps by the Greeks had been introduced at a very early period by Anaximander (ca. The materials at his command were still very imperfect, and the means of scientific observation were wanting to a degree which we can, at the present-day, scarcely figure to ourselves; but the methods which he pursued were of a strictly scientific character, and his judgment was so sound that he proved in many instances to be better informed and more judicious in his inferences than geographers of two centuries later. He was not indeed the first who had attempted the solution of this problem, which would naturally engage the attention of astronomers and geometers, as soon as it was agreed that the earth was of a spherical form. Both the method and the accuracy of Eratosthenesa€™ well-known measurement of the earth have evoked the admiration of later workers, and his calculation is regarded as one of the greatest achievements of Greek science. Syene is in fact situated in latitude 24A° 5a€™ 30a€?, or nearly 37 miles to the north of the Tropic. Ever since the discoveries of the great Portuguese and Spanish navigators in the 15th and 16th centuries opened out to us new continents, and extensions of those already known, far beyond anything that had previously been suspected or imagined, men have been accustomed to regard the a€?map of the worlda€? as comprising the whole surface of the globe, and including both the eastern and western hemispheres, while towards the north and south it is capable of indefinite extension, until it should reach the poles, and is in fact continually receiving fresh accessions. This question, which was taken up by Eratosthenes at the beginning of his second book, had already been considered by several previous writers, who had arrived at very different results. Rather than a rectangle, he thought of the oikumene as tapering off at each end of its length, like a chlamys [short Greek mantle]. In fact the conclusion of Eratosthenes was mainly based upon the erroneous belief that the Caspian communicated with the Ocean to the north in the same manner that the Persian Gulf did to the south; a view which was adopted by all geographers for a period of three centuries, on the authority of Patrocles. Yet the erroneous idea of its communication with the Ocean to the north sufficiently shows how questionable the information possessed by the Greeks really was. But as he supposed the range of Imaus that bounded the country to the north to have its direction from west to east, while the Indus flowed from north to south, he was obliged to shift around the position of his rhomb, so as to bring the other two sides approximately parallel to the two thus assumed. He also arrived at a sound conclusion concerning the causes of the inundation of the Nile, a subject that must naturally have engaged the attention of a geographer resident in Egypt.
It must have been drawn as closely as possible to scale, and its influence on subsequent Greek and Roman cartography was tremendous. Continental historical archaeology – persisted in the aftermath of the fall of the Eastern bloc in 1989. Aggression If someone is aggressive in their behaviour towards you then you are unable to concentrate on anything.
This type of engagement requires a long-term commitment of at least a year and may be accomplished one to one or through The Program in Sustainable Living For Leaders.
This will be put into the context of long term goals so what you do today will directly apply to what you want to do in the future. This is different from team effectiveness in that it is real-time and occurs during and through the teams actual work. This creates alignment between the individuals and their desired culture within a context of how the new culture impacts their individual, team and organizational performance objectives. We design and implement follow-up learning sessions and coaching to reinforce the program learning and support your leaders. This allows authentic dialogue to flow within the team and leads to significant improvement in team effectiveness. The guiding light is the strategic direction, which is defined aspirationally by the organizational leadership.
The coaching is driven by measurable outcomes agreed upon up front by all relevant parties. He regarded the earth as a sphere, placed in the center of the universe, around which the celestial sphere revolved every twenty-four hours: besides which, the sun and moon had independent motions of their own.
Aristotle refers to the calculation of a€?mathematiciansa€? who had investigated the subject (without naming them) that the earth was 400,000 stades in circumference. Secondly, Alexandria, instead of being exactly on the same meridian with Syene, lay in fact not less than three degrees of longitude to the west of it: an error of no trifling moment when the distance between the two was assumed as the basis of calculation.
Thus was established the basis of a fairly accurate system of coordinates for any sectional mapping of the Mediterranean based upon the Rhodes parallel.
With the Greek geographers on the contrary, from Eratosthenes to Strabo, the known or habitable world was conceived as a definite and limited portion of the eartha€™s surface, situated wholly within the northern hemisphere, and comprised within about a third of the extent of that section. On one point indeed they were all agreed, that the length of the habitable world, from west to east, greatly exceeded as breadth, from north to south. Moreover, Strabo tells us that to the above total of 74,000 stades Eratosthenes, using another mathematical ploy, added 2,000 at each end, to prevent the width being more than half the length.
