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The Communication Studies major is great for student's seeking a generalist approach to communication. Not only did I have to wake up incredibly early while being extremely jet-lagged from traveling from my home in NY to my apartment in LA, but I sometimes worked 12-15 hour days.  That certainly takes some getting used to, and I threw myself into the middle of the job, not really knowing entirely what to expect.
I have also committed to an internship at Eastern Costume which is a costume house in LA where I’ll be learning about and handling clothing, props, jewelry and more.  The costume house has a very good reputation among wardrobers and costumers of Hollywood.  They’ve helped dress numerous movies and commercials, and I am looking forward to working with the team at Eastern Costume starting this coming Tuesday!
Comments Off on Tyler McCoy here of Newburgh, NY, senior and strategic communication major at HPU. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Hugely popular among teens and young adults in the mid-2000s, MySpace enables people to set up a personal profile on which they can post original music for the public to listen to and comment on.
Caillata€™s story highlights one area in which the Internet is changing the face of the music industry. Artists are also using social networking sites to develop a more intimate relationship with fans. Social networking sites are just the latest technological development in the music business.
The first stirrings of popular or pop musica€”any genre of music that appeals to a wide audience or subculturea€”began in the late 19th century, with discoveries by Thomas Edison and Emile Berliner. In the late 19th century, the lax copyright laws that existed in the United States at the beginning of the century were strengthened, providing an opportunity for composers, singers, and publishers to work together to earn money by producing as much music as possible.
For most of the 20th century, gramophone records were the primary medium used for commercial music reproduction. The Tin Pan Alley tradition of song publishing continued throughout the first half of the 20th century with the show tunes and soothing ballads of Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and George Gershwin, and songwriting teams of the early 1950s, such as Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller. In the 1920s, Tin Pan Alleya€™s dominance of the popular music industry was threatened by two technological developments: the advent of electrical recording and the rapid growth of radio.
During the early days of its development, the gramophone was viewed as a scientific novelty that posed little threat to sheet music because of its poor sound quality.
Composers and publishers could deal with the losses caused by an increase in gramophone sales because of the provisions made in the Copyright Act. Radio sales dramatically increased throughout the 1920s because radios were an affordable way to listen to free music and live events.
The ascendance of Tin Pan Alley coincided with the emergence of jazzAn improvisational style of music that emerged in New Orleans in the 1930s, characterized by syncopation and heavily accented rhythms. At the heart of jazz, the bluesA 12-bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar that originated in the Mississippi Delta at the turn of the 20th century. The Chicago blues, characterized by the use of electric guitar and harmonica, provided the foundations of rock and roll. Technological advances during the 1940s made it even easier for people to listen to their favorite music and for artists to record it. Reel-to-reel tape recorders and magnetic tape not only helped artists experiment with overdubbing, but they also were a compact method for reproducing and preserving audio. While the reel-to-reel recorders were in the early stages of development, families listened to records on their gramophones. During the 1940s, a mutually beneficial alliance between sound recording and radio existed. After the Rolling Stonesa€™ first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, host Ed Sullivan apologized to the viewing audience for the banda€™s lewd behavior. The branching out of rock and roll continued in several other directions throughout the 1960s. In the late 1960s, supporters of the civil rights movementa€”along with feminists, environmentalists, and Vietnam War protestersa€”were gravitating toward folkUnpolished genre of music based on oral traditions and often associated with the social protest movement of the 1960s. After the Vietnam War ended, college students began to settle down and focus on careers and families. Reacting against the commercialism of disco and corporate rock, punkMinimalist, angry form of rock that includes simple chord structures and often includes politically motivated lyrics. Even though the Sex Pistols were severely criticized in the 1970s, their music went on to inspire countless acts and helped develop the underground music scene in England and the United States. Whereas many British youths expressed their displeasure through punk music, many disenfranchised black American youths in the 1980s turned to hip-hopUrban culture that incorporates activities such as break dancing and graffiti art with the musical techniques of rapping, sampling, and scratching records.a€”a term for the urban culture that includes break dancing, graffiti art, and the musical techniques of rapping, sampling, and scratching records. In the early 1980s, a second wave of rap artists brought inner-city rap to American youths by mixing it with hard guitar rock. Along with hip-hop and gangsta rap, alternative rock came to the forefront in the 1990s with grunge. Britney Spears was one of the driving forces behind the teen-pop phenomena of the late 1990s, paving the way for pop stars Christina Aguilera and Pink. The 2000s began right where the 1990s left off, with young singers such as Christina Aguilera and Destinya€™s Child ruling the pop charts. Taylor Swifta€™s 2008 album Fearless went multiplatinum, and hits like a€?You Belong to Mea€? and a€?Love Storya€? helped her go from country star to mainstream pop star. Unlike rock music, hip-hop maintained its popularity, with more commercial, polished artists such as Kanye West, Jay-Z, Lupe Fiasco, and OutKast achieving enormous success. Popular music as we know it originated out of the Tin Pan Alley tradition that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century in which composers, singers, and publishers worked together to create hit songs. Technological developments played a vital role in bringing popular music to peoplea€™s homes. Throughout the last century, tastes in popular music have evolved to encompass a wide variety of styles. The evolution of popular music in the United States in the 20th century was shaped by a myriad of cultural influences. One of the major cultural influences on the popular music industry over the past century is migration.
