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Learn vocabulary and phrases related to describing graphs charts and diagrams also practise rephrasing titles and labels. In this part you need to to summarise the information given, selecting and reporting the main features.
Use only 20 minutes for task 1, if you use more it will make it difficult to complete task 2.
Using The Passive Voice in IELTS Writing To be able to use the passive voice is an essential skill for the IELTS candidates. IELTS Speaking Test   IELTS Speaking The Speaking test is marked by how well you communicate in spoken English. Geographical use of Articles In this, the second post of the series on articles we will discuss the geographical use of articles.
In Wednesday's lesson I showed you some examples of the kind of memorised phrases that examiners don't like. About Farshad Farshad is a Tech Blogger from Pakistan who has worked for numerous international Technology Blogs. Once you have mastered these then you should move on and practise by doing several past task 1 tests which you should try to do within the time limits. This information will be found in the question or in titles, labels, axis on the graph, and data source which you will need to paraphrase,. Next you need to pick out the main points and trends shown in the graphic and relate it to the task. Office Timesheets provides MS Project integration and you can even install it on a server to integrate Office Timesheets with your IT infrastructure. He is a former systems engineer and has been associated with the IT industry for the past 8 years, rendering professional services related to desktop administration, networking, SEO and Blogging. Today I have two lessons related to the Call of Duty game franchise starting with the one you see here.
Up next, draw the top portion of the helmet, then draw the crest which is where the hairs stem from.
Define the shapes of the brow plates for the helmet and then add detailing to the top of the hairs that are attached to the crest.
Finish off the Sentinel Task Force logo by sketching in the rest of the wings and then you can proceed to step seven where you will finish everything off. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the electrical drive circuit includes a charge pump network for enabling the ignition and continuous illumination of each of the at least first and second CFL bulbs. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the elongated housing includes a reflecting panel disposed behind the at least first and second CFL bulbs disposed within the first end of the elongated housing. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the elongated housing includes an actuator switch assembly accessible on an external surface of the elongated housing proximate the hand grip portion wherein further the actuator switch assembly includes the first and second SPST switches for controlling respectively each of the at least first and second CFL bulbs. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein each of the at least first and second CFL bulbs are twin-tube compact fluorescent lamps having a wattage rating of approximately nine to fifteen watts. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein each of the at least first and second CFL bulbs are twin-tube compact fluorescent lamps having a wattage rating of approximately four to twenty-four watts. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein each of the at least first and second CFL bulbs are quad-tube compact fluorescent lamps having a wattage rating of approximately five to thirty watts. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein each of the at least first and second CFL bulbs are compact fluorescent lamps, each having a wattage rating of approximately four to thirty watts. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the transformerless electrical drive circuit provides for preheat, ignition, and run modes of operation of the at least first and second CFL bulbs. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein a control portion of the transformerless electrical drive circuit is an integrated circuit having a Vcc terminal connected to a positive supply voltage, a Vss terminal connected to a supply voltage return and providing preheat, ignition, and run modes of operation of the at least first and second CFL bulbs. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the electrical drive circuit is powered by a 120 VAC or 240 VAC line voltage provided by the line cord connected to the power supply. Field of the InventionThe present invention relates generally to the field of electrical lighting devices and, more specifically, to a portable fluorescent task lamp which features control of multiple compact fluorescent lamp (“CFL”) bulbs of various types and light output ratings.B.
From experience of  teaching many IELTS classes, I have found that usually after a few practise test students become very proficient and have little difficulty in completing it well and within the 20 minute time limit. Read the question carefully, underlining the key points: titles, labels, axis, headings and data sources.
Alternatively, you can create an online account to keep track of employee reporting, sales, expenses and other important information.
Hence, this web service can be used to accurately track project expenses and requires no complex end user configurations.
Color in your drawing and then show off your skills to other friends you know that like Call of Duty too.
Battery-powered flashlights typically offer less illumination than AC powered lights, and the batteries, even if rechargeable, are not operable continuously without recharging or replacing the batteries.Portable, hand-held drop lights or task lights utilizing an incandescent bulb and powered by AC line current, typically 120 Volts AC, 60 Hz, allow the user to provide light where installed light fixtures do not provide adequate coverage. Using Office Timesheets is as easy as MS PowerPoint or Excel and it even comes with a MS Office like Ribbon UI.Integrate Office Timesheets With Your IT InfrastructureTo start using office Timesheets you can either download the trial version or create an online account to test out the service. I say this because the information based on the logo is very limited, but if you are tackling this tutorial then you already know the basic bio anyways. For a demonstration of this service we will show you how to use the online version of Office Timesheets.When signing up you will require providing basic information about your organization and will be provided with login credentials after filling out the sign up form.