Hence he conceived the projecting angle of India to have a direction towards the southeast instead of the south, and even supposed it to advance farther towards the east than the mouth of the Ganges. On the other hand he stated a strange hypothesis: that the surplus waters of the Euphrates were carried by subterranean channels to Coele, Syria, and thence again underground so as to feed the streams which broke out near Rhinocorura and Mount Casius.
Indeed, with Ptolemya€™s inaccurate alterations to the overall dimensions of the world and the oikumene, it can be said to have affected world maps right down to the Age of Discovery. This could affect communication between anyone else and the aggressor if they where trying to speak to you.
We follow an ontological coaching process which has demonstrated sustainable change in our clients. 24, #115) to whom we are indebted for much of our knowledge of geography in antiquity, including the work of Eratosthenes whose relevant works, neither of which have survived, were On the Measurement of the Earth and Geographica, Cleomedes summarized the former, Strabo criticized the latter. The obliquity of the suna€™s course to that of the celestial sphere was of course well known; and hence the great circles of the equinoctial, and the ecliptic, or zodiacal circle, as well as the lesser circles, called the tropics, parallel with the equinoctial, were already familiar to the astronomers of Alexandria. But a much graver error than either of these two was that caused by the erroneous estimate of the actual distance between the two cities. Towards the north and south it was conceived that the excessive cold in the one case, and the intolerable heat in the other, rendered those regions uninhabitable, and even inaccessible to man.
Democritus, two centuries before Eratosthenes, had asserted that it was half as long again as it was broad, and this view was adopted by DicA¦archus (#111), though recent discoveries had in his day materially extended the knowledge of its eastern portions. On the parallel of Rhodes, this total of 78,000 stades corresponds to about 140A° longitude, which is roughly the distance from Korea to the west coat of Spain. He appears in fact to have obtained, probably from the information collected by Patrocles, a correct general idea of the great projection of India in a southerly direction towards Cape Comorin, but was unable to reconcile this with his previously conceived notions as to its western and northern boundaries, and was thus constrained altogether to distort its position in order to make it agree with what he regarded as established conclusions. In this context, for the past 10 years, a series of projects have been set forth in Transylvania (Romania) under the banner of ArchaeoTek, with the scope of generating a platform where a complementary integration of ideas could develop through cooperation and respect of the other’s knowledge and expertise, independent of respective theoretical boundaries. Feelings of isolation Feelings of isolation make you feel like you can't communicate with anyone and you have to 'keep it all locked up'. At each level the leaders and teams will define the specific actions and behaviors necessary, from their perspective, to move toward that guiding light.
Nor can it be doubted that the discoveries resulting from the conquests of Alexander the Great (ca. Future scholars, however, would have a higher opinion of Eratosthenes, regarding him, a€?as the parent of scientific geographya€? and at least a€?worthy of alphaa€? in that subject, particularly for his remarkable measurement of the circumference of the earth. Moreover it appears that these conceptions, originally applied to the celestial sphere, had been already transferred in theory to the terrestrial globe.
What mode of measurement had been resorted to, or how Eratosthenes arrived at his conclusion upon this point, we are wholly without information: but it may well be doubted whether he had recourse to anything like actual menstruation. That there might be inhabitants of the southern hemisphere beyond the torrid zone, or that unknown lands might exist within the boundless and trackless ocean that was supposed to extend around two-thirds of the globe from west to east, was admitted to be theoretically possible, but was treated as mere matter of idle speculation, much as we might at the present day regard the question of the inhabitants on Mars. The astronomer Eudoxus on the other hand maintained that the length was double the breadth; Eratosthenes went a step farther and determined the length to be more than double the breadth, a statement that continued to be received by subsequent geographers for more than three centuries as an established fact. It was doubtless from the same source that he had learned the name of the Coniaci, as the people inhabiting this southernmost point of India; a name that hence forward became generally received, with slight modifications, by ancient geographers. Successful collaborative archaeological enterprises are then evaluated not in terms of actual results and project completion, but in long term collaboration within internationally and theoretically diverse teams, striving to achieve common negotiated scientific goals. A new message is then formed and sent and Person A then sees and hears it and there is now a new understanding.
