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HART® (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) is a communication protocol based upon the Bell 202 telephone communication standard and uses the FSK (frequency shift keying) principle. Available in quarter-turn, rotary and linear versions, robust Rotork CMA actuators perform numerous process control valve, metering pump and damper applications.
Rotork flow control products have been selected for applications throughout the giant Queensland coal seam gas-to-LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) projects in Australia.
The HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) protocol uses the Bell 202 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) standard to superimpose digital communication signals on the 4-20 mA loop current shown as below figure. In this mode, only the digital signal can be used and the analog loop current is fixed at 4 mA. The need to measure, control, and communicate with machinery and equipment has existed since the earliest days of the Industrial Revolution, with instrumentation systems employing sensors and actuators becoming the backbone of the modern manufacturing plant. The primary form of communication used in analog transmitters is a current loop with a normal range of 4 mA to 20 mA, employing a transmitter, a receiver, and a power supply.
The AD5700-1 complete HART modem IC (Figure 2) integrates all the necessary filtering, signal detection, modulation, demodulation, and signal generation needed—substantially reducing the number of external components required.
When RTS is logic high, the modulator is disabled and the demodulator is enabled, that is, the modem is in receive mode. The receive architecture was chosen to make the AD5700 robust against noise and interferers in harsh industrial environments. RTS and TXD are the important signals for modulation, while CD and RXD are important for demodulation.
Low power is important because all circuitry powered by the loop must consume less than 3.5 mA. This circuit has been compliance tested, verified, and registered as an approved HART solution by the HART Communication Foundation. Besides the industry’s lowest power HART modem IC, Analog Devices also offers complete HART solution capability, including microcontroller products, amplifiers, precision references, switches, ADCs, and current-output DACs.
The AD5700 single-chip HART modem is registered with the HART Communication Foundation as part of a smart field instrument demo solution.
Easy and reliable connection and communication is vital when using a gas detector, which is why Crowcon has introduced the HART Communication Protocol for its IRmax infrared (IR) hydrocarbon detector. The HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) Communication Protocol is the global standard for sending and receiving digital information across analog wires between smart devices and control or monitoring systems.
Featuring dual-wavelength IR sensor technology in a rugged 316 stainless steel package, the ultra-compact IRmax is designed to detect methane gas and other potentially explosive hydrocarbons in the harshest conditions.
As the IRmax contains no components for artificially heating optical surfaces, power consumption is dramatically reduced. Unlike conventional IR gas detectors, the IRmax does not utilise heaters to prevent condensation on windows and mirrors.
Halma is a public company listed on the London Stock Exchange and has over 3600 employees in over 40 subsidiaries worldwide. Provide technical advice to the physical layer working group for the HART communications protocol, and support the development of next generation protocols. The Highway Addressable Remote Transmitter (HART) protocol was developed by the Fisher-Rosemount Instrumentation company in the late 1980’s. CWA provides the support to the standards organization chanel replica that maintains the HART communications protocol used in these smart transmitters. CWA performs analysis and simulations of proposed changes to the protocol and offers recommendations and advice on specification modifications to improve the integrity of the protocol. The original HART protocol adapted the robust BELL 202 modem chanel replica standard invented in the 1960’s for communicating in industrial environments. The HART Server is a MS-windows software module that provides a standard OPC communications interface with HART capable instrumentation. The signal consists of two parts, the analogue 4-20 mA current loop and a superimposed digital variable frequency signal.Traditionally the 4-20 mA loop is used for control and the superimposed digital signal for feedback and configuration.

