Effective communication in nursing nhs,making of jungle book 2,lotto results in nj - 2016 Feature

Communication takes place when one person transmits ideas or feelings to another person or group of people. The process of communication is composed of three elements: the source (sender, speaker, transmitter, or instructor), the symbols used in composing and transmitting the message (words or signs), and the receiver (listener, reader, or student). As indicated, the source in communication is the sender, speaker, transmitter, or instructor.
An instructor should exercise great care that ideas and feelings are meaningful to the students.
In addition to using the correct symbols to communicate effectively, the instructor must reveal a positive attitude while delivering a message. An instructor must constantly strive to have the most current and interesting information possible.
At its basic level, communication is achieved through symbols which are simple oral and visual codes. The parts of the total idea should be analyzed to deter- mine which are most suited to starting or ending the communication, and which are best for the purpose of explaining, clarifying, or emphasizing. The instructor will be more successful in gaining and retaining the student's attention by using a variety of channels. The feedback an instructor is getting from a student needs to be constantly monitored in order to modify the symbols, as required, to optimize communication. In addition to feedback received by the instructor from the students, students need feedback from the instructor on how they are doing. In order for an instructor to change the behavior of students, some of the students' abilities, attitudes, and experiences need to be understood. The instructor also must understand that the viewpoint and background of people may differ significantly because of cultural differences. Second, the attitudes students exhibit may indicate resistance, willingness, or passive neutrality. Third, the student's experience, background, and educational level will determine the approach an instructor will take. A student new to the maintenance field might think a stopwatch or clock would be necessary to do the requested task. Lack of common experience between instructor and student is probably the greatest single barrier to effective communication.
Although it is obvious that words and the connotations they carry can be different, people sometimes fail to make the distinction. Abstractions should be avoided in most cases, but there are times when abstractions are necessary and useful. Barriers to effective communication are usually under the direct control of the instructor. Psychological interference is any biological problem that may inhibit symbol reception, such as hearing loss, injury or physical illness. Psychological interference is a product of how the instructor and student feel at the time the communication process is occurring.
Instruction has taken place when the instructor has explained a particular procedure and subsequently determined that the desired student response has occurred. The instructor should not be afraid to use examples of past experiences to illustrate particular points. Communication has not occurred unless desired results of the communication have taken place.
Just as it is important for instructors to want to listen in order to be effective listeners, it is necessary for students to want to listen. Students also need to be reminded that emotions play a large part in determining how much information is retained.
Another listening technique that can be taught to students is that of listening for the main ideas. Open-ended questions allow the student to explain more fully, Focused questions allow the instructor to concentrate on desired areas. Two ways of confirming that the student and instructor understand things in the same way are the use of paraphrasing and perception checking. Since it is important that the instructor understand as much as possible about the students, instructors can be much more effective by using improved listening skills and effective questions to help in putting themselves in the place of the students.
The deeper the knowledge of a particular area, the better the instructor is at conveying that information. An awareness of the three basic elements of the communicative process (the source, the symbols, and the receiver) indicates the beginning of the understanding required for the successful communicator. The instructor must develop communication skills in order to convey desired information to the students and must recognize that communication is a two-way process. We will see about this 7Cs for effective communication  in detail one by one in another post. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This is a really good reading material for those who wants some tips on effective communication. Being conversational is really a challenge for anyone who wants to communicate effectively. I think effective communication should be learned and relearned by people from time to time.
There are really a lot of people who are not clear with their points when they talk to someone. Effective communication can sometimes be hard to achieve most especially if one wouldn’t listen or the other is unclear of what he or she is trying to tell.
I think confidence is one factor that sometimes people don’t possess when delivering effective communication. However, communication does not occur automatically even though the instructor has a high level of technical knowledge in a particular subject area. Its effectiveness is measured by the similarity between the idea transmitted and the idea received. The three elements are dynamically interrelated since each element is dependent on the others for effective communication to take place. The instructor's effectiveness as a communicator is related to at least three basic factors. A speaker or a writer may depend on a highly technical or professional background with its associated vocabulary that is meaningful only to others with a similar background. As an example, instead of telling students to adjust the trim, the instructor can move the trim wheel while the student tries to maintain a given aircraft attitude. In figure 3-1, the instructor realizes from the response of the student that stall has been interpreted by the student to have something to do with the engine quitting.