Some of the black individuals who moved to Northern cities came from the Mississippi DeltaRegion in northwest Mississippi, home of the Delta blues style of music., home of the blues. Prior to 1945, most music was created with adults in mind, and teenage musical tastes were barely a consideration.
The popularity of American Bandstand made host Dick Clark an influential tastemaker in pop music. Once teenagers had the buying power to influence record sales, record companies began to notice.
Teen heartthrob Fabian was molded to fit teenage musical tastes in order to maximize record sales. The result was the launch of American Bandstand in 1957, a music television show that featured a group of teenagers dancing to current hit records. Frustrated with inequalities in the legal system that distinguished black and white individuals, members of the civil rights movementThe 1950s and 1960s political movement that pushed to end racial segregation and gain equal rights for black Americans. Although racist attitudes did not change overnight, the cultural changes brought on by the civil rights movement laid the groundwork for the creation of an integrated society. The commercial success of Motown girl group the Supremes reflected changing attitudes toward race in the United States.
Even though pop music is frequently characterized as a negative influence on society, particularly with respect to youth culture, it also has positive effects on culture. On the other hand, over the past 50 years, critics have blamed rock and roll for juvenile delinquency, heavy metal for increased teenage aggression, and gangsta rap for a rise in gang warfare among young urban males. As the music of Chuck Berry and Little Richard gained popularity among white teens in the United States during the 1950s, most of the new rock acts were signed to independent labels, and larger companies such as RCA were losing their share of the market. To capitalize on the publica€™s enthusiasm for rock and roll and to prevent the loss of further potential profits, big record companies signed white artists to cover the songs of black artists.
Although cover artists profited from the work of black R&B singers, occasionally they also helped to promote the original recordings. Releasing cover versions of hit songs was fairly standard practice before the 1950s because it was advantageous for songwriters and producers to have as many artists as possible sing their records to maximize royaltiesMoney received by songwriters and publishers every time a song is reproduced by another artist. When Elvis Presley burst onto the rock and roll scene in the mid-1950s, any conservative parents of teenagers all over the United States were horrified. In addition to decrying raunchy onstage performances by rock and roll artists, moralists in the conservative Eisenhower era objected to the sexually suggestive lyrics found in original rock and roll songs.
Ironically, many of the controversial key figures in the rock and roll era came from extremely religious backgrounds. While Presley was revolutionizing peoplea€™s notions of sexual freedom and expression, other performers were changing cultural norms regarding gender identity. The mass migration of Southern black individuals to urban areas during the early 20th century brought the blues to the North. Young people in the 1950s had increased financial and personal freedom, giving them the power to influence record sales. Large record companies fueled racism in the music industry by hijacking the hits of black performers and releasing censored cover versions by white artists. Gender-bending performers such as Little Richard, David Bowie, and Annie Lennox helped normalize androgyny in American culture. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
Although her audio engineer father, Ken Caillat, coproduced one of the biggest selling albums of all time, Fleetwood Maca€™s Rumours, Colbie had never considered booking a studio, much less campaigning for a record deal. One of Caillata€™s friends thought that her music merited a wider audience and set up a page on which Caillat could post her tunes.
Aspiring artists no longer need to rely on expensive publicists, recording studios, or contacts within the industry; they can connect directly with fans to sell their music.
In the past couple of years, the Twitter social networking website has become hugely popular among musicians and fans alike.
An in-depth look at the history and evolution of popular music throughout the last century will help explain some of the current processes and trends in the industry.
In 1877, Edison discovered that sound could be reproduced using a strip of tinfoil wrapped around a rotating metal cylinder.
Numerous publishers began to emerge in an area of New York that became known as Tin Pan AlleyA term used to refer to the area in Manhattan in which singer-songwriter and publisher teams worked in the early 20th century..
By hiring songwriters to compose music based on public demand and mainstream tastes, the Tin Pan Alley publishers introduced the concept of popular music as we know it. However, as inventors improved various aspects of the device, the sales of gramophone records began to affect sheet music sales.