Hearing Disabilities If you have hearing difficulties you can't hear any one speak or understand them when there talking, usually this leads to not being able to talk either because you have to be able to hear to be able to talk. Each level of the organization is then free to use their unique knowledge and perspective to inform a vision that comes from those looking at the organization from a different context.
Thus the idea of the globe of the earth, as it would present itself to the mind of Eratosthenes, or any of his more instructed contemporaries, did not differ materially from that of the modern geographer. But as a mathematical ploy, in order to achieve a number divisible by 60 or 360, so as to correlate stades with his subdivisions or degrees, he emended this to 252,000 stades [a stade, stadion, stadia], originally the distance covered by a plough before turning, was 600 feet of whatever standard was used]. Indeed the difficulty which modern experience has shown to attend this apparently simple operation, where scientific accuracy is required, renders it highly improbable that it was even attempted; and the round number of 5,000 stades at once points to its being no more than a rough approximation. Learning Disabilities If you have learning difficulties it usually means that you're brain works at a slower pace and you might not be able to understand people. This approach is based on the concept that the map is not the territory and what may seem the most direct route to a destination on a map often misses a lot of detail when on the ground. The same thing was the case in ancient times, and it is highly probable that if you could now recover the map of the world as it was generally received in the time of the first Ptolemies, we should find it still retaining many of the erroneous views of Herodotus and HecatA¦us (#109 and #108). For all geographical purposes, at least as the term was understood in his day, the difference between the geocentric and the heliocentric theories of the universe would be unimportant.


A conversion to modern units of measure finds Eratosthenesa€™ calculation to be somewhere between 45,007 km (27,967 miles) to 39,690 km (24,663 miles), as compared to actual equatorial circumference of 40,075 km (24,902 miles), there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade as used by Eratosthenes. But even considered as such, it exceeds the truth to a degree that one could hardly have expected, in a country so well known as Egypt, and in an age so civilized as that of the Ptolemies. Forms of communication Verbal Verbal communication uses words; this can come in the form of letters, text, emails or memo which uses writing. When you are talking to someone with learning difficulties you have to check that they understand what you're talking about and that there not just repeating what you're saying.
Ways of overcoming barriers Adapting to the environment An environment can be changed to make communication easier to take place. Leverage those on the ground to make the best decisions where they are as long as they are guided by the larger direction of the organization. Alexandria is in fact situated at a distance of about 530 geographical miles (5,300 stades) from Syene, as measured on the map along the nearest road but the direct distance between the two, or the arc of the great circle intercepts between the two points, which is what Eratosthenes intended to measure, amounts to only 453 miles or 4,530 stades. Physical Disabilities People who have physical disabilities can sometimes communicate through speech but it depends on how disabled that person is. For example, if you are in a office having a meeting and there is noise outside then you would shut the windows to avoid the noise coming in. But we have no information as to the data on which these first crude attempts were based, or the mode by which he authors arrived at their results.
Eratosthenes, therefore, in fixing the length of this arc at 5,000 stades, was 470 beyond the truth. For example, Jodie has cerebral palsy and can not communicate through speech so she uses a Dyno Voxe which is a computer that connects through a dot on her head which acts as a mouse as she can not use her hands. The difference in latitude between Alexandria and Syene really amounts to only 7A° 5a€™, so that the direct distance between the two cities, supposing them to have been really situated on the same meridian (as Eratosthenes assumed them to be) would not have exceeded 425 miles or 4,250 stades, instead of 5,000. An example of non verbal communication is a person with hearing difficulties, so a deaf person and somebody else.
Body language Body language communication tells somebody exactly how you feel about the conversation you are having. If you're not interested you usually turn your body away and don't look at the person who is speaking to you. Means need to set forth in order to provide correct information to the public (especially young people) on the Dacian fortresses in the Orastie Mountains and history of Dacia.          A workshop has been built at the school camp at Costesti (near one of the Dacian Fortresses, in the Orastie Mountains - a UNESCO site). This combines experimental archaeology, with the need for education and protection of the historical monuments.
With the help of volunteers and students, a pottery kiln, a forge and a potter's wheel have been built, where replicas of various artifacts belonging to the Dacian and Roman civilizations are created. Civilian and military life didn’t seem to be altered at the thought of the Roman impending arrival. In a protohistorical context such as the Geto-Dacian world, this dynamic is further complicated by the scarcity of the preserved records. Since the first mention of the Getae by Herodotus, historical records, both Greek and Roman, have recorded aspects of Geto-Dacian civilization.
