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There are too few women in top leadership positions in Australian companies, and men and women alike are calling for change.
There are signs that Australian companies are making progress, at least at the board level. Specifically, we sought to understand the relative impact of both the structural issues (policies and work practices) that create barriers for women and the cultural issues (beliefs, stereotypes, values) that create biased perceptions about women’s ability to lead effectively. Women who are promoters of their organisations as a good place for women to work are three to four times more likely than detractors to believe that their companies’ leadership shows visible commitment to gender parity. However, the bad news is that a wide gap remains between intention and outcome (see Figure 1). Dealing with these issues will require strong, committed leadership and sustained action over the long term to create an environment that values and promotes a spectrum of styles, as well as flexible working options. Those who believe that women’s “competing priorities” limit their progress feel strongly that women fail to reach leadership positions primarily because of the challenges associated with juggling work and family, or because women choose to prioritise a more balanced lifestyle (see Figure 2).
Women choose a more balanced lifestyle over career progression (69 per cent agreed or strongly agreed). The majority of men (61 per cent) are in this group that feels competing priorities limit women (see Figure 3), and these men are predominantly in line roles.
The 22 per cent of female respondents who do believe that competing priorities is the main inhibitor to progress tend to be more junior and slightly younger. Those who believe that “differences in style” limit a woman’s progression say that women are held back because they are different (see Figure 2). Some leadership teams do not value the different perspectives that women bring to the team (78 per cent agree or strongly agree). Seventy-eight per cent of women in the study are in this group, and they tend to be more senior women. The research crystallises two key issues facing the Australian business community with respect to helping women reach their full potential. One telling fact is that the women who believe women’s styles are not as valued as men’s are much less likely to recommend their organisation as a place for other females to work; they gave their organisations an average NPS of negative two per cent (see Figure 3). To understand how different styles hold women back, we explored why style is so important and what its impact might be on women’s career progression. Women and men are viewed as equally effective at delivering outcomes for their organization. Both women and men tend to agree that women are more effective at building teams and relationships with colleagues as well as at balancing family commitments. Both also tend to agree that men are more effective at speaking up at meetings and managing their emotions at work. Men and women do agree that they have different styles, but they have very different views of the relative impact of style on each other’s careers. However, men readily acknowledge the negative career consequences for women with competing family priorities and agree that it affects women more frequently than it does men, by two to four times. That both women and men regard the differences in style as career inhibitors for their respective genders highlights a much deeper issue around how diversity of all types is valued in organisations.
Women do feel, however, that a lack of acceptance of various styles differentially affects them. Even though women are deemed to be as capable as men at delivering outcomes, the reality is that a woman’s approach to achieving these outcomes is less likely to be valued.
To better understand how differences in style influence perceptions of leadership capability, we asked survey respondents to evaluate their own leadership effectiveness, as well as that of their female and male colleagues. Our research shows that women are perceived to be less effective at the leadership attributes that are most emphasised and rewarded by organisations. Applying a research approach used by Catalyst9, we asked respondents to rank the 10 leadership attributes in the order that their organisations emphasise and reward.
When ranking themselves on the same leadership attributes, women confirm one of the most worrying aspects of their style.
It is puzzling that women rate poorly on problem solving when men and women are believed to be equally capable at delivering outcomes.
In contrast, women are viewed as being stronger in the high emotional quotient (EQ) skills, such as consulting, rewarding, supporting and mentoring, by both men and women, but these are the leadership attributes that tend to be less overtly recognised and rewarded by organisations. The bottom line is clear: Men and women are different, but both deliver on the job and make strong leaders.
The call to action is clear: We must create environments that embrace a spectrum of styles and working models. Cultural change can be initiated through a process of education, communication and training.
