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When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe. God has cared for these trees, saved them from drought, disease, avalanches, and a thousand tempests and floods. A few minutes ago every tree was excited, bowing to the roaring storm, waving, swirling, tossing their branches in glorious enthusiasm like worship. The gross heathenism of civilization has generally destroyed nature, and poetry, and all that is spiritual.
There is that in the glance of a flower which may at times control the greatest of creation's braggart lords. Trees go wandering forth in all directions with every wind, going and coming like ourselves, traveling with us around the sun two million miles a day, and through space heaven knows how fast and far! Everybody needs beauty as well as bread, places to play in and pray in, where nature may heal and give strength to body and soul. Take a course in good water and air; and in the eternal youth of Nature you may renew your own. One may as well dam for water tanks the people's cathedrals and churches, for no holier temple has ever been consecrated by the heart of man.
Cyber-archaeology is the marriage of the latest developments in computer science and engineering with archaeology. The UCSD-Calit2 has been engaged in cyber-archaeology research in the Faynan district of Jordan, c.
In 1985, Petra was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) because of its unique role in the history of ancient Arabian trade and its spectacular cluster of monuments including elaborate tombs, intricate hydraulic systems and many other features of the Nabataean era, as well the Roman, Byzantine, Medieval and Islamic periods.
The Temple of the Winged Lions and its environs were subject to detailed coverage by balloon photography (Figure 2). A terrestrial laser scanner (LiDAR) was used to collect three point clouds of the interior of the Byzantine Church (Fiema et al. LiDAR captures geospatial information which can be layered with imagery to create an accurate model of millimetric precision.
An essential aim of our 2012 fieldwork was to collect photogrammetric and point cloud data to be utilised in ARtifact, an in-house AR application created for UCSD's Calit2 and CISA3 which allows users to retrieve reference information regarding sites and artefacts on tablet devices.
As part of the processing of the LiDAR and SfM point clouds and photogrammetry from the Byzantine Church and the Temple of the Winged Lions, ARtifact has begun to address the public archaeology issue of what kind of data can and should be annotated over the real-world space to enhance visitors' experiences. Digital archaeology methodologies provide a unique set of twenty-first-century tools to facilitate both research and conservation. The Petra Temple of the Winged Lions Cultural Resource Management Initiative is funded through the US Department of State's Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP).
As of December 31, 2014, I retired from full-time teaching in Humboldt State University's Department of History. But there is another and very relevant way of looking at the relationship between the Old and New Worlds, as the map below illustrates.
To take an indepth exploration of three colonies - Jamestown in the south, Pennsylvania in the Middle, and Massachusetts in New England - and one of the most unusual of all the colonies - Georgia. To compare and contrast the political, economic, social, and spiritual development of the three colonial regions throughout the Seventeenth Century. To realize that diversity in North America was here from the beginning and such diversity makes us uniquely American.
Geographical diversity - mountains, mightly rivers, vast forests, excellent farmland, superior harbors. To gain an appreciation for the deeply-held belief in American Exceptionalism - that we are unique in the world, have a special destiny, and must spread our way of life into new territory. It all flowed downward to the people from a controlling higher authority; human rights were allocated to the people, or distributed to the people, or permitted to the people by an empowered greater entity whose reason for existence was to impose order and structure.
America is exceptional or better than other nations in every respect - economically, politically, socially, and militarily. Within 93 years after the first permanent British colony was settled in North America in 1607, the Spanish, French, Dutch, and British were deeply involved in the great race for empire. By 1600, the Spanish already had a rich empire in North America which included most of current day California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Florida, and Texas, as well as parts of Louisiana and Mississippi. France - The French had established a strong trading colony in Quebec, had built a strong inland empire for fur trading throughout the Mississippi River regions, and had several settlements along important water routes. The British, then, were among the last of the great European powers to gain colonial influence in North America. But remember, during the entire period of English colonization (1607 to 1776), the vast majority of America was populated by American Indians.
First, you will remember that England was recovering from over a decade-long war with Spain.
Second, England had a serious surplus population and not enough food to feed them or prisons to house them. Fourth, the King had an economic motive based upon a new concept of economics - which brings us to our third goal for today. The idea of mercantilism was that the nation, not the individuals within it, was the principal actor in the economy.
Merchants believed that the world's wealth was finite and that one nation could only grow rich at the expanse of another.