I do know that Call of Duty is a very popular game series that has stood the test of time because it's still one of the top games out there today. Although incandescent light bulbs are a well-developed technology and are economical to purchase, they are not economical to operate. The given credentials will be for an administrator account, as well as user accounts with less privileges. The Sentinel Task Force symbol is made up of three things; a spartan helmet, wings and lighting bolts on the sides. During the configuration of your account you will also be provided with a link to download the Quick  Start Guide, which can be quite helpful in understanding the major functions of Office Timesheets. The tungsten filament in a typical 100 Watt incandescent bulb causes the bulb to get too hot to touch in many common work area situations such as a task lamp being used by a technician to illuminate the engine compartment of an automobile. Moreover, the relatively fragile nature of the incandescent lamp with its glass bulb and its tungsten filament presents further drawbacks.One alternative to the use of incandescent bulbs is the fluorescent bulb. Fluorescent bulbs convert more of the supplied electrical energy to light energy and operate at lower external temperatures than do incandescent lights.
The light emitting medium in fluorescent lights is a phosphor coating, unlike the thin, fragile tungsten filament in an incandescent light bulb.
In a fluorescent lamp bulb, a glass tube containing a small amount of gas—mercury vapor, for example—is provided with coated cathode electrodes at either end of the tube. When a high enough voltage is applied between each pair of electrodes at the ends of the glass tube, the coated filament is heated and emits electrons into the gas inside the tube.
The plasma is conductive and permits an electric arc to be established between the electrodes.
As current flows in the plasma, electrons collide with gas molecules, boosting the electrons to a higher energy level. This higher energy level is not a stable condition and when the electron falls back to its normal energy level, a photon of ultra-violet light is emitted.
The photons in turn collide with the phosphor coating on the inside of the glass tube, imparting their energy to the phosphor ions, causing them to glow in the visible spectrum.
Thus the phosphor coating luminesces and gives off the characteristic “fluorescent” light.Fluorescent bulbs, however, typically require a higher voltage to initiate the plasma state than is required to maintain the plasma state and the luminescence.



Further, after becoming a plasma, the effective resistance of the plasma between the electrodes drops increasingly as the current increases.
Typical practice to limit the current is to provide a damping circuit, called a “ballast,” that operates to ignite the gas tube while also limiting the supply current.
For typical installed lighting fixtures using non-self-starting bulbs and operating at 120 VAC, 60 Hz, the wire gauge, the number of turns in the coils, and size of the magnetic core result in a large and heavy ballast component.
The ballast circuits for so-called “self-starting” fluorescent bulbs are typically smaller, yet still provide an appropriate voltage to ignite the lamps without a separate starter.
The ballast circuit then regulates the current draw in a similar manner to that previously described for non-self starting bulbs.Battery operated fluorescent lamps are well-known in the art but their use is usually limited to applications such as camp lighting or emergency lighting where a bright illumination is not essential. Battery operated fluorescent lamps typically cost more initially because they require an extra circuit to produce a high voltage, high frequency AC supply to operate the fluorescent bulb. Operation of the lamp at a higher frequency enables the use of smaller components which cost less and take up less space. Heretofore, a battery operated fluorescent task lamp, because of the additional circuit complexity, was relatively more expensive than a conventional AC line-operated task lamp. 6,534,926, Miller et al., a portable fluorescent drop light is disclosed that contains a pair of twin-tube compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) bulbs that are individually switched. The discrete solid state drive circuit used as a ballast for non-self-starting bulbs utilizes the CFL bulbs as part of the oscillating circuit and has a relatively high component count. The circuit relies on several transformers, including separate windings for each CFL bulb, and a separate feedback protection circuit, to produce the drive voltage while limiting the current drawn by the bulbs during the run condition.
