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Human development is defined as the process of enlarging people’s freedoms and opportunities and improving their well-being.
Our capabilities are expanded (or constrained) by our own efforts and by the institutions and conditions of our society.
The capability approach is a normative framework used for analyzing well-being, often employed to understand development problems. The state of the nation is often expressed through GDP (Gross Domestic Product), daily stock market results, consumer spending levels, and national debt figures. This composite index has become one of the most widely used indices of well-being around the world and has succeeded in broadening the measurement and discussion of well-being beyond the important, but nevertheless narrow, confines of income. While data are plentiful on the extremes of affluence and deprivation in the United States, the American Human Development Index provides a single measure of well-being for all Americans, disaggregated by state and congressional district, as well as by gender, race, and ethnicity. The data included in the American Human Development Index will help us understand variations among regions and groups. Most people would agree that a long and healthy life, access to knowledge, and a decent material standard of living are the basic building blocks of well-being and opportunity. In the American HD Index, life expectancy at birth stands as a proxy for the capability to live a long and healthy life. The American Human Development Project calculates life expectancy for the 50 states, the 435 congressional districts, women and men, and major racial and ethnic groups from mortality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, and population data from the CDC WONDER database. Access to knowledge is a critical determinant of long-term well-being and is essential to individual freedom, self-determination, and self-sufficiency. Access to knowledge is measured using two indicators: school enrollment for the population age 3 and older, and educational degree attainment for the population 25 years and older. Income is essential to meeting basic needs like food and shelter—and to moving beyond these necessities to a life of genuine choice and freedom. A decent standard of living is measured using median personal earnings of all full- and part-time workers 16 years and older from the American Community Survey, U.S. An Embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination.
In Mammals, including Human, Oocyte is released from the Ovary and swept by the fimbriae into the Oviduct. Trophectoderm is the progenitor tissue of the entire outer epithelial component of the placenta, known as Trophoblast, and provides the functional bridge between the Fetus and the mother. The development of the mammalian embryo is controlled by regulatory genes, some of which regulate the transcription of other genes.
Zummo G, Bucchieri F, Cappello F, Bellafiore M, La Rocca G, David S, Di Felice V, Anzalone R, Peri G, Palma A, Farina F Adult stem cells: the real root into the embryo?
Keller G Embryonic stem cell differentiation: emergence of a new era in biology and medicine. Knofler M, Vasicek R, Schreiber M Key regulatory transcription factors involved in placental trophoblast development--a review.
Nampoothiri LP, Neelima PS, Rao AJ Proteomic profiling of forskolin-induced differentiated BeWo cells: an in-vitro model of cytotrophoblast differentiation. Grapin-Botton A, Constam D Evolution of the mechanisms and molecular control of endoderm formation.
Mancino MG, Carpino G, Onori P, Franchitto A, Alvaro D, Gaudio E Hepatic "stem" cells: state of the art. Roberts RM, Ezashi T, Das P Trophoblast gene expression: transcription factors in the specification of early trophoblast. Babaie Y, Herwig R, Greber B, Brink TC, Wruck W, Groth D, Lehrach H, Burdon T, Adjaye J Analysis of Oct4-dependent transcriptional networks regulating self-renewal and pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells. Boyd NL, Dhara SK, Rekaya R, Godbey EA, Hasneen K, Rao RR, West FD 3rd, Gerwe BA, Stice SL BMP4 promotes formation of primitive vascular networks in human embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies. The Human Development Index (HDI) is the most widely used method of assessing the overall level of human wellbeing across the planet. The HDI is composite statistic that takes into account longevity, educational attainment, and standard of living. In general, global HDI maps track GDP maps relatively closely, as can be seen in the pair of state-based maps to the left. As the demic HDI map posted above shows, exceptional areas also appear at the sub-national level. In terms of human development, China appears much better off on the demic map than on the state-based map.
In global terms, the most important take-home message from the demic HDI map is the low standing of tropical Africa. Commenting Guidelines: GeoCurrents is a forum for the respectful exchange of ideas, and loaded political commentary can detract from that.
OK I’m starting to get your point, less distorted illustrations amount to a sort of geographic normalisation, but comments and critiques raised earlier remain – the proof in the pudding will be in hte making, that is, will these subdivisions be adpoted by others or not? Azolnai is absolutely right — ultimately the merit of the scheme depends on whether it will be picked up by others. GeoCurrents is a forum dedicated to exploring the peoples, places, genes, and languages that are shaping current events around the world.