A case study from the public sector demonstrates the value of implementing those practices. Flexible ways of working does not just mean part-time career options at various stages in a career. That requires CEOs to create and communicate real proof points that flexible working models are viable and getting the job done well is the priority, not having face time in the office. Jayne Hrdlicka is a member of Chief Executive Women, a group executive at Qantas, nonexecutive director of Woolworths and a former partner with Bain & Company. Meredith Hellicar is a member of Chief Executive Women and principal of Merryck & Company. Can we define the specific attributes of what great leadership looks like for our organisation? How have we ensured that our key people processes around compensation, development, selection and promotion are not open to bias?
Do we have specific and measurable targets for women on the Board and executive team over a defined period? What 1–2 leadership actions can I personally take to demonstrate my commitment to diversity? 1 Although this quote is often attributed to Victor Hugo, it is only a rough translation of a similar sentiment expressed in his book Histoire d’un Crime. Emotional intelligence is a complex construct that is quantified and applied in many forms, and there is little agreement about what EI is and whether or not it can be learned and developed. Most would agree that an important goal of counseling and psychotherapy is to help the client make positive changes in the emotional system. Our research (Nelson & Low, 1977a€“2007) independently parallels and supports the work of Epstein and conceptualizes and operationally defines emotional intelligence skills as important cognitive, experiential, and behavioral correlates of healthy and emotionally intelligent behavior. We see our work as an applied model of what experienced clinicians intuitively know and experience in the process of effectively helping clients change and improve behavior. We quantify emotional intelligence by administering the Emotional Skills Assessment Process (ESAP). The ESAP was published as a contained assessment in our recent book, Emotional Intelligence: Achieving Academic and Career Excellence (2003). An obtained score converted to a standard score in the develop area of the profile would indicate a skill that needs to be learned, developed, and practiced. The ESAP profile is a useful map or guide for identifying current strengths, planning personal change, and identifying skill development priorities.
A recent study (Cox & Nelson, 2007) established the concurrent validity of the ESAP with the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) developed by Seymour Epstein. The ELS is a visual representation of a process of emotional learning and positive personal change. We have developed the ELS around our emotional learning model and have illustrated the type of learning materials and intervention strategies that we use in developing emotional intelligence skills (intentional behaviors).
Our book, Emotional Intelligence: Achieving Academic and Career Excellence (2003) provides many examples of how the ELS can be applied to teach and develop emotional intelligence skills at cognitive, experiential, and behavioral levels (steps 1a€“5). It is important to state that our approach is phenomenological and strongly focused on the internal frame of reference of the client. Many professionals from a variety of disciplines are using our work to develop healthy people and organizations.
The corporate sector has embraced emotional intelligence and helped make EI training a multi-million dollar enterprise. It is our hope that professionals will find value in our work and join with us in research and practice to revise and improve our theory and tools.
Professionals reviewing our work for applications in clinical and consulting practice need to be cognizant of our operational definition of emotional intelligence. Mentoring Walk is a global event that convenes established women leaders and emerging women leaders to walk together in their community. Who is a mentee?Mentees are young women who have demonstrated signs of dedication and focus, who have displayed leadership skills, passion and enthusiasm.They could include women who run their own businesses, work in the private or public sector, or are just completing a tertiary institution.
Thanks to Mentoring Women Ghana, during my shadow week I had the opportunity to sit on an interview panel with my mentor (Angela Dedo Kofi), and the mock interview with Unilever helped me to know presentation is key. Mentoring Women Ghana is a non-profit organization established in Ghana whose objective is to grow young women through mentoring by more mature and accomplished women, and through sports,  in order to imbue them with leadership qualities with which they can positively impact their communities. This issue has been apparent to many for a long time, but getting meaningful movement in the numbers has proven to be tough. Women represent 26 per cent of recent board appointments in ASX 200 companies and 13 per cent of total director positions—up from 8 per cent in early 2010.3 Also the new guidelines from the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX), requiring companies to establish and report progress against gender diversity targets, have provided added focus and important motivation. Representation of women in senior executive positions within ASX 200 companies has not exceeded 13 per cent for the last decade.4 A handful of companies, such as MAp Airports, Pacific Brands and Austar United Communications5, have achieved gender parity, where women represent roughly half the executive team.