The feedback not only informs the students of their performance, but also can serve as a valuable source of motivation. Instructors should always keep in mind that communication succeeds only in relation to the reaction of their students. To gain and hold the students' attention, attitudes should be molded into forms that promote reception of information. What the student knows, along with the student's abilities and attitudes, will guide the instructor in communicating. Instruction would be necessary for the student to understand that the procedure has nothing to do with the usual concept of time. Many people seem to believe that words transport meanings from speaker to listener in the same way that a truck carries bricks from one location to another. Confusion between the symbol and the symbolized object results when a word is confused with what it is meant to represent. Concrete words or terms refer to objects that people can relate directly to their experiences. Some students might think of jet engines, while others would think of reciprocating engines. Aerodynamics is applicable to all aircraft and is an example of an abstraction that can lead to understanding aircraft flight characteristics. However, interference is made up of factors that are outside the direct control of the instructor: physiological, environmental, and psychological interference. These, and other physiological factors, can inhibit communication because the student is not comfortable. If either instructor or student is not committed to the communication process, communication is impaired. This is learned in the beginning by way of role playing during the instructor's initial training.
The instructor can improve communication by adhering to several techniques of good communication. When teaching the procedures to be used for transitioning from instrument meteorological conditions to visual cues during an approach, it would be helpful to be able to tell the student about encountering these same conditions. The instructor needs some way of determining results, and the method used should be related to the expected outcome.
For example, a maintenance student may know how to tighten a particular fastener to a specified torque, but it is more important for the student to know that the security and integrity of any fastener depends on proper torque. Well constructed written exams can indicate whether the student has absorbed the desired information or not.
As discussed earlier, an instructor needs to determine the abilities of the students and understand the students to properly communicate.
Wanting to listen is just one of several techniques which allow a student to listen effectively. As mentioned earlier, it is important for students to be able to hear the radio and the instructor.



This is primarily a technique for listening to a lecture or formal lesson presentation, but is sometimes applicable to hands-on situations as well.
Teaching a student to take notes allows the student to use an organized system to reconstruct what was said during the lesson. The instructor can use paraphrasing to show what the student's statement meant to the instructor. Knowledge of the subject material and skill at instructional communication are necessary to be an instructor. For example, a maintenance instructor teaching basic electricity might be able to teach at a minimally satisfactory level if the instructor had only the same training level as that being taught. The instructor must be careful to put adequate information into the presentation without providing excessive information. Recognizing the various barriers to communication further enhances the flow of ideas between an instructor and the student.
In the end, the true test of whether successful communication has taken place is to determine if the desired results have been achieved. If you have been reading my blog and newsletters for a while now, you will notice that I like to use acronyms, abbreviations, and cute ways to remember things. If you talk like you’re rushing things or if you sound angry, you might seem intimidating or unbelievable to your audience. A lot of offices have a lot of communication issues and I bet it’s time to re-educate employees on communicating effectively. I think getting the message across in a short span of time and getting it across effectively is a good way of communication. After all, confidence is one thing that amazes people and make them notice you and pay attention to you. I believe being in control and having clear and concise information are the most important factors in communication. The beginning instructor must understand the complex process involved in communication, and become aware of the common barriers to effective communication.
The relationship between instructor and student also is dynamic and depends on the two-way flow of symbols between the instructor and student. First, an ability to select and use language is essential for transmitting symbols which are meaningful to listeners and readers. It is the responsibility of the instructor, as the source of communication, to realize that the effectiveness of the communication is dependent on the student's understanding of the symbols or words being used. It should also show that the message is important and that the student has a need to know the information. Out-of-date information causes the instructor to lose credibility in the eyes of the student. Common gestures and facial expressions form another, but words and gestures alone do not communicate ideas.
The process finally culminates in the determination of the medium best suited for their transmission.
The student will experience, by feel, that the trim wheel affects the amount of control wheel pressure needed to maintain the attitude. Recognizing that the student has misunderstood, the instructor is able to clarify the information and help the student to obtain the desired outcome. When students react with understanding and change their behavior according to the intent of the instructor, effective communication has taken place.
Some may be familiar with aviation in some form while others barely know what an airplane looks like. The instructor should be aware of possible differences, but not overreact or assume certain values because of these differences. A varied communicative approach will succeed best in reaching most students since they all have different attitudes. It is essential to understand the dynamics of communication, but the instructor also needs to be aware of several barriers to communication that can inhibit learning. This is an example of a lack of common experience, one of four barriers to effective communication. Words, however, rarely carry precisely the same meaning from the mind of the instructor to the mind of the student.
To many people, the term mechanic conjures up images of a person laboring over an automobile.
Even reciprocating engine is too abstract since it could be a radial engine, an inline engine, a V-type engine, or an opposed type engine. The danger of abstractions is that they will not evoke the same specific items of experience in the minds of the students that the instructor intends.
The instructor must adapt the presentation to allow the student to feel better about the situation and be more receptive to new ideas.