The aim of GeoCurrents is not to take sides on any of these events, but to help foster an enriching and respectful exchange of information and ideas.
Eco-Authoritarian Catastrophism: The Dismal and Deluded Vision of Naomi Oreskes and Erik M.
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Human development is about the real freedom ordinary people have to decide who to be, what to do, and how to live. At the World Bank in the 1970s, and later as minister of finance in his own country, Pakistan, Dr.
Capabilities—what people can do and what they can become-are the equipment one has to pursue a life of value.
Although certain aspects of the approach can be linked to Aristotle and Adam Smith, it is philosopher-economist Amartya Sen and more recently, University of Chicago professor of law and ethics Martha Nussbaum, who are responsible for its development and proliferation. It is an easy-to-understand numerical measure made up of what most people believe are the very basic ingredients of human well-being: health, education, and income. In a number of countries, the Human Development Index is now an official government statistic; its annual publication inaugurates serious political discussion and renewed efforts, nationally and regionally, to improve lives. The American HD Index measures the same three basic dimensions as the standard HD Index, but it uses different indicators to better reflect the U.S. They are also the building blocks of the American Human Development Index as well as the U.N.
Advancing human development requires, first and foremost, expanding the real opportunities people have to avoid premature death by disease or injury, to enjoy protection from arbitrary denial of life, to live in a healthy environment, to maintain a healthy lifestyle, to receive quality medical care, and to attain the highest possible standard of physical and mental health. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a baby born today is expected to live if current mortality patterns continue throughout his or her lifetime.

A one-third weight is applied to the enrollment indicator and a two-thirds weight is applied to the degree attainment indicator. Income enables valuable options and alternatives, and its absence can limit life chances and restrict access to many opportunities. In Humans, it is called an Embryo from the moment of Fertilization until the end of the 8th week of gestational age, whereafter it is instead called a Fetus.
The mature Oocyte, a haploid cell that contains half the normal number of chromosomes, is surrounded by a protective coat of noncellular material called the Zona Pellucida.
Trophoblast, which ultimately consists of a range of terminally differentiated cell types, performs the majority of the absorptive, immunoprotective and endocrinological functions of the placenta.
These regulators activate or repress patterns of gene expression that mediate phenotypic changes during stem cell differentiation.
Wealthy countries, not surprisingly, tend to have high HDI numbers, whereas poor countries generally post low numbers.  Exception to this general rule can be instructive. As expected, coastal China scores higher than the rest of the country, but even the poorest interior regions come out relatively well. Whereas virtually all parts of tropical Africa fall into the bottom two color categories, only one region outside of Africa does the same, that composed of Nepal and the Indian state of Bihar. In the GDP maps, the region composed of Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Costa Rica and Ecuador comes out ahead of its neighbor to the south, the region composed largely of northern Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay.
The current post uses the earlier for of the index, as new figures for most sub-national entities are not yet available. As China posts slight developmental improvement annually, the overall figure for 2009 should be slightly higher than that from 2008. We ask that you as a reader keep this in mind when sharing your thoughts in the comments below. All of the country-level data is from 2009, as in 2010 the World bank changed the manner in which the HDI is calculated.
At first glance, the map of violent crime (which is unfortunately somewhat dated) appears almost random. Haq argued that existing measures of human progress failed to account for the true purpose of development—to improve people’s lives. Basic capabilities valued by virtually everyone include: good health, access to knowledge, and a decent material standard of living.
Those poor in capabilities are less able to chart their own course and to seize opportunities.
The core premise of the capability approach is that well-being should be defined by people’s real and actual opportunities to undertake the pursuits that they desire (often referred to as ‘capabilities to function’) – and through these freedoms, be whom they would like to be.
The most commonly used gauge of population health the world over, life expectancy at birth represents one-third of the overall American HD Index. Education builds confidence, confers status and dignity, and broadens the horizons of the possible—as well as allowing for the acquisition of skills and credentials.
In organisms that reproduce sexually, once a Sperm fertilizes an Egg cell, the result is a cell called the Zygote. For Fertilization to occur, a haploid Sperm cell must bind to and penetrate the Zona pellucida, fuse with the cell membrane of the Oocyte, enter the Oocyte cytoplasm, and fuse its pronucleus with the Oocyte pronucleus. Although the initial Trophoblast cells of Humans divide like most other cells of the body, they give rise to a population of cells wherein nuclear division occurs in the absence of Cytokinesis. Oct4 (Octamer Binding Transcription Factor-4) belongs to the POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) transcription factor family.