Whilst there is a rich collection of anecdotal reports and opinion papers on gender diversity, we need hard data on the issues that are getting in the way of women’s progression. The study identified that 49 per cent—versus 36 per cent last year—of the respondents believe their leadership team has made gender parity a visible priority and 40 per cent—versus 30 per cent last year—believe meaningful resources have been committed to addressing these issues. Also, they are three or four times more likely to believe that their organisation has sought broad input on the root causes of gender inequality and has put real effort against this issue.
First, there is a meaningful segment of the business community that is not yet convinced of the business case for change. However, two distinct schools of thought emerge when respondents are grouped based on the issues they feel are the most significant. They look at the lack of women’s progress and attribute it to their female colleagues having multiple and confl icting priorities between work and family.
These women are most likely to be weighing up the challenges associated with staying on a career track and having a family. They see the same lack of progress for women but view the underlying issues very differently. We need widespread acceptance and implementation of different ways of working to help women and men effectively manage career-life transitions. Although we still have a long way to go to make flexible career paths a genuine and accepted option, there is at least broad acknowledgement of the issue and a number of proven examples that organisations can use as models or case studies. In contrast, the 22 per cent of women who believe style is not the primary problem have a much higher level of advocacy for their companies, giving an average NPS of 28 per cent. There is no gender difference in attributes such as making commercially sound decisions, managing high-pressure situations and delivering significant or transformative change.

For example, on the dimension of working effectively in a team, about one-third of women and men agree that women are more effective at it. Fifty-five per cent of women believe men are more effective at speaking up in leadership meetings, whilst only 5 per cent of men are likely to see a woman being more effective at it. Clearly, neither women nor men feel that style differences by either gender are embraced by their organisations.
Men don’t agree, which highlights a lack of shared understanding about the challenges facing women aspiring to leadership. If women approach their work with a different style from most men, and if men in leadership prefer working with others whose style is similar to their own, it becomes challenging for a woman to convince her superior that she is the right person for the promotion. That sheds some light on why women feel they do not have equal opportunity— the stark fact is women’s collaborating style is not perceived to be as effective as men’s promoting style. Men and women clearly agree that the four highest ranking attributes of leadership are problem solving, influencing, team building and networking (see Figure 6).
Women undersell their capabilities, even though they are deemed to be equally as effective as men at delivering value for their organisations.
Men are twice as likely to rank other men over women as being highly effective problem solvers. We suspect that women approach problem solving in a different way, through collaborating and teaming, which is less likely to garner individual recognition and acceptance. Without that, organisations will continue to lose potential and existing female leaders from their talent pipelines and miss the opportunity to reap the rewards of having a diverse leadership team.
It will also require widespread acceptance and implementation of flexible career paths to help women manage critical life events effectively, whilst still moving ahead in their careers. Creating a culture that embraces diversity and practices career flexibility must be led from the top (see Figure 8).
This could include educating employees about the business case for diversity, helping them recognise stereotyping and showcasing successes of women leaders, especially their ability to be successful with a range of styles.
Having a clear and gender neutral definition of what good leadership looks like is important.
It enables chairs and CEOs to evaluate the collective strengths and weaknesses across the talent pipeline and in executive teams, and to identify where opportunities exist to increase leadership diversity and raise the quality of collective decision making.
Once a clear definition of good leadership is in place, CEOs should initiate systematic reviews of promotion and succession practices to ensure that they are not tainted by bias of any sort, including gender bias. For more than 20 years, Jennifer Westacott, now executive director of the Business Council of Australia, was a public servant in Victoria and NSW. Previous Bain research has clearly shown that flexible ways of working are in high demand by both women and men—more than 75 per cent of the respondents were interested in having workplace flexibility.10 Flexibility is also proven to lead to significantly improved employee advocacy, if implemented successfully.
Employees have to see these models working, particularly for those identified as current or future leaders. It can mean allowing flexible start times, finish times and the option to work from home at times.