However, when radio broadcasting emerged in the early 1920s, both gramophone sales and sheet-music sales began to suffer. The introduction of the reel-to-reel tape recorder paved the way for several innovations that would transform the music industry. The 78 revolutions per minute (rpm) disc had been the accepted recording medium for many years despite the necessity of changing the disc every 5 minutes. The new medium spread rapidly, primarily because of cheaper mass-production costs and war-related improvements in technology. Surf musicCarefree, hedonistic music that developed around the California surf culture in the 1960s and is characterized by twanging, distorted electric guitar sounds., embodied by artists such as the Beach Boys, Jan and Dean, and Dick Dale, celebrated the aspects of youth culture in California.
Reacting against the extravagance of disco, many poor urban rappers developed their new street culture by adopting a casual image consisting of T-shirts and sportswear, developing a language that reflected the everyday concerns of the people in low-income, urban areas, and by embracing the low-budget visual art form of graffiti.
Early hip-hop artists sampled all types of music, like funk, soul, and jazz, later adding special effects to the samples and experimenting with techniques such as rotating or scratching records back and forth to create a rhythmic pattern. The grungeSubgenre of alternative rock named for its characteristic sludgy, distorted guitar sound.
A plethora of boy bands, girl bands, and pop starlets emerged, sometimes evolving from gospel choir groups, but more often than not created by talent scouts. The primary difference between popular music and classical music is that, whereas classical artists were exalted for their individuality and expected to differ stylistically from other classical composers, popular artists were praised for conforming to the tastes of their intended audience.
The invention of the phonograph and gramophone in the late 19th century enabled the reproduction and mass distribution of sound recordings for the first time. People who enjoyed opera at the turn of the 20th century saw the rise of vaudeville and ragtime in the Tin Pan Alley era. Research a technological development that took place during this time that influenced pop musica€”for example, the development of the electric guitar and its influence on rock and roll. For example, policies on immigration, war, and the legal system can influence artists and the type of music they create and distribute. Rapidly shifting demographics brought previously independent cultures into contact and also created new cultures and subcultures, and music evolved to reflect these changes.
Young adults had few freedomsa€”most males were expected to join the military or get a job to support their fledgling families, while most females were expected to marry young and have children. The showa€™s popularity prompted record producersThe person in charge of the overall recording process, from contracting session musicians to overseeing the budget. Whereas many Northerners had previously been unconcerned with the issue of race relations in the South, they found themselves confronted with the very real issue of having to compete for jobs with black migrant workers. Many artists in the 1950s and 1960s pushed the boundaries of socially acceptable behavior with sexually charged movements and androgynous appearances. The songs were often censored for the mainstream market by the removal of any lyrics that referenced sex, alcohol, or drugs.

Mechanical royalties are paid to whoever owns the copyright for a particular song, which is usually split between the writer and publisher..
Baker, who was signed with then small-time label Atlantic Records, had been promoted as a pop singer. With his gyrating hips and sexually suggestive body movements, Presley was viewed as a threat to the moral well-being of young women. Dressed in flamboyant clothing with a pompadour hairstyle and makeup, Little Richard was an exotic, androgynous performer who blurred traditional gender boundaries and shocked 1950s audiences with his blatant campiness. Gender-bending performers such as Little Richard, David Bowie, Boy George, and Prince helped to change social attitudes toward androgyny. Cultural influences on music include factors such as migration, youth culture, and racial integration.
Influenced by their new urban setting, migrant musicians incorporated new styles, including vaudeville and swing, into their music. Record companies began marketing rock and roll records specifically to teens, and the popularity of the new genre was enhanced by radio airplay and TV shows such as American Bandstand. Although racial tensions persisted and race riots occurred in several Northern cities, racial integration gradually took place.
Elvis Presleya€™s a€?vulgara€? onstage gyrations outraged critics in the conservative Eisenhower era. Using the ideas in this section as a starting point, examine ways in which your chosen genre has influenced aspects of culture and ways in which cultural aspects have affected the genrea€™s development. The lyrics, a reference to hip-hop producer Timbalanda€™s multiple high-profile collaborations, are an angry reaction to a meeting between Cuomo and record executives at the banda€™s Geffen label.
I even had the opportunity to work alongside and shadow a freelance wardrobe stylist on the set of a Glamour Magazine Shoot for the September 2012 issue. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (134 MB) or just this chapter (24 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
Social networking sites, like MySpace, and virtual worlds, like Second Life, make it easier for fans to search for new music and easier for artists to communicate with fans. The microblogging service enables users to send a tweet messagea€”a short post of 140 characters or less that is displayed on the authora€™s profile page and delivered to his or her subscribers. Edisona€™s phonographA 19th-century sound reproduction machine that originally recorded onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a cylinder. Allegedly named because the cacophony of many pianos being played in the publishersa€™ demo rooms sounded like people pounding on tin pans, Tin Pan Alley soon became a prolific source of popular music, with its publishers mass-producing sheet music to satisfy the demands of a growing middle class. The Copyright Act of 1911 had imposed a royalty on all records of copyrighted musical works to compensate for the loss in revenue to composers and authors. Radio was an affordable medium that enabled listeners to experience events as they took place. An improvisational form of music that was primarily instrumental, jazz incorporated a variety of styles, including African rhythms, gospel, and blues. Dealing with themes of personal adversity, overcoming hard luck, and other emotional turmoil, the blues is a 12-bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar. The introduction of radio broadcasting provided a valuable link between urban city centers and small, rural towns. The first commercially available tape recorders were monophonic, meaning that they only had one track on which to record sound onto magnetic tape.