However disperse and trivial these sources might be, they point to a highly elaborate system of exchange, and social, cultural, and political relations between the Roman Republic and Empire, the Hellenistic world and the Geto-Dacian tribes and kingdoms.Being in close proximity to the Greek and Greco-Hellenistic civilization, having several powerful Greek colonies in their own territory, the Getae have been strongly influenced by the Greco-Mediterranean world, showing a more intense historical development that the Dacians.
In the present paper, we are going to critically discuss historical sources in terms of degree of separation from the actual information, factual and material reality, and accuracy in light of recent archaeological excavation and discoveries in south-east Transylvania, with emphasis on the powerful pandacic center in the Olt River Canyons of the Persani Moutains, with its center on the Tipia Ormenisului Mountain. In a short visual essay by Dan and Nicholas Dimancescu, two unique aspects of the Romania physical and cultural landscape are featured, expressing the inevitable dynamic interaction between the power of nature and the power of the human drive.         The first one features the enormous inventory of caves, 12,000 or more at last count and most in Transylvania.
These sheltered the now extinct Cave Bear species and ice-age man as well as many subsequent human groups. These caves became the subject of an informal study by Nicholas Dimancescu, entitled "Caves of Consciousness", completed in collaboration with photographer Dragos Lumpan.          A second aspect is the legacy of the Dacian Kingdoms that existed for several hundred years until conquered and destroyed by Emperor Trajan in 106AD. A unique feature of these Kingdoms was a center-of-power and spiritual sanctuary located in a mountainous Transylvanian region, protected by a sophisticated network of fortresses guarding key access valleys to the core site.
The method of establishing a differential diagnosis in order to narrow a pathogen or specific condition’s skeletal involvement has helped to breed insight in to not only the disseminations of the pathologies and conditions themselves, but also cultures as a whole. This study aims at employing this method in order to possibly ascertain a diagnosis focusing on the visible bowing deformities in the lower limbs of a sample of the Noua populations in Bronze Age Transylvania. Fifty-three individuals from the Polus Floresti cemetery site of Cluj-Napoca, Romania were available; of which only twenty-two had lower limbs available or adequate for analysis. At present, the differential diagnosis indicates the bowing deformities may have been due to residual rickets; a metabolic condition developed during childhood caused by a lack of vitamin D absorption.
If the Noua population indeed suffered from rickets, it stands to reason that the mobility of the group would be impaired, or at the least slightly prohibitive, rather than extensive as previously speculated. The development of a desire for metal objects seems to have preceded the need for metal, either from a utilitarian, economic or prestige perspective. The use of metal in the region north of the Danube, in present day Romania, seems to point towards that conclusion. Significantly preceding the exploitation of any utilitarian metal such as cooper, we find gold objects, albeit very rare, from the Neolithic onwards.In this presentation, we are addressing the earliest use of metal, in our case gold, in Romania, with an emphasis on Transylvania.
Although Transylvania has the richest gold, copper and tin ore deposits in Eastern-Southeastern Europe, gold metallurgy didn’t appear in that region until the later Eneolithic, although it is found in the territories occupied by the Boian and the earliest Gumelnita and Cucuteni archaeological cultures, outside of the Carpathian Arc.Our focus in this case is the earliest presence of gold in Transylvania, examined through its archaeological and socio-cultural contexts. The fact that the earliest gold pieces from this area are made from metal that originates south of the Danube, points to a possible differential evolution in regional proto-metallurgical technical development At the same time, it could indicate a significant difference in mentalities between the various areas reducing the desirability of gold objects among Neo-Eneolithic Transylvania inhabitants.
The question of when the horse went from food to transport has not been resolved, but what is clear is that riding was a very important step in this process. Individuals within a horse riding culture will exhibit certain indicators in the form of biomechanical bone changes and evidence for more trauma of the type associated with horseback riding than individuals from a culture where horses were not present or not used for riding. Using skeletal remains from a known Noua cemetery, we tried to determine the degree to which, or indeed if at all, this specific population engaged in equestrian activities.
Taken together the pathological indicators seem to indicate that habitual riding was not practiced by the individuals in this sample.