A need also exists for a ballast circuit design which eliminates the need for a heavy transformer component and can preferably work with either self-starting or non-self-starting bulbs. The lamp should be sturdy and durable and replacement bulbs should be inexpensive, readily available, and easily changed. It would be a further desirable feature to provide variable illumination and as light-weight and compact a lamp as possible.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTIONThe present invention has as its object to overcome various of the shortcomings in the prior art described above. More specifically, it is an object of the present invention to provide a portable fluorescent task lamp having a ballast circuit design that is very efficient and operates with at least two “self-start” and “non-self start” type fluorescent bulbs of the type currently employed in task lamps of the drop light variety. 1 is a pictorial view of a preferred embodiment of a portable fluorescent task lamp of the present invention; andFIG. 2 is an electrical schematic of one embodiment of an electrical circuit used in the portable fluorescent task lamp of the present invention.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTIONReferring to FIG. 1, there is shown a two-bulb, portable fluorescent task lamp according to the present invention, designated generally as 11.
The task lamp 11 includes an elongated housing configured as a two piece plastic housing 13 that may be molded of a thermoplastic material. The lens 15, which curves approximately half-way around the front half of the upper portion of the housing 13, is preferably fabricated of a suitable rugged and optically clear acrylic or polycarbonate material.
The housing halves 13 may be configured to accommodate circuitry within a handle portion and a pair of twin-tube CFL bulbs 19 disposed within the housing 13 and enclosed behind the lens 15. A reflector 17 is also positioned within the housing 13 and behind the twin-tube CFL bulbs 19. The reflector 17 may be fabricated of a thin, aluminum coated, heat resistant material that can be formed into a curved shape to direct backward-emitted light from the twin-tube CFL bulbs 19 in a forward direction through the lens 15. Each of the twin-tube, bi-pin CFL bulbs 19 may be plugged into a corresponding receptacle (not shown) to facilitate connecting the bulbs 19 to the ballast circuit (see FIG. 2).The portable task lamp 11 may also include end caps (not shown) and a hook (not shown) attached to one or both of the end caps, which allows the lamp to be conveniently suspended in a work area. In the example shown, the lamp 11 houses two twin-tube compact flourescent light (CFL) bi-pin bulbs 19, although other arrangements are possible. For example, present commercially available CFL bulbs are typically provided as either a twin-tube standard bulb or a quad-tube standard bulb. The twin-tube types have the advantage that they are less bulky, less expensive and more readily available. However, the twin-tube types are of approximately half the power (13 W) and light output of the quad-tube lamps. While the quad-tube design offers approximately twice the power (27 W) and illumination of a single twin-tube, the quad-tube bulb is typically more complex to produce.
1 and described herein, the pair of twin-tube CFL bulbs 19 (each being rated at approximately 13 Watts) provides the equivalent illumination of a 100 Watt incandescent bulb drop light.Just visible in FIG.
1, near the upper portion of the handle portion of the housing 13 on the rear side, is a switch actuator 21.
It is one of two rocker switches mounted side-by-side in the location described for operating each of the pair of twin-tube CFL bulbs 19 alone or in tandem as will be described herein below. 2, there is illustrated a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a ballast or drive circuit for the two-bulb, portable fluorescent lamp 11 according to the present invention.
The supply mains lines L and N, 25, 27 respectively, supply operating current to the circuit.
The line L of the supply mains is coupled through a 15 Ohm, 1 Watt resistor that functions as a fuse F1 (29), to a node 32. The line N (27) of the supply mains is coupled to a node 43, which is the common return node of the power supply. Diodes D1 (31) and D2 (33) respectively, are connected in series between a positive supply node 35 and a negative supply node 37. 22 uFd, 250 Volt DC Filter capacitors 39 and 41 are connected in series between the supply nodes 35 and 37. The foregoing components comprise a voltage doubler power supply for providing an operating voltage of approximately 270 Volts DC to the remaining circuitry to be described.Continuing with FIG.
2, the twin-tube CFL lamp bulbs, CFL1 (69) and CFL2 (71) are connected in parallel lamp circuits between a supply node 59 and the common node 43. Connected in series between the A terminal of the CFL1 bulb 69 and the common node 43 are a SPST switch 65, a node 51, and an inductor L1 (45). Connected in series between the A terminal of the CFL2 bulb 71 and the common node 43 are a SPST switch 67, a node 53, and an inductor L2 (47). The inductors L1 (45) and L2 (47) function as ballast chokes that limit the current that flows in each respective CFL bulb after the CFL bulb ignites. The inductors L1 (45) and L2 (47) are specially wound on EE25 cores that include a gap, and have an inductance of 3.3 mH. In addition, the inductance of the inductors L1 and L2 resonates with the internal capacitance (not shown) of the CFL bulbs, whether it is a non-self-starting or self-starting type of CFL bulb. The value of the inductance of L1 and L2 must also take into consideration the wattage rating of the CFL bulb being used. A pair of capacitors 55,57, which are connected in series between nodes 51 and 53, are joined at a node 49.