It also means ensuring that part-time employees are set up for success with meaningful and manageable roles, with the right level of sponsorship and support, and by communicating the success stories widely across the organisation. It requires shifting underlying beliefs and behaviours, which takes strong, committed leadership and sustained action over the long term.
She leads Bain’s Asia- Pacific Customer Strategy & Marketing practice and the Asia-Pacific Women at Bain program. She has held a range of CEO roles and chaired Australian public and private companies, international boards and committees. Joanna Knox is a manager with Bain & Company and is a local leader of Women at Bain programs. Research conducted by Bain & Company shows that the question, “How likely are you to recommend this company to a friend or colleague?” is a reliable indicator of individual loyalty behaviours. In our view, emotional intelligence is a learned ability to think constructively and behave wisely. The research and writing of Seymour Epstein (1998) are the most extensive and helpful in clarifying how the cognitive and experiential mind works and the influence of the intuitive experiential system on thinking and behavior. Emotional intelligence skills in our theory are, in effect, higher psychological processes expressed as constructive thinking patterns that engender intentional behaviors. We respect the work of all theorists and researchers in the arena of Emotional Intelligence, and we present our theory and applied emotional learning model as one approach to helping people develop healthy and effective behaviors. The ESAP is a positive and brief self-assessment instrument providing scale-specific measurements of assertion, social awareness, empathy, decision making, positive influence, drive strength, commitment ethic, time management (self-management), self-esteem, and stress management. The ESAP assessment instrument and professional manual are introduced to professionals in a two-day training seminar stressing the applications and limitations of the model. Scores in the strengthen area of the profile indicate a perception that a skill needs to be further developed and applied more often. The first 10 scales are measures of emotional intelligence skills in interpersonal, self-management, and intrapersonal dimensions.
We use the ESAP assessment and profile interpretation as a beginning point in helping the individual develop accurate self-awareness by completing the first two steps in the ELS: explore and identify. Emotional intelligence skills as measured by the ESAP are significantly related to the constructive thinking patterns identified by Epstein (1998). The findings of the study indicate that the instruments provide significantly related measures of constructive thinking and emotional intelligence skills.
The ELS is one way to think about the process and structure of change that all clinicians and counselors use as interventionists in helping relationships with clients. In-depth change of self-defeating and problematic behaviors requires extended emotional mentoring, coaching, counseling, and psychotherapy. The ESAP and the ELS are tools to engage the client in meaningful self-directed and self-valued emotional learning and positive behavioral change. Psychotherapists and clinicians are valuably skilled in helping people grow and change in positive ways.
When we began our work so many years ago, we were encouraged and affirmed in our efforts by Carl Rogers.
We see emotional intelligence as a process rather than a singular construct or quantifiable entity. Gillian Hammah (Chief Marketing Officer- Databank Group) was and is still my mentor and I am a Customer Service Representative at Databank; from Internship - National Service Person - Contract Staff. I attended Mentoring Walk when I had to participate in an interview process at the UN Information Center and I clearly needed direction on the activities of the UN in Ghana.
Women represent an underutilised talent pool in an increasingly talent-constrained environment. There are another 11 per cent that have “critical mass”—where women represent 25 per cent or more of their senior executive team. And more important, do women and men see the problems, as well as the solutions, in the same way? To address that need, Bain & Company and Chief Executive Women (CEW) have committed to work together to better understand the root causes and what companies can do to dramatically improve gender balance. In fact, there has been a decline, and now only 15 per cent of women believe that they have equal opportunity (compared with 20 per cent last year) for promotion to senior management positions.
Although 76 per cent of the women in the study believe that gender parity can result in financial benefits for their organisations, only 55 per cent of the men agree. The brutal fact is that the barriers to women’s progression into leadership roles are in large part due to perceptions of a woman’s ability to lead.
One group believes the dominant reason for women’s lack of progress can be attributed to competing priorities (41 per cent of respondents).