Therefore, the nation's economic health was dependent upon merchants who extracted and imported wealth from foreign lands while exporting very little wealth from home. Thus, the goal of both the English king and the financial backers - those who owned the corporations - was to make money. The corporate colonies, therefore, were ventures in capitalism - that is, they were based on an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods are privately or corporately owned and developed. While all knew they could not immediately own land in many of the North America colonies, they knew they had a chance to improve their economic and social standings in a way that they could never accomplish in Europe. Believed that if they were to remain true to their faith, they must form a church of what were known as visible Saints - members of the elect who upheld each other in the proper worship of God. Excommunicated members of the congregation if they strayed from the true path and failed to correct themselves. Never sure where they stood in the eyes of God which contributed to constant introspection and the desire to achieve.
Subject to an essential tension between their inward, spiritual lives - am I serving God or am I going to hell - and their outward, secular lives - I need to make more money and I can only do that by focusing on material means. New England Colonies - Massachusetts (1620), Rhode Island (1636), Connecticut (1636), New Hampshire (1638). Middle Colonies - New York (1664), Pennsylvania (1682), New Jersey (1664), Delaware (1638). Southern Colonies - Virginia (1607), Maryland (1632), South Carolina (1663), North Carolina (1663), Georgia (1732). Central governments, which were representative and responsive to the needs of the majority, and consisted of a governor and bicameral legislature.
Local government town meetings where all white male Church members who owned property gathered regularly to consensually decide matters of local importance.



The geography was hilly and mountainous with many rivers and densely-timbered forests; the soil was rocky. The climate was the coldest within all three colonial regions because it is so far north; it had long, harsh winters and the shortest growing season. Structured around Religious beliefs and values - religion determined social structure and maintained social order in a community where church and state closely related. Multiculture and very diverse - people from many parts of Europe and Africa lived in the Middle Colonies.
Commercial enterprises with small farmers growing diversified crops and craftsmen and merchants providing many services and resources.
Trade that included exported agricultural products and natural resources and imported European manufactured goods.
The geography of the Southern colonies included rivers with deep water estuaries and natural ocean ports. The climate was the warmest within all three colonial regions, and it allowed for the longest growing season within the three colonial regions - 7 months. Single crop economy - profitable, single crop farms growing tobacco, indigo, rice, hemp, and later on, cotton. John Smith publishes A General Historie of Virginia in which he includes this sketch showing Smith taking an Indian chief hostage during a battle. Thus, by 1660, the 40,000 English Quakers were suffering from severe persecution in England.
In 1673, Fox returned from an American visit with the vision of a Quaker community in the New World.
Penn's father - a very wealthy man with close connection to the throne of Charles II - almost disowned his son over the conversion. Upon his father's death, Penn inherited a substantial estate, as well as a claim to a sizable loan his father had made to the Crown.
Thus, in 1682, some 4000 settlers - most of whom were religious dissenters like the Quakers, Amish, Baptists, and Mennonites - had arrived in Pennsylvania. People of diverse nationalities and religions came to the settlement, bringing experienced farmers and established merchants with trading connections. In Penn's First Frame of Government, drafted in 1682, colonists were guaranteed religious freedom, civil liberties, and elected representation.
Anyone who could buy land could own land, and thus a thriving colony of small, independent landowning farmers arose - no clustering towns. Penn worked hard to ensure that no politically powerful landlords would be in control of economically dependent tenant farmers. Penn's policies helped Philadelphia to become a successful trading seaport which was supported by commercial agriculture. A few members found, however, that their pure churches and communities could not flourish in Holland and be free from corruption, distraction, and cultural competition. Under the leadership of William Bradford, 35 Separatists left Holland and sailed to England where they negotiated with merchants from the Virginia Company. In September 1620, 87 Separatists and several dozen others who were either willing to pay their own passage or were hired laborers sailed on the Mayflower bound for Virginia - a very large unchartered area.
But they landed instead on the coast of present-day southeastern Massachusetts at what they called Plymouth. Winthrop set about to recruit devout Puritan families to join him in his religious experiment.
In 1629, an advance crew traveled to Massachusetts to prepare shelters and clear fields for planting.
Social life was also rigidly regulated - every colonist was required to attend church and the church and government determined all standards for sexual conduct, personal behavior, business dealings, parent-child relationships, and marital life. The colony began as a trading corporation but by 1644, the company had evolved into a provincial government.