Noise not only impairs the communication process, but also can result in long- term damage to hearing.
Fear of the situation or mistrust between the instructor and student could severely inhibit the flow of information. The experience of instrucional communication begins with role playing during the training to be an instructor, continues during the actual instruction and is enhanced by additional training.
A new instructor can try out different instructional techniques with an assigned instructor in the case of a flight instructor applicant, or with a mentor or supervisor in the case of a maintenance instructor.
One of the basic principles used in public speaking courses is to encourage students to talk about something they understand. An instructor's personal experiences make instruction more valuable than reading the same information in a textbook. In the case of flight training, the instructor can judge the actual performance of a maneuver.
In this way, the student would be more likely to torque all fasteners properly in the future.
Since written examinations also provide a permanent record, training programs usually require them. Instructors can improve the percentage of information transfer by teaching students how to listen. An example is the instrument student pilot who anticipates drastic changes in requested routing and is already upset. People who concentrate on remembering or recording facts might very well miss the message because they have not picked up on the big picture. Every student will have a slightly different system, but no attempt to record the lecture verbatim should be made.
In this way, the student can then make any corrections or expansions on the statement in order to clarify.
If asked a question that exceeded the instructor's knowledge, the instructor could research the answer and get back to the student.
Otherwise, the essential elements could get lost in a depth of presentation more suited to an advanced course on the subject.
This is due to my need and dare I say ability to take detailed information from various sources and condense it into an easy way to remember, so that I can use it when I need it.
I, for one, is now trying to tone my voice down to make me sound calm and not scare people away.
Some people just shout or sound like they’re talking to some dumb people to make them look superior and intimidating.
People think it is pretty easy to communicate but communicating EFFECTIVELY is more complex. Often, I just really cut the person out (in a nice way) and ask again what he’s trying to imply.
They left you wondering what was wrong with them and you’ll forget what the whole point of your conversation was.
The instructor depends on feedback from the student to properly tailor the communication to the situation. Second, an instructor consciously or unconsciously reveals his or her attitudes toward themselves as a communicator, toward the ideas being communicated, and toward the students. For instance, if an instructor were to use any of the many aviation acronyms, slang, and abbreviations with a new student, effective communication would be difficult if not impossible.
Use of boring or uninteresting information runs the risk of losing the student's attention. They should be combined into units (sentences, paragraphs, lectures, or chapters) that mean something to the student.
At the same time, the instructor can explain to the student that what is felt is forward or back pressure on the control wheel. Some students arrive with highly developed motor skills, and others have not had opportunities to develop these skills.
For example, just because a student is a college graduate does not guarantee rapid advancement in aviation training. Technical words might mean some- thing entirely different to a person outside that field, or perhaps, mean nothing at all. Being referred to as an aircraft mechanic might be an improvement in some people's minds, but neither really portrays the training and skill of the trained AMT. Abstract words, on the other hand, stand for ideas that cannot be directly experienced, things that do not call forth mental images in the minds of the students.
Use of the technical language of engines, as in Lycoming IO-360, would narrow the engine type, but would only be understood by students who have learned the terminology particular to aircraft engines. When such terms are used, they should be linked with specific experiences through examples and illustrations.
Adaptation could be as simple as putting off a lesson until the student is over an illness.


A new instructor is more likely to find a comfortable style of communication in an environment that is not threatening.
It would not be good if an instructor without a maintenance background tried to teach a course for aviation maintenance.
For a maintenance student, the instructor can judge the level of accomplishment of a maintenance procedure.
For a flight student, simply knowing the different airspeeds for takeoffs and landings is not enough. An example of hearing that is not listening would be a pilot acknowledging instructions from the tower, but then having no idea what the tower operator said. With this frame of mind, it will be very difficult for the student to listen to the routing instructions and then retain very much. The listener who is aware of this problem can concentrate on repeating, paraphrasing, or summarizing the speaker's words. In most cases a shorthand or abbreviated system of the student's choosing should be encouraged. Perception checking gets to the feelings of the student, again by stating what perceptions the instructor has of the student's behavior and the student can then clarify as necessary. It would be much better if the instructor, through experience or additional training, was prepared to answer the question initially.
But also make sure that what you’re going to say makes a lot of sense and not just a total waste of time.
The new instructor must also develop a comfortable style of communication that meets the goal of conveying information to students.
The instructor also provides feedback to the student to reinforce the desired student responses. Third, an instructor is more likely to communicate effectively if material is accurate, up-to-date, and stimulating. Terms like SIGMET, taildragger, FBO, IO-540 do not carry the same meaning to a beginning student.