The anode of a diode rectifier D3 (61) and the cathode of a diode rectifier D4 (63) are also connected to the node 49. The cathode of the diode D3 (61) is connected to the positive supply voltage terminal pin 2 of IC1 (103) and the anode of the diode D4 (63) is connected to the voltage supply return terminal pin 8 of IC1 (103). The pair of SPST switches 65, 67 are part of the switch actuator 21 described herein above in FIG. 2, the electrical drive circuit (an electronic ballast circuit) of the illustrated embodiment will now be described. 2 is based on an integrated circuit IC1 (103) that develops output signals to drive a pair of MOSFET transistors Q1 (105) and Q2 (107) connected in series across the positive supply at node 35 and the negative supply at node 37.


The IC1 in the illustrated embodiment, which provides the control portion of the electrical drive circuit, is a type IR2156 manufactured by International Rectifier, El Segundo, Calif.
The MOSFET transistors in the illustrated embodiment are type IRF720 from the same manufacturer. A resistor R2 (75) is connected between the node 35 and a node 83, which is also connected to pin 2, the Vcc supply voltage terminal of the IC1 (103). As previously described, the cathode of diode D3 (61) is also connected to the node 83 and the anode of the diode D4 (63) is connected to the node 37. As will be described further herein below, the networks C9 (55) and D3 (61), and C10 (57) and D4 (63) are charge pump circuits for ensuring sufficient operating voltage for the IC1 (103) under certain conditions.Continuing with FIG. 2, the anode of a diode D5 (102) is connected to the node 83 and the cathode of diode D5 (102) is connected to a node 81, which is connected to pin 14 of the IC1 (103). A capacitor C7 (99) is connected between a pin 12 of the IC1 (103) and the node 81 at pin 14 of the IC1 (103). Pins 8 (the Vss or return supply terminal) and 9 of the IC1 (103) are connected to the node 37. A capacitor C4 (95) is connected between pin 6 of the IC1 (103), which is also designated as a node 79, and the node 37.
Capacitor C4 (95) and the resistors R5 (113) and R6 (115) set the timing values for the oscillator within the IC1 (103).
R6 and R5, when connected in parallel by a transistor mode switch (not shown) within the IC1 (103), reduce the RC time constant for the oscillator to increase the oscillator frequency during the preheat mode, as will be described herein below.A high side output drive signal from pin 13 of the IC1 (103) is coupled to a gate terminal of the transistor Q1 (105). A low side output drive signal from pin 11 of the IC1 (103) is coupled to a gate terminal of the transistor Q2 (107). The gate terminals of the transistors Q1 (105) and Q2 (107) are driven out of phase with respect to each other by the pulse waveform of the drive signals from the IC1 (103).
The repetition rate of the drive signals, as set by the RC time constants (see the previous description for R5 and R6 and C4), may be in the range of approximately 30 KHz to 50 KHz in a typical application.
The operating frequencies are also influenced by the characteristics of the particular CFL bulbs used in the circuit. For example, fluorescent bulbs include an internal capacitance that controls the starting behavior of the bulb. The value of this capacitance may vary as to whether the bulb is a non-self-starting or self-starting type. Thus, this capacitance is among the frequency determining components of the circuits.As mentioned previously, the transistors Q1 (105) and Q2 (107) are connected in series across the positive supply node 35 and the negative supply node 37 to form the output stage of the electronic ballast circuit illustrated in FIG. The drain terminal of the transistor Q1 (105) is connected to the node 35 and the source terminal of the transistor Q2 (107) is connected to the node 37. The drain terminal of the transistor Q2 (107) and the source terminal of the transistor Q1 (105) are connected together at an output node 93. The output node 93 is connected to the node 59, which is connected to the B terminals of both CFL lamps 69, 71.
Transistors Q1 (105) and Q2 (107) form a half-bridge MOSFET drive circuit that alternately drives both CFL bulbs 69, 71 with a high frequency AC voltage of approximately 120 Volts AC.In operation, each twin-tube CFL bulb (69, 71) of the illustrated embodiment shown in FIG. 2 may be switched ON or OFF independently according to the condition of the SPST switches 65, 67.