As is the case in regard to GDP measurements, the demic map portrays broad regional patterns of development relatively well, while missing a number of local particularities captured by the conventional map. It treats “standard of living,” for example, as reducible to per capita GDP (PPP), which is simply not the case.
On the quantile-based maps posted here, some oil-rich countries (Qatar, Equatorial Guinea) end up in significantly lower color categories in regard to HDI than they do in regard to GDP, reflecting the unbalanced nature of their development.
The region composed of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala ranks much higher in terms of human development than it does in regard to GDP. The state-based map also captures the low level of human development in tropical Africa, but not so clearly. In particular, he believed that the commonly used measure of Gross Domestic Product failed to adequately measure well-being. One illustration of the difference between capabilities to function and formal freedoms is found in the area of educational opportunity. It has been an annual feature of every Human Development Report since, ranking virtually every country in the world from number one (currently Iceland) to number 177 (currently Sierra Leone). For example, while the standard index measures access to knowledge using the average number of years that students spend in school, we have chosen instead to use educational attainment, a more demanding indicator. These three core capabilities are universally valued around the world, and measurable, intuitively sensible, and reliable indicators exist to represent them—two critical considerations in the construction of a composite index.
Globalization and technological change have made it extraordinarily difficult for poorly educated Americans to achieve the economic self-sufficiency, peace of mind, and self-respect enabled by a secure livelihood. In animals, the development of the Zygote into an embryo proceeds through specific recognizable stages of Blastula, Gastrula, and Organogenesis. The original type of Trophoblast cells constitutes a layer called the Cytotrophoblast, whereas the multinucleated type of cell forms the Syncytiotrophoblast. Another important type of cells in this developmental scheme is the PG (Primordial Germ) cells, which will give rise to Eggs and Sperm in the adult organism. The POU family of transcription factors can activate the expression of their target genes through binding an octameric sequence motif of an AGTCAAAT consensus sequence.
But the state-based framework also misses local distinctions, those found at the sub-national level. The HDI also ignores gender equity and environmental cleanliness, which many observers regard as significant aspects of wellbeing.
A number of other countries, ranging from Kenya to Cambodia to Cuba to North Korea, on the other hand, fall into higher categories on the HDI map, reflecting in part successful educational programs. Sri Lanka and Kerala have long been noted for near universal literacy and impressive levels of public health, achievements realized despite meager economic resources.
But the position of China on the two HDI maps also reveals a problem with the underlying data. In terms of health and education, much of tropical Africa posts figures lower than what might be expected on the basis of per capita GDP. As the state-based map shows, the relatively high position of Peru in human development is a significant factor here.
Little is known about the specific genes that regulate these early events or how interactions among cells or how cellular interactions with other factors in the three-dimensional environment of the early Embryo affect development. Prior to gastrulation, at about the time of primitive streak formation, these precursor cells split off from the proximal region of the epiblast and migrate into the Extraembryonic Mesoderm.
Recent evidence indicates that Oct4 is almost exclusively expressed in ESCs (Embryonic stem Cells).

But all told, the HDI is still the most comprehensive and widely used measurement of human development, and therefore deserves extended consideration.
North Korea’s elevated HDI position, however, may point to statistical shortcomings and perhaps governmental manipulation of the data; certainly if a “malnutrition and food insecurity” component were added to the index, the position of North Korea would drop sharply. All regions of China fall into higher color categories on the demic map than China as a whole does on the state-based map. Intriguingly, Peru’s new government is emphasizing human development, arguing that the previous administration put economic growth above broader developmental considerations. Haq published the first Human Development Report, which was commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme.