The juggling act of career and family can seem very tough, especially if the organisational environment is not conducive to achieving that balance. They believe the shortage of women executives is explained by different styles and lack of appreciation for those differences by those who might promote them. The vast majority of senior promotion decisions are made by men, who are more likely to seek people more like themselves than not. And we need to create organisational environments where a spectrum of styles is valued, embraced and celebrated. However, the issues of style and gender biases are much more challenging to confront and resolve.
That suggests that those who identify the style issue as most relevant recognise the challenges associated with the necessary cultural change and are questioning the prospects of that journey ever really unfolding. What are those styles, and what are the consequences of different styles when promotion opportunities arise? More important, these are the critical attributes that create value and drive results in organisations (see Figure 4). Women feel that differences in style negatively impact their progression an average of seven times more often than men’s career progression.
They believe that either a real or perceived lack of flexibility and commitment on their part is 13 times more likely to affect their careers, and that having their role “de-scoped” while on parental leave happens 20 times more often to women. That apparent gap in perceptions underlines the difficulty in getting organisations to acknowledge and tackle the complex topic of valuing diverse leadership styles.
For the top two leadership attributes—problem solving and influencing—women are 16 per cent and 40 per cent, respectively, less likely to rate themselves as being as highly competent as men, raising an important question: Do women really perceive themselves as less competent, or do they simply feel they are unable to be as effective because their style is not as valued by the majority of their peers as men’s?
How can we create an environment in corporate Australia that acknowledges and removes the unintended bias embedded in the recruitment, promotion and appointment processes, and actively seeks to build cultures that celebrate different leadership styles? However, none of this will be possible without sustained and visible leadership commitment and cultural change, starting with the Board and CEO.
The confronting nature of these issues and the organisational maturity needed to address them requires the CEO to lead from the front. For organisations that are just beginning to tackle this issue, the journey should start with raising awareness and creating a common understanding of the importance of diversity and both the practical and the cultural issues which must be tackled. In addition, leadership training needs to allow both women and men to develop techniques to “flex” their style in order to improve their leadership effectiveness in a range of contexts.
It creates a common frame of reference and a common language for talking about the repertoire of leadership attributes that are required in an effective executive team.
This involves ensuring that there are objective criteria and unbiased evaluation and decision-making processes. Despite the high interest shown in flexible work options, relatively few employees choose these options for fear that they will signal a career “dead end”.
Allowing the job to accommodate changing life demands can be a significant differentiator for companies seeking to attract male and female talent.
However, if CEOs can foster environments that value and promote a spectrum of styles and working models, realising the leadership potential from our female talent will have a better chance of success.
Customers or employees are asked to score their company on the “would recommend” question using a scale of zero to 10.
Emotional intelligence is best developed by learning and developing cognitive and experiential thinking skills that engender wise and effective behaviors. In our research and experience, Epsteina€™s Cognitive Experiential Self Theory is the most adequate theory of personality and the most complete theory of human behavior.

Emotional intelligence skills are best learned in a person-centered relationship that we call emotional mentoring. In this view, we emphasize that our theory and assessment instruments are crude tools for a skilled clinician to use, and it is the effectiveness of the helping relationship established with the client that is the most important influencing variable in facilitating positive behavioral change.
These 10 measures are combined to derive a total score (EI total) to reflect the persona€™s perceived level of current cognitive functioning. The ESAP assessment and the Emotional Learning System (ELS) are used by professionals worldwide in education, counseling, psychology, human resource development, and training in business and industry.
Enhance area scores reflect perceived strengths and behaviors that need to be maintained and enhanced.
The concurrent, predictive, and construct validity of the ESAP is well established, and reliability coefficients are acceptable. Used together, the CTI and ESAP assessments provide valuable information and suggested intervention strategies for improving achievement, career performance, and personal well being (mental and physical health).
The ELS is a practical model for thinking about levels of change and appropriate intervention strategies for each level.