Operating voltage for the IC1 (103) is provided to pin 2 of IC1 (103) by the network R2 (75), node 83 and C8 (85). Voltage to operate the high side driver circuit internal to the IC1 (103), is provided by a bootstrap network of D5 (102) connected to pin 14 of the IC1 (103) via node 81, and C7 (99) connected between pins 14 and 12 of the IC1 (103).
The DC voltage available at node 35 is measured by IC1 (103) at pin 3 via the network R1 (73) and C3 (91) coupled to the node 77.
The networks C9 (55) and D3 (61), and C10 (57) and D4 (63) are charge pump circuits for ensuring sufficient operating voltage for the IC1 (103) when the second one of the two CFL lamps 69, 71 is to be ignited.
This condition occurs, for example, when both of the switches 65, 67 are in an ON condition, or one of the switches 65, 67 is switched ON after the other of the switches 65, 67. The charge pump networks also function to reset the sweep signal generated within the IC1 (103) that controls the preheat segment of the ignition sequence for the CFL bulbs 69, 71.
2, the drive signals to the MOSFET transistors proceed sequentially through three modes after a first one of the switches 65, 67 is turned ON.
The oscillator in IC1 (103) runs at a frequency determined by the time constant of R5 and R6 (in parallel) and C4. When the voltage across the preheat capacitor C5 (97) ramps upward to and reaches a first predetermined voltage (starting from zero volts), the transistor mode switch (not shown) within IC1 (103) disconnects the preheat resistor R6 and causes the oscillator frequency to ramp downward toward the run frequency determined by the R5, C4 time constant. As the oscillator frequency ramps downward, the AC output voltage produced at the output node 93 ramps upward to ignite the bulb(s).
When the voltage across the preheat capacitor C5 (97) continues past the first predetermined voltage and reaches a second, higher predetermined voltage, the downward change of the oscillator frequency is halted, the CFL bulb(s) ignites because of the higher voltage impressed across the bulb(s), and the oscillator begins to operate at the run frequency set by the RC time constant of R5 and C4.
The brief period during which the oscillator frequency ramps downward toward the run frequency is called the ignition ramp mode of operation. After the bulb(s) ignite, the circuit enters the run mode wherein the output voltage at output node 93 stabilizes at approximately the same level as during the preheat mode.
Further details of the operation of the integrated circuit IC1 (103) may be found in International Rectifier Data Sheet No.
PD60182-I for the Ballast Control IC, type IR2156(S), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. This ballast control integrated circuit is designed to drive a single, non-self-starting, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) bulb. The wattage rating of the CFL bulb that is chosen may be accommodated by selecting appropriately rated MOSFET output transistors and adjusting other component values accordingly, as is well within the capability of persons skilled in the art.
In the present invention, however, a way is demonstrated to drive two non-self-starting OR self-starting CFL bulbs, together or independently, using a single ballast control circuit. Although apparently simple, the modifications necessary to ensure firing of both bulbs, together or in sequence—by providing carefully selected ballast choke (inductors 45,47) values, and a charge pump network for each CFL bulb 69, 71 that also participates in resetting the preheat sequence for the second bulb—is not previously known.A number of advantages are readily apparent in the circuit design of FIG. The use of the integrated circuit and half-bridge architecture in the circuit design of the invention minimizes the number and size of the inductive devices, and allows a reduction in the overall number of required components and a consequent reduction in cost and circuit board space requirements. Further, the configuration provided by the present invention enables the same minimum-parts design to be used with a variety of twin-CFL bulb ratings simply by adjusting the values of several components that affect the current levels, frequencies and the timing sequence of the three modes of operation. In the illustrative example shown, two 13 watt CFL bulbs provide illumination that is approximately equivalent to a 100 watt incandescent bulb in a portable task light that uses much less energy and is much cooler in operation.
The separate SPST switches may be replaced with other configurations, either manually operated switches or remotely-actuated electronic switches or automatic switches controlled by illumination levels, and the like, for the control of the individual lamp elements. The same circuit may be adapted to any of numerous configurations and Watt ratings, and light output requirements merely be selecting appropriate component values.
In some configurations, for example, the CFL bulbs may be of mixed type and wattage ratings, requiring only the careful selection of component values in the lamp circuits such as the charge pump and current limiting networks.
Rechargeable versions of the portable fluorescent lamp disclosed herein may be provided by replacing the AC input power supply with a DC-operated inverter circuit and rectifier to provide the high voltage DC to operate the high frequency drive circuit.



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