When symbols are combined into these units, each portion becomes important to effective communication.
For motor skills, the sense of touch, or kinesthetic learning, is added as the student practices the skill. After that, the student will begin to understand the correct meaning of control pressure and trim, and when told to adjust the trim to relieve control pressured the student will respond in the manner desired by the instructor. The instructor needs to determine the abilities of the students and to understand the students in order to properly communicate. A student's education will certainly affect the instructor's style of presentation, but that style should be based on the evaluation of the student's knowledge of the aviation subject being taught. Whether spoken or written, they are merely stimuli used to arouse a response in the student.
In order for communication to be effective, the students' understanding of the meaning of the words needs to be the same as the instructor's understanding. For instance, when an approach to landing is going badly, telling a student to take appropriate measures might not result in the desired action.
Another accommodation could be the use of a seat cushion to allow a student to sit properly in the airplane.
For a prospective flight instructor, this might take the form of conducting a practice ground training session. Instructors will perform better when speaking of something that they know very well and for which they have a high level of confidence. In both cases, the instructor must determine whether the student has actually received and retained the knowledge or if acceptable performance was a one-time event. It is essential to know the reasons for different airspeeds in specific situations to fully understand the importance of proper airspeed control.
This works well because it allows the student to put the information in his or her own words. It is important to realize that in order to master the art of listening, an attitude of wanting to listen must be developed. When calling back to the tower to get the information, the pilot will want to hear what is being said and will be more inclined to do a better job of listening. In addition, instructors must ensure that students are aware of their emotions concerning certain subjects.
Doing so will use the extra time to reinforce the speaker's words, allowing the student to retain more of the information. Note taking is merely a method of allowing the student to recreate the lecture so that it can be studied. Additional knowledge and training would also bolster the instructor's confidence and give the instructional presentation more depth. Use of technical language will always be necessary, but the student must be taught the language first. This information should be delivered as a description of actual performance and given in a non-judgmental manner. The process is complicated by differences in gender, age, cultural background, and level of education. The student's past experience with the words and the things to which they refer determines how the student responds to what the instructor says. It would be better to tell the student to conduct a go-around since this is an action that has the same meaning to both student and instructor. It has been shown that in addition to protecting hearing, use of earplugs actually clarifies speaker output. Normally, the instructor must determine the level of understanding by use of some sort of evaluation. The instructor can then judge whether or not the information received by the student matches with what the instructor intended. If certain areas arouse emotion in a student, the student should be aware of this and take extra measures to listen carefully. The same note taking skills can be used outside the classroom any time information needs to be retained. Advanced courses in the instructional area and on instructional techniques are widely available. For example, it would be appropriate to tell a maintenance student that a safety wire installation is not satisfactory. For instance, the instructor would want to tailor a presentation differently for a teenage student than for an older student. A communicator's words cannot communicate the desired meaning to another person unless the listener or reader has had some experience with the objects or concepts to which these words refer. Words and symbols can then be carefully chosen to represent exactly what the speaker or writer intends.
One student may visualize an airplane, another student might visualize a helicopter, and still another student might visualize an airship. When maintenance students are being taught to torque the bolts on an engine, it would be better to tell them to torque the bolts in accordance with the maintenance manual for that engine rather than simply to torque the bolts to the proper values. But it also is essential that he or she develop good ground instructional skills to prepare students for what is to transpire in the air.
For example, if a student who is terrified of the prospect of spins is listening to a lesson on spins, the emotions felt by the student might overwhelm the attempt to listen. But to refer to the work as careless would not be good and could do harm to the student's feeling of self-worth. Likewise, a student with a strong technical background would require a different level of communication than one with no such background. Since it is the students' experience that forms vocabulary, it is also essential that instructors speak the same language as the students. Although the word airplane is more specific, various students might envision anything from a Boeing 777 to a Piper Cub. Whenever possible, the level of abstraction should be reduced by using concrete, specific terms.
Likewise, the maintenance instructor must develop skills in the classroom to prepare the maintenance student for the practical, hands-on tasks. If the student, aware of this possibility, made a conscious effort to put that fear aside, listening would probably be more successful. If the instructor's terminology is necessary to convey the idea, some time needs to be spent making certain the students understand that terminology. In both cases, effective communication will be necessary to reinforce the skills that have been attempted and to assess or critique the results.
By knowing the format of a typical clearance, student instrument pilots can develop their own system of abbreviations.
This allows them to copy the clearance in a useful form for readback and for flying of the clearance. What worked early on might be refined or replaced by some other technique as the instructor gains more experience. Instructors can vastly improve their students' retention of information by making certain their students have the best possible listening skills.



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