Until this time, music had primarily been recorded for adults, but the popularity of Sinatra and his contemporaries revealed an entirely untapped market: teenagers. With their twanging electric guitars and glossy harmonies, the surf groups sang of girls, beaches, and convertible cars cruising along the West Coast. Broadly referring to music that is passed down orally through the generations, folk music retained an unpolished, amateur quality that inspired participation and social awareness.
Musically, this ideological shift resulted in the creation of glam rockExtravagant, self-indulgent form of rock that incorporated flamboyant costumes, heavy makeup, and elements of hard rock and pop., an extravagant, self-indulgent form of rock that incorporated flamboyant costumes, heavy makeup, and elements of hard rock and pop.
Like the skiffle bands of the 1950s, the appeal of punk rock was that anyone with basic musical skills could participate.
They described their new culture as hip-hop, after a common phrase chanted at dance parties in New Yorka€™s Bronx borough.
For example, Kool Moe Deea€™s track a€?How Ya Like Me Nowa€? includes samples from James Browna€™s classic funk song a€?Papaa€™s Got a Brand New Bag.a€? The DJs would often add short raps to their music to let audiences know who was playing the records, a trend that grew more elaborate over time to include entire spoken verses. By the end of the decade, country artists, like Carrie Underwood and Taylor Swift, transitioned from country stars to bona fide pop stars. Dre and Snoop Dogga€”softened their images, other rappersa€”such as 50 Cent and Eminema€”continued to project a tough image and to use violent lyrics. The invention of the reel-to-reel tape recorder and the development of vinyl records in the 1940s drastically improved this process.
Jazz and blues emerged from New Orleans and the Mississippi Delta during the 1930s, and musical styles adapted as people migrated to Northern urban areas. Music may then influence cultural perceptions about race, morality, and gender that can, in turn, influence the way people feel about those policies.
Among the most important cultural influences on music are migration, the evolution of youth culture, and racial integration. Delta-born pianist Eddie Boyd later told Living Blues magazine, a€?I thought of coming to Chicago where I could get away from some of that racism and where I would have an opportunity to, well, do something with my talenta€¦. The 45 rpm vinyl records that were introduced in the late 1940s were an affordable option for teens with allowances. A producer is usually a talented musician with knowledge of the technical processes in the recording studio.
Black workers found themselves pushed into undesirable neighborhoods, often living in crowded, unsanitary slums where they were charged exorbitant rates by unscrupulous landlords.
Without these precedents, acts like the Rolling Stones or David Bowie may have never made the transition into mainstream success. In addition to its effects on youth culture, popular music has contributed to shifting cultural values regarding race, morality, and gender. Pat Boone was the most successful cover artist of the era, releasing songs originally sung by artists such as Fats Domino, the El Dorados, Little Richard, and Big Joe Turner. Because her songs appealed to mainstream audiences, they were ideal for covering, and industry giant Mercury Records took full advantage of this.
Television critics denounced his performances as vulgar, and on a 1956 appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, cameras filmed him only from the waist up. Hall, American Icons: An Encyclopedia of the People, Places, and Things That Have Shaped Our Culture Volume 1 (Greenwood, 2006), 134.
Between his wild onstage antics, bisexual tendencies, and love of post-concert orgies, the self-proclaimed a€?King and Queen of Rock and Rolla€? challenged many social conventions of the time.Peter Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock (Rough Guides, 2003), 603a€“604. Musical influences on culture include factors such as racism within the music industry, content of particular genres of music that push conventional ideas of morality, and the physical appearance of individual performers. Muddy Waters began playing electric guitar to make himself heard in the Chicago clubs and inadvertently created a new style known as Chicago blues. The move toward integration was furthered and reflected by the Motown sound created by Berry Gordy Jr. Although many performers were angered by the trend, some believed it helped popularize their original recordings.
Sexually suggestive song lyrics were also held responsible by many for a decline in moral values, although they were often censored cover versions. In fact, MySpace has been so influential that it teamed with several major labels to create the MySpace music website. Musicians such as John Mayer, Alicia Keys, Britney Spears, and Lily Allen regularly post on Twitter, providing their fans with real-time updates about their daily lives and promoting their musical endeavors.
