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The president is the head of the executive branch of the government, which includes many departments and agencies.
The power of the Executive Branch is vested in the President of the United States, who also acts as head of state and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Within the constitutional framework, Congress and the executive continuously devise and revise formal and informal means of making their relationship work. By setting the level of funding or denying funding for federal programs, and by attaching strings to funding, Congress ensures its role in establishing the priorities and policies of the executive branch.
Congress places controls on the executive branch not only through its appropriations authority but also by making laws for managing the executive branch. Congressional oversight and investigation are key components of the system of checks and balances between the branches of the federal government, as well as a means of making determinations about the need for additional lawmaking. Congress’ authority to conduct oversight and investigation is implied from its enumerated powers in the Constitution and the Necessary and Proper Clause. Our on-site training, publications, and audio courses include congressional operations, legislative and budget process, communication and advocacy, media and public relations, testifying before Congress, research skills, legislative drafting, critical thinking and writing, and more.
Over time, Congress has given the executive branch authority and responsibilities that are executive (administering the law), legislative (for example, rulemaking), and judicial (through adjudication).

One of Congress’ most effective means of exercising control over the executive is through the appropriations process.
Personnel systems (including personnel benefits), procurement systems, financial management, information technology, and other areas of management of the executive branch are covered in laws enacted by Congress. Although Congress might not adopt an administration’s plan in its entirety, some members and committees might elect to incorporate elements into their own legislative agenda.
Congress uses its constitutional authority, including the Necessary and Proper, or Elastic, Clause (Article I, Section 8, cl.
Statutory changes are usually necessary in order for a president’s management initiatives to take hold and have an impact on the federal government that outlasts the administration. Through investigations, these committees use powers granted them by their parent chambers to probe governmental and private activities for potential misconduct or mismanagement, and to compel the appearance and testimony of witnesses and the provision of documents.
Through another law, Congress may also exempt an agency from specific management laws, or even exempt a category of agencies from specific laws. Although Congress often conducts oversight and investigatory activities itself, other governmental actors, such as the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and inspectors general (IGs) in departments and agencies, are regularly called upon by Congress to assist with these functions.
In addition to program-specific laws, Congress passes laws dictating government wide procedures.

Congress might also impose different or additional management standards on an agency or a category of agencies. As one of many elements of congressional-executive relations, oversight and investigations are part of a largely seamless web where one element overlaps with another. Congress sometimes conducts oversight hearings as distinct activities, but the review of agencies and programs also pervades routine congressional activities, such as the appropriations and confirmation processes. In addition to its legislative powers, Congress has the power to influence the executive through appropriations, appointments advice and consent, and oversight and investigation. It requires reports from the executive, conducts hearings, monitors the Federal Register, and pursues its checks on executive power in dozens of other ways. Congressional use of these powers and methods for checking the executive varies; some Congresses assert their constitutional prerogatives more than other Congresses.

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