The Bay Colony almost immediately experienced difficulties with the most populous tribe and the one most resistant to English expansion - the Pequots. The Pequot War did not end until all the men had been killed and the women and children sold into slavery. Five years later, the Massachusetts colonists had the chief of their former ally, the Narragansetts, assassinated so they could claim his land. In 1630, the colony began as a trading corporation, but by 1644, the company had evolved into a provincial government. Consequently, Georgia developed an ethnically and spiritually diverse society unlike that of the other southern colonies.
The New England colonies were economically homogeneous, hosting small, self sufficient farmers living on family-run farms and a few merchants.
The Southern Colonies developed a socially-stratified society based upon English tradition. The Southern Colonies were ruled by the plantation elite who developed a political system that honored local laws and customs based upon their elite, socially-stratified beliefs. The Middle Colonies were ruled by small town governments, each reflecting the diversity of settlement. While each colony and colonial region differed from one another, from the very beginning, the regions also shared some important similarities.
Most of the colonies were business enterprises financed by private companies or individuals.
The colonists isolated themselves as much as possible from the Native Americans and created enclosed societies that were transplantations of the English world they left behind.
The colonists believed themselves to be racially, culturally, and spiritually superior to Native Americans, as well as the slaves they imported from Africa.
Each of the colonies developed class distinctions, largely between rich and poor, free and unfree, educated and uneducated.
Within the first century of European colonization in America, colonists had created strong governments, were involved in a wide array of agricultural and industrial activities, and had established societies that would forever shape the growth of the American continent. By the mid-1700s, three colonial regions existed - New England, Middle, and Southern - and all 13 colonies had become royal colonies. A great deal of political, cultural , socio-economic, religious, racial, and national diversity already existed in America by the end of the 17th Century. The nations of the coastal areas had lost the vast majority of their land - either by sale, invasion, war, or trickery. Throughout all the colonies, a small but vocal voice of resistance arose in response to the social, political, and economic status quo. They grip the ground as though they liked it, and though fast rooted they travel about as far as we do.
Digital advances are enabling archaeologists, traditionally experimenters and early adopters of new technologies, to use ever more powerful and portable devices to collect and analyse vast amounts of information from the cultural and natural environment.
Varied wind conditions and terrain led the team to apply different strategies across the area, for example low-altitude (10–25m) or high-altitude (75m or higher) photography. Screen shot of the LiDAR point cloud depicting the mosaic floor on the south side of the Petra Church.


2001) representing approximately 10 000 000 points, and five point clouds of the Temple of the Winged Lions totalling approximately 28 000 000 points. Such high-resolution laser scanning of endangered cultural heritage sites provides a detailed record of structures which may be under threat from erosion, vandalism or construction. ARtifact on an Android tablet recognising two figures within the point cloud of the south mosaic aisle in the Petra Church. In practice, this allows visitors to point their tablet camera at artefacts or features which are automatically identified and relevant information extracted for on-screen display.
For instance, in the case of the Byzantine Church, not only can the point clouds eventually be included as part of the visitors' digital viewing experience, but also details within individual mosaics can be accessed providing a level of information far greater than is currently available (Figure 5). The application of balloon-based high definition 35mm DSLR photography, LiDAR scanning, SfM photography and AR to provide real-time metadata concerning cultural heritage monuments such as the spectacular Byzantine-period mosaics at Petra provides a unique case study in what is possible over a two-day period when the work-flow of these technologies is integrated. While religious diversity existed from the beginning of British colonization, the vast majority of Euro-Americans were Protestant - and a substantial minority were Calvinist. Some type of self-governance arrived very early in North America, even while the colonists were still under control of the British. The Founding Fathers thus created a society that was an exception to this - rights would not be granted by an outside entity, flowing downward, but instead were innate, inborn and integral to each and every individual. As the map below of world colonization by the mid-1700s indicates, Spain and France had a much greater foothold in the Americas than the English.