Whereas classical artists were exalted for their individuality and expected to differ stylistically from other classical artists, popular artists were praised for conforming to the tastes of their intended audience. This loss became even more prominent during the mid-1920s, when improvements in electrical recording drastically increased sales of gramophones and gramophone records. Better yet, it offered a wide range of free music that required none of the musical skills, expensive instruments, or sheet music necessary for creating onea€™s own music in the home, nor the expense of purchasing records to play on the gramophone.
Originating in the Mississippi Delta, just upriver from New Orleans, blues music was exemplified in the work of W. Able to transmit music nationwide, rural radio stations broadcast local music genres that soon gained popularity across the country. The postwar boom of the 1930s and early 1940s provided many teenagers spending money for records. The introduction of television into peoplea€™s homes threatened the existence of the radio industry. Frenetic showmen Little Richard and Chuck Berry were early pioneers of rock and roll, and their wild stage performances became characteristic of the genre. This situation changed almost overnight, with the arrival of British pop phenomenon the Beatles. In Detroit, some black performers were developing a sound that would have crossover appeal with both black and white audiences. A primarily British phenomenon, glam rock was popularized by acts such as Slade, David Bowie, the Sweet, Elton John, and Gary Glitter. The punk rock movement emerged out of CBGB, a small bar in New York City that featured bands such as Television, Blondie, and the Ramones. Artists such as Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five added political and social commentary on the realities of life in low-income, high-crime areasa€”a trend that would continue with later rappers such as Public Enemy and Ice-T.
Another subgenre that emerged was gangsta rapControversial form of hip-hop that highlights gang violence., a controversial brand of hip-hop epitomized by West Coast rappers such as Ice Cube and Tupac Shakur. Inspired by hardcore punk and heavy metal, this subgenre of rock was so-called because of its messy, sludgy, distorted guitar sound, the disheveled appearance of its pioneers, and the disaffected nature of the artists. While rock music started the decade strong, by the end of the 2000s, rocka€™s presence in mainstream music had waned, with a few exceptions such as Nickelback, Linkin Park, and Green Day. An alternative style of hip-hop emerged in the 2000s that infused positive messages and an element of social conscience to the music that was missing from early hip-hop tracks. The postwar prevalence of radio hugely impacted popular music, with radio airplay of popular songs promoting record sales.
Rhythm and blues laid the groundwork for rock and roll that shook up popular music in the 1950s. Gordy believed that by coaching talented but unpolished black artists, he could make them acceptable to mainstream culture. Releasing a cover of a black performera€™s song by a white performer was known as hijackingThe practice of releasing a cover version of a song by a white artist on the heels of a hit by a black performer.
In 1962, soul singer Ray Charles covered Don Gibsona€™s hit a€?I Just Cana€™t Stop Loving You,a€? which became a hit on country and western charts and furthered mainstream acceptance of black musicians. However, the practice acquired racial connotations during the 1950s when larger music labels hijacked R&B hits, using their financial strength to promote the cover version at the expense of the original recording, which often exploited black talent.
When Baker released her 1955 hit a€?Tweedle Dee,a€? Mercury immediately put out its own version, a note-for-note cover sung by white pop singer Georgia Gibbs. Baker filed a lawsuit in an attempt to revise the Copyright Act of 1909, making it illegal to copy an arrangement verbatim without permission. Although many of these lyrics were sanitized for mainstream white audiences when they were rereleased as cover versions, the idea that rock and roll was a threat to morality had been firmly implanted in many peoplea€™s minds.
Jerry Lee Lewis came from a strict Christian background and often struggled to reconcile his religious beliefs with the moral implications of the music he created. Little Richarda€™s flamboyant, gender-bending appearance was so outrageous that it was not taken seriously during the 1950sa€”he was considered an entertainer whose androgynous look bore no relevance to the real world. Motown had crossover appeal among black and white audiences, illustrated by the mainstream success of groups such as the Supremes. Our alumni are ministers, politicians, teachers, full-time parents, business executives, entrepreneurs, public relations professionals, attorneys, professors, consultants, and best of all—well-rounded thinkers!
Generating a buzz on social networking sites is sometimes enough to achieve fame and stardom. The greater range and sensitivity of the electrical broadcasting microphone revolutionized gramophone recording to such an extent that sheet music sales plummeted. This development was a threat to the entire recording industry, which began to campaign for, and was ultimately granted, the right to collect license fees from broadcasters. During the Prohibition era in the 1920s and early 1930s, some jazz bands played in illegal speakeasies, which helped generate the genrea€™s reputation for being immoral and for threatening the countrya€™s cultural values. During the 1940s and 1950s, some musiciansa€”most notably guitarist Les Paul, with his song a€?Lover (When Youa€™re Near Me)a€?a€”began to experiment with overdubbing, in which they played back a previously recorded tape through a mixer, blended it with a live performance, and recorded the composite signal onto a second tape recorder. Radio airplay helped to promote and sell records and the recording artists themselves, which in turn stabilized the recording industry.