We see the ESAP as a needs assessment in the affective domain and the profile results as a personal map for developing and improving specific emotional intelligence skills.
Our current work is our best attempt to understand what we do, evaluate our effectiveness, and continue to learn and develop ourselves as persons and as professional psychologists. Mark Lewin provided guidance when we introduced our work nationally; and, at present, we are learning from Seymour Epstein, whom we deeply appreciate and whose contributions to our field we value. In our research, we see the influences of gender, age, ethnicity, and socio-economic status as significant influencing variables in the assessment of emotionally intelligent behaviors. It will inspire and challenge mentees to change their thinking to positively seeing themselves succeed, lead and inspire others.  Ultimately it will nurture a community of dedicated women leaders who will in turn impact younger women’s lives.
In addition, decision-making effectiveness in organisations is improved by a diversity of perspectives. The second group believes differences in style (59 per cent of respondents) are the critical inhibitor. That raises a question: Are men making valid assumptions about their female colleagues’ priorities and aspirations? It raises the onus for organisations to demonstrate that flexible career paths are viable for all employees or face a potential exodus of their future female and male talent from their workplace.
The 39 per cent of men who agree with them tend to be board directors, general managers or work in smaller companies.
Women don’t typically fit the bill—they work differently, behave differently and are less comfortable promoting their ability.
However, men tend not to recognise that having a different style is something that uniquely affects women. Even with a strong, acknowledged business case for diversity, women find it tough to break through these issues on their own. Is it because women are truly not as good at problem solving or because the term “problem solving” is deemed to be more characteristic of a masculine promoting style? To understand if your organisation is tackling the tough issues, consider your responses to the “acid test” questions outlined (see below “Acid test questions for the Board, CEO and senior executives”). Only then can the issue of gender bias be openly discussed and the consequences understood. Awareness alone will not be enough to solve these problems, but it is a necessary first step. A clear definition also allows organisations to acknowledge that styles differ and creates the opportunity to have an open dialogue about genuine strengths and weaknesses of various leadership candidates. She observed that “there are some important ingredients that have contributed to the success of the public service in promoting women into leadership positions. Until these working arrangements become a more accepted and mainstream feature of working life, organisations will “leak” both male and female talent seeking other ways to manage tough periods, when they have competing career-life demands. Those who give a nine or 10 are labelled “promoters”— they are the customers or employees who are likely to refer more, stay longer or buy more. Clinicians and psychotherapists who work with engrained and enduring emotional behaviors that are self-defeating for the client can benefit from an integrated theory of emotional intelligence and a practical and applied model for developing emotional intelligence at a variety of levels and domains.
Skilled clinicians working with in-depth change of problematic behaviors can apply their skills as consultants or coaches who can deliver intervention and learning experiences at cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels of personal change.
Our model is presented as our current way of providing professional services and is continually revised and improved in an ongoing research program. The ESAP also provides assessment of the problematic behaviors of aggression, deference, and change orientation. The ESAP profile reflects the individuala€™s perception of current ways of thinking, expressing feelings, and choosing behaviors. High scores in aggression and deference indicate deficit skill development in anger control and anxiety management. Once areas of strength and change have been identified and understood, a personal change and skill development plan is mutually developed with the client. Large sample factor studies are being completed to improve reliability coefficients in specific settings. Empirical validity, especially construct validity, is the essential prerequisite for using EI assessment instruments in professional practice. Study and review the ELS as you think about how a person could learn emotional intelligence skills at the cognitive, experiential, behavioral, and in-depth level.