Both the 4-20 mA current and the digital signal are valid output values from HART instrument. Communication employing 4-mA-to-20-mA analog current signals to carry data and settings over wires has long been in widespread use.
It enables features such as remote calibration, fault interrogation, and transmission of process variable data.
A combination of analog and digital filtering results in excellent sensitivity and a highly accurate output on the RXD pin. It makes possible the industry’s lowest power, complete HART modem that is fully compliant with the HART communication protocol, accurately encoding and decoding HART communication signals in noisy, harsh industrial environments and ensuring a reliable communication interface that is quick and easy to implement and register with the HART Communication Foundation. In 2003, Tracey graduated from the University of Limerick, Ireland, with a bachelor’s degree in electronic engineering. More specifically, it is a bi-directional communication protocol that provides data access between intelligent field instruments like gas detectors and host systems. In this format, HART communicators are used on industrial sites for maintaining and calibrating a host of instruments. It requires less than 1 Watt of power, typically 75-90% lower than conventional IR gas detectors. Instead, its optical components are treated with a highly durable hydrophobic coating called STAY-CLIR that completely prevents signal faults due to condensation.
It will initially provide administrative, accounting, legal and business development services to Halma's subsidiaries, eventually expanding to offer other services such as sales and marketing.
Halma's subsidiaries make products that protect lives and improve the quality of life for people through innovation in market leading products which make its customers safer, more competitive and more profitable. Specifically, CWA offers technical advice to the physical layer working group which is responsible for the digital communication of data on twisted pair copper cables through harsh industrial environments. Recently, the HART Communication Foundation has begun the process of developing a next generation protocol that will quadruple the performance of the current protocol. The 4-20mA signal communicates the primary measured value - the fastest and most reliable industry standard. The polling addresses of the instruments could be from 1 to 15 and each instrument needs a unique address. The HART protocol has become the global standard for sending and receiving digital information over analog wires between smart devices and a control or monitoring system.
The DDS produces a stream of sinusoidal digital words at either frequency, and the DAC converts it to an approximately 493-mV p-p analog sine wave.
In this mode, the relevant blocks are the internal band-pass filter, the ADC, and the DSP engine. The HART bit stream follows a standard UART frame with a start bit, 8-bit data, one parity bit, and a stop bit. The use of the internal or external reference option is controlled by the polarity of the REF_SEL pin. Here, every microamp counts, so if each IC in the design can individually draw a small enough current, the 3.5-mA budget will not be surpassed, and the application will function as required. In addition, components designed to mate easily together are available for the entire signal chain.
It requires 60% fewer external support components than alternative solutions and can provide greater than 75% saving in board area.
She joined Analog Devices as a design evaluation engineer in the DAC Group and has served in that role for seven years. A host can be any software application, from a technician’s hand-held device or laptop to a plant’s process control, asset management or safety system using any control platform.
The key benefit is that site maintenance staff can use a common communicator to maintain all of their safety and process instruments. A HART device can then also be connected in parallel with the signal connections to read the detector’s status information.

A gas detection system using IRmax detectors therefore requires smaller (and lower cost) power supplies and battery back-up systems. Another important role is the provision of R&D and software development assistance to subsidiary companies, taking advantage of India's highly educated workforce. These subsidiaries are assisting India’s thriving economy in areas such as manufacturing, energy, the environment, construction, transport and health. There are more than 2 million HART transmitters installed around the world and it is the leading type of intelligent transmitter in the world.
CWA engineers designed the first version of the physical layer for this next generation protocol.
And, of course, OPC client applications open a wide range of opportunity for improved operations. Any customs fees assessed by different countries and locales are the responsibility of the ordering company, they are not paid by the HCF.
HART®, WirelessHART® and HART-IP™ are registered trademarks of the HART Communication Foundation.
Setup and operation for the 4-20 mA signal is the same as for the standard 4-20 mA control. The digital signal can be used for additional device information including device status, diagnostics, additional measured or calculated values, etc.
Simply put, dc and low-frequency current signals are modulated by independent, higher-frequency signals that switch between a pair of frequencies (Figure 1)—a technique known as frequency-shift keying (FSK).
These current loops are reliable, robust, and highly immune to environmental interference over long communication distances.
In demodulation mode, the modem has two filter configuration options: an internal filter (HART signal is applied to HART_IN) and an external filter (filtered HART signal is applied directly to ADC_IP). For clocking, the device supports numerous schemes to allow a simple low-cost configurable solution.
The user simply needs to upload and install the DD (Device Description) file to their communicator to access a wide range of IRmax functions and displays, alarm thresholds and diagnostic information. Configuration and feedback using the HART® digital signal can be achieved using the host connected to the CVA to select the parameters required.The majority of the CVA user configurable settings can be made over the HART® communication protocol. Therefore, the HART communication including analog and digital information provides a low-cost and very robust complete field communication solution that is easy to use and configure. The DDS engine inherently generates continuous phase signals, thus avoiding any output discontinuity when switching between frequencies. The external filter mode supports the use of the AD5700 in explosion-proof and intrinsically safe environments.
A key benefit of the internal buffering on HART_OUT is the resulting high drive capability, eliminating the need for external analog buffers and the issues they imply. Included is a 150-kΩ resistor, which limits current to a sufficiently low level to comply with intrinsic safety requirements. The AD5700-1 is the first HART modem IC to incorporate an internal, low-power, 0.5% accurate oscillator, reducing the required external circuitry as well as overall cost. This option is recommended for operation in safety-critical applications, where the modem must be isolated from the high voltage of the loop supply. The many functions integrated on-chip greatly simplify the design of HART-compatible systems, resulting in more reliable, cost-effective, and robust networked solutions. In this case, the input has higher transient voltage protection and should, therefore, not require additional protection circuitry, even in the most demanding of industrial environments.

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