The radio industry adapted by focusing on music, joining forces with the recording industry to survive. As the integration of white and black individuals progressed in the 1950s with the repeal of segregation laws and the initiation of the civil rights movement, aspects of black cultures, including music, became more widely accepted by many white individuals.
Combining elements of skifflea€”a type of music played on rudimentary instruments, such as banjos, guitars, or homemade instrumentsa€”doo-wop, and soul, the four mop-haired musicians from Liverpool, England, created a genre of music known as MerseybeatTerm used to describe the music of bands originating in the Mersey area of England during the 1960s, e.g. Having earned himself a reputation as a political spokesperson, Dylan was lambasted by traditional folk fans for playing an electric guitar at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival.
Highlighting violence and gang warfare, gangsta rappers faced accusations that they created violence in inner citiesa€”an argument that gained momentum with the East Coasta€“West Coast rivalry of the 1990s.
Initially achieving limited success with Seattle band Soundgarden, Seattle independent label Sub Pop became more prominent when it signed another local band, Nirvana. Meanwhile, individual pop acts from the MTV generation such as Madonna, Michael Jackson, and Prince continued to generate hits. Artists such as Common, Mos Def, and the Black Eyed Peas found success even though they didna€™t represent traditional stereotypes of hip-hop.

World cotton prices plummeted, a boll weevil beetle infestation destroyed large areas of crops, and in 1915, flooding destroyed many of the houses and crops of farmers along the Mississippi River. A booming economy helped create an American middle class, which created an opening for a youth consumer culture. Sensing an opportunity to tap in to a potentially lucrative market, he acquired enough advertising support to turn local hit music telecast Bandstand into a national television phenomenon. During its almost 40-year run, American Bandstand was a prominent influence on teenage fashions and musical tastes and, in turn, reflected the contemporary youth culture. Supreme Court decision to end segregationThe posta€“Civil War separation of black and white individuals. As a result, many 1950s R&B artists lost out on royaltiesThe money received by an artist for every unit of music sold. Despite the criticsa€™ opinions, Presley immediately gained a fan base among teenage audiences, particularly adolescent girls, who frequently broke into hysterics at his concerts. However, Richard paved the way for future entertainers to shift cultural perceptions of gender.
How did an unknown artist from Malibu, California, become a best-selling star in so little time?
Of course, for every Colbie Caillat, there are thousands of unknown singers and bands trying to promote their music online with little or no success. The flat discs were cheaper and easier to produce than were the cylinders they replaced, enabling the mass production of sound recordings. With the license fees in place, the recording industry eventually began to profit from the new technology. However, jazz became a legitimate form of entertainment during the 1930s, when white orchestras began to incorporate jazz style into their music. By the time four-track and eight-track recorders became readily available in the 1960s, musicians no longer had to play together in the same room; they could record each of their individual parts and combine them into a finished recording.
The 33 rpm discs became the standard form for full albums and would dominate the recorded music industry until the advent of the compact disc (CD). The near riots caused by the appearance of New Jersey crooner Frank Sinatra in concert paved the way for mass hysteria among Elvis Presley and Beatles fans during the rock and roll era.
However, it was the introduction of a white man who sang songs written by black musicians that helped rock and roll really spread across state and racial lines. However, his attempt to reach a broader crowd inspired the folk rockFolk music played with electric instruments. Equally flamboyant, but rising out of a more electronic sound, discoCommercialized dance music that became popular in the 1970s and is associated with extravagant glittery costumes.
The Sex Pistols, fronted by Johnny Rotten, developed an aggressive, pumping sound that appealed to a rebellious generation of listeners, although the band was disparaged by many critics at the time. Fronted by vocalist and guitarist Kurt Cobain, Nirvana came to be identified with Generation Xa€”the posta€“baby boom generation, many of whom came from broken families and experienced violence both on television and in real life.
In the 1970s, glam rock and disco became popular, and punk rockers revolted against the excesses of these styles. Already suffering from the restrictive a€?Jim Crowa€? laws that segregated schools, restaurants, hotels, and hospitals, black sharecroppers began to look to the North for a more prosperous lifestyle. Characterized by the guitar and the harmonica, the Delta blues was identified by its rhythmic structure and strong vocals. Unsavory memories of the war discouraged some parents from forcing their children into the military, and many emphasized enjoying life and having a good time. Gilcrest, a€?Detroita€™s 1943 Race Riot, 50 Years Ago Today, Still Seems Too Near,a€? Detroit Free Press, June 20, 1993. Segregation was maintained by a€?Jim Crowa€? laws, which forbade interracial marriage and forced business owners and public institutions to keep their black and white clientele separated.