To meet their needs, merchants sought assistance from the king who, in turn, benefited from the expansion of corporations. After the Protestant Reformation, the biggest religious debate was about the proper way for a Christian to gain access to the will of God. The New England colonies experienced much independence from Britain during their early years. Officials were annually elected by white, free men who were church members and had sought salvation. Farmland - typically 100-150 acres per family - consisted of fields adjacent to the clustered dwellings in town. The sketch shows a flag-like projection which is more probably an enclosed garden. In 1681, a royal charter made William Penn, a Quaker, the proprietor of the only ungranted land left along the North American coast. All free men were given the vote and the legislature they elected had full governing powers. In England, persecution of the Separatists had become so intense that in 1608 one congregation migrated to Holland. The Company agreed to advance the necessary funds to go to America if the Separatists who could not pay their passage would become indentured servants.
In 1636, the Bay Colony declared war on the Pequots and the following year, the Pequots declared war on Connecticut after they were evicted from their ancestral lands. In 1752, after a great deal of unrest in the new colony due to Oglethorpe's desire to create an egalitarian society, the King made Georgia a royal colony. Simultaneously, rapid economic development, regional conflict and population growth have increased the threat of damage and destruction to global archaeological resources.
After achieving WHS status, and especially since its recognition as one of the 'Seven Ancient Wonders of the World', Petra has attracted large numbers of visitors, challenging the capacity of the archaeological park.
Here, a series of dams in the Wadi Jarra to the south of the famous Treasury monument are currently being excavated and photographed from a vertical angle that will facilitate the construction of point cloud and 3D models. The point cloud will be used to create the geometry of the wadi scene, which allows for the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM).Click to enlarge. The surveys were conducted in a single day using a Leica ScanStation 2 in conjunction with the rapid scanning or 'Rescue LiDAR' methodologies developed by UCSD's ELRAP. Annual scans can track changes and inform conservation practices to prevent further damage.
Different levels of annotation provide in-depth or cursory detail for the travelling scholar or curious layperson alike.
Additionally, images of comparative mosaics or re-creations of lost mosaics might be layered into the digital model and allow for an increased level of educative phenomenology.
Finally, we are grateful to Dr Barbara Porter, Director, ACOR, for her support of this project. That authority could be a king or queen or a parliament and that authority would decide what the people were allowed to have, or to do, or to keep. North and South Carolina and Georgia were royal colonies  which gave the King absolute power to appoint all governors and their councils. The three sides and circular bastions at the corners are common to all three descriptions of the early fort.
The recent partnership between the University of California, San Diego-California Institute of Telecommunications and Information Technology (UCSD-Calit2), the American Center of Oriental Research (ACOR) and the Department of Antiquities of Jordan in the Petra Archaeological Park represents a case study in how cyber-archaeology can contribute to both conservation and research goals of different stake-holders. As Petra and Faynan are both part of the region known as 'Edom' in biblical and other ancient sources, the history and environment of these two areas are interwoven (Taylor 2005; Comer 2012). This program detects matching points in overlapping images and uses photogrammetry and metadata (aperture, shutter speed, ISO, lens type, etc.) to calculate the location of the camera relative to the scene. In the Byzantine Church the survey captured the interior architecture including high-resolution detail on the north and south aisle mosaics. In the case of the Byzantine Church, our scanning preserves a detailed record of the recently restored mosaics.
Visitor access to annotated data collected for scientific documentation purposes also enables a new level of accessibility to otherwise archived information that only a few specialists will otherwise ever see.
Tourism and archaeological heritage management at Petra: driver to development or destruction (Springer Briefs in Archaeology and Archaeological Heritage Management).
Here we outline field applications of cyber-archaeology implemented over a two-day field campaign conducted close to the Temple of the Winged Lions, a structure thought to have been completed c. From the resulting point cloud, the geometry (in this case, relative elevation) is calculated (Figures 3 and 4). Both the interior and exterior architecture of the Temple of the Winged Lions were scanned, as well as surrounding areas, incidentally acquiring a point cloud of the façade of the Great Temple across the way. Finally, photographs are draped onto the resulting 3D models and orthorectified imagery is exported. Simultaneously, a photogrammetric survey was undertaken to collect over 8000 photographs for the creation of point clouds using SfM techniques. This entailed the documentation of every feature from a variety of angles at a comparable photo exposure. These sparser point clouds are used to enhance the high resolution point clouds collected from LiDAR by filling in laser shadows left by the mechanism. Additionally, the high quality imagery collected as part of the SfM survey can be utilised to enrich the photo-realism of the LiDAR dataset.



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