In our view, emotional intelligence is not a a€?thing in itself,a€? but rather a lifelong process of learning and applying emotionally intelligent skills. We have attempted to develop a positive and educationally-based theory and emotional learning model that has value in teaching, mentoring, counseling, coaching, and psychotherapy. No theory or procedure is accurate to the end that it is the best approach and the truest path to follow. Another important consideration for us is the actual physical maturation of the human brain. That is especially true in a global economy, where women increasingly drive the majority of consumer activity. Whilst disturbing, these statistics are not surprising when one considers that 80 per cent of the women surveyed by Bain in 2010 believe that they do not have equal opportunity for promotion into senior management positions, and half of the men agreed with them.6 Moreover, women are not strong advocates of their organisations to other women. We would have expected some upward momentum on the perceptions of equal opportunity for women. Until that happens, achieving gender parity remains a moral imperative rather than a financial one. These men are likely to be those that have greater visibility or awareness of the consequences of different styles on women’s progression.
Men believe style affects both genders with similar frequency and, in fact, say they are twice as likely as women to be overlooked for a promotion because of differences in their leadership or interpersonal styles (see Figure 5). Signaling top-down commitment to diverse teams can take many forms, such as setting and communicating measurable diversity targets and appointing strong women to senior roles where appropriate. Having the courage to surface and sensitively navigate the topic of style differences is a part of this process.
At their core, the reforms were aimed at achieving a more capable, more responsive public sector. Those who rate the company from zero to six are labelled “detractors“—these are the customers and employees who generate negative word of mouth and show higher defection rates.
For more information about the Net Promoter score, see Fred Reichheld and Rob Markey, “NPS: The next Six Sigma?
The end process goal of our theory, assessment instruments, and emotional learning systems is to empower the client in a goal-directed process that we call intelligent self-direction (self-valued and self-directed change).
More than 40 completed doctoral studies and recently completed research and application projects have demonstrated the efficacy of the ESAP in a variety of settings. If emotional learning and training interventions are to be effective and viable, valid and reliable assessment models are an important concern. The work of Epstein (1998) is especially meaningful in clarifying the difficulty of affecting positive changes in the emotional system. As counseling and consulting psychologists, we know the value of effective therapy and the complexity of in-depth change. When asked if they would recommend their company to a female friend or colleague as a place to work, the Net Promoter® score (NPS®)7 for women respondents was only 5 per cent, whereas the men were more optimistic about women’s opportunities, giving an NPS of 36 per cent.
If the existence of gender bias is not widely understood, it can be addressed by undertaking a diagnostic to understand how leadership ability is defined within the organisation and how that definition may create both conscious and unconscious biases. Some very simple steps were taken, principally around removing the structural biases in selection and recruitment processes.
NPS is calculated by subtracting the percentage of detractors (liabilities) from the percentage of promoters (assets).
We continually test the cross-cultural applications and limitations of our work through international research collaborations. The construct validity of the instrument has been consistently demonstrated cross culturally and is solved in a four-factor solution reflecting dimensions of interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, self-management skills, and problematic indicators. The ESAP is continually strengthened in on-going applied research and application studies in education, counseling, psychology, business, and industry. The emotional mind resists the change of long-established patterns and is rarely impacted at the cognitive (teaching) level. Our model is an attempt to demonstrate how we use our clinical skills in a variety of settings outside the traditional therapy hour. In this regard, our assessment models are consistent with recent findings in affective neuroscience reflecting the role of the emotional brain in thinking and behavior. Selection committees were compelled to document how each candidate met the competencies, skills and criteria articulated for a particular position. 72 per cent were senior managers, 46 per cent worked for companies with more than 10,000 employees.
Our assessment and emotional learning materials have been translated and validated in nine languages and used worldwide in education, psychology, and for human resource development in business and industry.
In our view, emotional intelligence skills are higher psychological processes (tools) that integrate and harmonize the thinking processes of the cognitive and experiential system.
The 2011 study asked some of the same questions as the 2010 Australia study and was administered online over a two week period in August 2011. Thoughts and feelings are two ways of knowing and making sense of our world of immediate reality and both need to be considered in designing educational and skill development programs to develop effective and wise behavior.
We explored the “softer” more qualitative issues in two focus groups prior to launching the survey.9 These attributes are described in a 2005 study by Catalyst, sponsored by General Motors. The Catalyst research identified the same top four leadership attributes the respondents in our study identified.

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