Gordya€™s commercial success with gospel-based pop acts such as the Supremes, the Temptations, the Four Tops, and Martha and the Vandellas reflected the extent of racial integration in the mainstream music industry. Because large companies such as RCA could widely promote and distribute their recordsa€”six of Boonea€™s recordings reached the No.
Rather than tone down his act, Presley defended his movements as manifestations of the musica€™s rhythm and beat and continued to gyrate on stage. The religious backgrounds of the rock and roll pioneers both influenced and challenged moral norms.
Later musicians such as David Bowie, Prince, and Boy George adopted his outrageous style, frequently appearing on stage wearing glittery costumes and heavy makeup. Caillata€™s success can be attributed, in part, to the social networking website MySpaceA social networking service geared toward younger users..
Despite this, ita€™s clear that social networking sites have taken some control away from record labels and placed it in the hands of the artists themselves.
This would have a huge impact on the popular music industry, enabling members of the middle class to purchase technology that was previously available only to an elite few. During this time, jazz music began to take on a big band style, combining elements of ragtime, black spirituals, blues, and European music. Unlike jazz, the blues did not spread significantly to the Northern states until the late 1930s and 1940s. Stations became more dependent on recorded music to fill airtime, and in 1955 the Top 40 format was born.
Elvis Presley, a singer and guitarist, the a€?King of Rock and Roll,a€? further helped make music written by black individuals acceptable to mainstream white audiences and also helped popularize rockabillya€”a blend of rock and country musica€”with black audiences during the mid-1950s.
The Beatlesa€™ genial personalities and catchy pop tunes made them an instant success in the United States, and their popularity was heightened by several appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show. Nirvanaa€™s angst-filled lyrics spoke to many members of Generation X, launching the band into the mainstream.
Northern states were enjoying an economic boom as a result of an increased demand for industrial goods because of the war in Europe. Migrant musicians were heavily influenced by Delta blues musicians such as Charley Patton and legendary guitarist Robert Johnson.
Liberated from the constraints imposed by morality watchdogs, Presley set a precedent for future rock and roll performers and marked a major transition in popular culture. When Ray Charles recorded a€?I Got a Womana€? in 1955, he reworded the gospel tune a€?Jesus Is All the World to Me,a€? drawing criticism that the song was sacrilegious. The popularity of these 1970s and 1980s pop idols, along with other gender-bending performers such as Annie Lennox and Michael Jackson, helped make androgyny more acceptable in mainstream society. Berliner founded the Berliner Gramophone Company to manufacture his discs, and he encouraged popular operatic singers such as Enrico Caruso and Dame Nellie Melba to record their music using his system.
Key figures in developing the big jazz band included bandleaders Duke Ellington, Coleman Hawkins, and Glenn Miller. Once Southern migrants introduced the blues to urban Northern cities, the music developed into distinctive regional styles, ranging from the jazz-oriented Kansas City blues to the swing-based West Coast blues.
Playlists for radio stations were based on popularity (usually the Billboard Top 40 singles chart), and a popular song might be played as many as 30 or 40 times a day. Heavily influenced by his rural Southern roots, Presley combined the R&B music of bluesmen B. When the Beatles arrived in New York in 1964, they were met by hundreds of reporters and police officers and thousands of fans. Even though many fans questioned his decision to go electric, Dylana€™s poetic and politically charged lyrics were still influential, inspiring groups like the Beatles and the Animals. Popular disco artists included KC and the Sunshine Band, Gloria Gaynor, the Bee Gees, and Donna Summer, who helped to pioneer its electronic sound. Punk bands began to abandon their sound in the late 1970s, when the punk style became assimilated into the rock mainstream. Ironically, Cobain was uncomfortable and miserable, and he would eventually commit suicide in 1994. Pop was also successful in the 1990s and 2000s, while mainstream interest in alternative rock waned at the end of the 2000s.
They were also in need of labor because the war had slowed the rate of foreign immigration to Northern cities. However, as the urban setting began to influence the migrantsa€™ style, they started to record a hybrid of blues, vaudeville, and swing, including the boogie-woogie and rolling-bass piano.
This new liberalized culture allowed teenagers to make decisions for themselves, and, for the first time, many had the financial means to do so. Many white artists and producers would also take writing credit for the songs they covered and would buy the rights to songs from black writers without giving them royaltiesMoney received by songwriters and publishers every time one of their songs is played on a radio station, television show, film soundtrack, or other for-profit arena. Despite the objections, Charlesa€™s style caught on with other musicians, and his experimentation with merging gospel and R&B resulted in the birth of soul music.