Although the overall indicators for horseback riding did not correlate in this sample, there was a correlation between three biomechanical markers.
These were: the formation of a third trochanter on the proximal shaft of the femur, the development of the hypotrochanteric fossa on the proximal shaft of the femur, and a coxa valga angle between the head and neck, and shaft of the femur. As Parvan initially constructed the science and further enforced by the Communist regime, Romanian archaeological thought is authority driven. As a field of study, it is incorporated into history and is constructed methodologically around extensive typologies and elaborate vertical stratigraphies correlated in space and time.
The strong empirical, descriptive, ideographic perspectives dictated by a Marxist approach were eventually incorporated. Evolutionary and ecological principles were (and are still used) as dogmatic lines of evidence, which result in a sustained effort of systematization of all archaeological date, manifest by the boom in archaeological repertoires since the 1980s.
As a result, personal experience and intellectual qualities of individual archaeologists are still considered the fundamental basis for analytical validation.Nevertheless, changes in Romanian archaeology are inevitable and often triggered by international collaborative projects. It hosts the largest deposits of copper, tin, iron and gold in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Since the EBA, the region was integrated locally and internationally in complex networks of socio-cultural and economic exchange, as attested by the presence of Transylvanian bronzes and artifacts in Homeric Troy, and Minoans and Mycenaean symbols cast into Transylvanian bronzes locally.The focus of present paper is the impact of metallurgical practices during the Transylvanian Bronze Age on dynamics of ore exploitation. Based upon the economy I am evaluating the degree to which technological advances in metallurgy were responsible for the development of social stratification and the emergence of an elite class.  A Usable History. In Romania, historical illustration has been traditionally limited to nationalistic cliches and stereotypes.
Although an artist is always very sensible to the esthetic quality of his work, for a historical illustrator accuracy is paramount.
I use several media in order to finalize the graphic research, from aerial photography to GIS projections, 3D computer programs to manipulate view angles, site and object photography. Although not necessarily reliable, historical movies and reenactment events can provide some practical insights to how clothing, armor and various objects can and can’t be used.
At the same time, experimental archaeology offers, to the artist, a very interesting perspective on the interactions between individual and material object at the physical level. Palmyra, an oasis in the Syrian Desert became one of the great cities of the Roman Orient as a result of the intense economic and commercial activity along the Silk Road.
Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana is the first city founded after the Roman conquest of Dacia constituted a model for all the other urban communities in the new province.            Our paper analyses the context in which Palmyrene communities evolved in the first and most important town of the Roman province. During the first years of the Dacian province, for strategic reasons, a few contingents of Palmyrene archers have been relocated on the Western frontier.
The soldiers of these contingents, together with merchants and priests served as the nucleus for the implantation of a Palmyrene community in Dacia.            We explore the various processes of acculturation and adaptation of this community through a thorough synthesis of all epigraphic and archaeological evidence available, focusing in particular on the newly discovered temple of the Palmyrene gods in Sarmizegetusa.
The first and oldest sector (MBA) is represented by a Wietenberg III dwelling, on the eastern part of the terrace whose traces can be seen, albeit very poorly, in the central area (but not the western part), right underneath the Late Bronze Age habitation. The second sector, found in the central and western area, is represented by a late Bronze Age habitation (Br. Since no traces of a permanent occupation were found, it is reasonable to assume that it was a seasonal habitation, most likely an annual camp for production and sale of goods. The third one belongs to the bronze workshop, where several artifacts of immense archaeological value were found: an anvil, an ox hide type bronze ingot, a meteorite. Finally, the fourth sector is the religious area (the altar and a large sacred complex, most likely for metallurgical ritual activity). Also, the author presents the main characteristics of this ritual metallurgical universe, from a large, interdisciplinary perspective, mostly based on the directions set by the work of M.
I explore the potential common ground between Anglo-American notions of social space and the extensive Romanian culture history resources published on the Neolithic over the last century. In emphasizing overlap, I found the focus of my study shifting from the singular and exceptional, exemplified by the power of place studies addressing monumentality, to the ever-present and mundane details in the structure of space within buildings and buildings within sites.
With the help of volunteers and students, a pottery kiln, a forge and a potter's wheel have been built, where replicas of various artifacts belonging to the Dacian and Roman civilizations are created.




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