She has since won a Grammy award for a€?Lucky,a€? her duet with Jason Mraz, toured with artists such as the Goo Goo Dolls and John Mayer, and in 2009, released a second successful album, Breakthrough. Opera singers were the stars of the 19th century, and their music generated most of the sheet music sales in the United States. These big band orchestras used an arranger to limit improvisation by assigning parts of a piece of music to various band members.
Chicago blues musicians such as Muddy Waters were the first to electrify the blues through the use of electric guitars and to blend urban style with classic Southern blues.
Radio stations began to influence record sales, which resulted in increased competition for spots on the playlist. Protest music in the 1960s was closely aligned with the hippie culture, in which some viewed taking drugs as a form of personal expression and free speech.
Boosted by the success of 1977 film Saturday Night Fever, discoa€™s popularity spread across the country. Nirvanaa€™s success paved the way for other alternative rock bands, including Green Day, Pearl Jam, and Nine Inch Nails. Mississippi-born guitarist Muddy Waters, who moved to Chicago in the early 1940s, revolutionized the blues by combining his Delta roots with an electric guitar and amplifier. Whereas many adults enjoyed the traditional sounds of Tin Pan Alley, teens were beginning to listen to rhythm and blues songs played by radio disc jockeys such as Alan Freed. The civil rights movement escalated throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s, aided by highly publicized events such as Rosa Parksa€™s refusal to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955. Performance royalties are tracked by performing rights organizations, which collect fees on the publishera€™s behalf. The combined sales of Caillata€™s first two albums are upward of 4 million copies worldwide. Although improvisation was allowed during solo performances, the format became more structured, resulting in the swing style of jazz that became popular in the 1930s. This ultimately resulted in payolaThe illegal practice of receiving money from record companies for playing particular songs on the radio.a€”the illegal practice of receiving payment from a record company for broadcasting a particular song on the radio. Beatlemaniaa€”the term coined to describe fansa€™ wildly enthusiastic reaction to the banda€”extended to other British bands, and by the mid-1960s, the Kinks, the Zombies, the Animals, Hermana€™s Hermits, and the Rolling Stones were all making appearances on the U.S. Records were created especially for discos, and record companies churned out tunes that became huge hits on the dance floor. Increased racial integration within the younger generation made them more accepting of black musicians and their music, which was considered a€?cool,a€? and provided a welcome escape from the daunting political and social tension caused by Cold War anxieties. In 1964, Congress passed the most sweeping civil rights legislation since the Civil War, forbidding discrimination in public places and authorizing financial aid to enable school desegregation. As the decade progressed, social attitudes toward racial segregation relaxed and big bands became more racially integrated. By focusing less on shouting, singers could focus on conveying more emotion and intimacy in their performances.
The payola scandal came to a head in the 1960s, when Cleveland, Ohio, DJ Alan Freed and 8 other disc jockeys were accused of taking money for airplay. The reaction Presley inspired among hordes of adolescent girlsa€”screaming, crying, riotinga€”solidified his reputation as the first true rock and roll icon. Capitalizing on the 1960s girl-group craze, Gordy produced hits by the Marvelettes, Martha and the Vandellas, and, most successfully, Diana Ross and the Supremes. This spirit of freedom and protest culminated in the infamous Woodstock festival in the summer of 1969, although the subsequent deaths of many of its stars from drug overdoses cast a shadow over the psychedelic culture. The Great Migration had a huge impact on political, economic, and cultural life in the North, and popular music reflected this cultural change. The wide availability of radios, juke boxes, and 45 rpm records exposed this new style of rock and roll music to a broad teenage audience. Following Freeda€™s trial, an antipayola statute was passed, making payola a misdemeanor crime.
The Rolling Stonesa€™s urban rock sound steered away from pop music and remained more true to the bluesy, R&B roots of rock and roll.
For his bands, he created a slick, polished image designed to appeal to the American mainstream.
His plugged-in electric blues became the hallmark of the Chicago bluesElectrified style of blues created in Chicago when migrant bluesmen from the South combined elements of Delta blues and urban blues. Independent record producer Danny Kessler of Okeh Records said, a€?The odds for a black record to crack through were slim. If the black record began to happen, the chances were that a white artist would covera€”and the big stations would play the white recordsa€¦.
The British Invasion transformed rock and roll into the all-encompassing genre of rock, sending future performers in two different directions: the melodic, poppy sounds of the Beatles, on the one hand, and the gritty, high-volume power rock of the Stones on the other. Other migrant bluesmen helped to create regional variations of the blues all around the country, including John Lee Hooker in Detroit, Michigan, and T-Bone Walker in Los Angeles, California.

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