However when comparing students from low-income neighborhoods with more affluent students, low-income students’ real freedoms to attend college can be constrained by, among other things, low quality local high schools and financial considerations. The processes, by which a fertilized Egg becomes an embryo, called embryogenesis, include coordinated cell division, cell specialization, cell migration, and genetically programmed cell death (Ref.1). After fertilization, the Zygote makes its way to the Uterus, a journey that takes five to seven days in humans. In the uterus, the Blastocyst hatches out of the Zona pellucida, the structure that originally surrounded the Oocyte and that also prevented the implantation of the Blastocyst into the wall of the oviduct. It is not until the proximal Epiblast cells reach the Extraembryonic Mesoderm that they are committed to becoming PG cells (Ref.7 & 8). Whereas in strictly economic terms, western India has the advantage, in terms of overall social development, southern India comes out ahead. As the two maps apply the same numerical ranges to the same color categories, such results are a statistically impossible.** What this seeming error indicates is that data collected at the state and the sub-state levels are not necessarily comparable. Formal freedoms, in this and many cases, are necessary but not sufficient to provide true capabilities to function.The capability approach to well-being, which prioritizes the ability to actualize opportunity into ‘beings and doings’, contrasts with other theories of well-being which focus on subjective measures, such as happiness, or on material means, such as income. Many of the molecular and cellular events that occur during the second week of Human Embryonic development, help establish the Placenta.
Subsequently, its expression becomes restricted to the ICM and down regulated in the Trophoectoderm.
The first cleavage produces two identical cells and then divides again to produce four cells. About post fertilization days 8 to 9 in humans, the ball-shaped embryo implants into the Uterine wall.
Usually the cells remain together, dividing asynchronously to produce 8 cells, 16 cells, and so on. Besides Oct4, other transcription factors like Nanog and SOX2 (SRY (Sex Determining Region-Y) Box-2) are also expressed in ICM and ESCs and are downregulated during differentiation. In Humans and Mice, at about the eight-cell stage, the embryo compacts, meaning that the formerly loose ball of cells comes together in a tight array that is interconnected by gap junctions. One is the Hypoblast, which lies next to the Blastocoel and gives rise to the Extraembryonic Endoderm, which forms the Yolk sac. These specialized membrane structures consist of an array of six protein molecules called Connexins, which form a pore that allows the exchange of ions and small molecules between cells.
BMPs (Bone Morphogenic Proteins), on the other hand, induce differentiation into extraembryonic lineages, either in the presence or absence of serum. By the third to fourth day the embryo develops to a compact ball of twelve or more cells called a Morula. The Epiblast cell layer is split by small clefts that eventually coalesce to separate the Embryonic Epiblast from the other Epiblast cells, which form the Amnionic cavity. After several more divisions, the Morula cells begin to specialize and form a hollow sphere of cells called a Blastocyst or Blastula.
Once the lining of the Amnion is completed, it fills with a secretion called Amnionic (Amniotic) fluid, which serves as a shock absorber for the developing Embryo while preventing its desiccation.
Much of the genetic and developmental information has been derived from the mouse where most information exists.
The outer layer of the Blastocyst is named the TE (Trophectoderm) and the cells inside ICM (Inner Cell Mass). At the start of the third week of Human development, the cells of the Embryonic Epiblast begin to differentiate. Some important proteins found in Trophoectoderm differentiation include GCM1 (Glial Cells Missing homolog-1), ID2 (Inhibitor of DNA binding-2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein) and Hash2.
The latter are referred to as Extraembryonic tissues and include the Yolk sac, Allantois, and Amnion (Ref.2 & 3). Hash2 gene is necessary for the specification of Spongiotrophoblast and Syncytiotrophoblast. Likewise, the gene, GCM1, must be active for Syncytiotrophoblast to develop from its precursors.
At that time, a primitive streak forms in a specific region of the Epiblast along the posterior axis of the Embryo. The transcription factors believed to have a positive association with Trophectoderm specification have been inferred primarily in two ways: by their expression patterns in embryos, ES cells and TS cells and by the consequences of gene disruption on embryonic development.
By the end of the third week, they generate the three primary germ layers of the Embryo?Endoderm, Mesoderm, and Ectoderm. Many of these transcription factors also control the expression of genes characteristically expressed in trophoblast but not in the epiblast, primitive endoderm and their derivatives.
They require the activation and inactivation of specific genes at specific times, highly integrated cell-cell interactions, and interactions between cells and their non-cellular environment, the extracellular matrix.
ES and Trophoectoderm cells are beginning to provide insights into the changes in gene expression that accompany lineage specification and the subsequent post-specification events that lead to functional Trophoblast derivatives (Ref.9 &10). The forward-moving Epiblast cells spread laterally, a migration that induces the formation of the Mesoderm and the Notochord. The Notochord is a temporary, rod-like structure that develops along the dorsal surface of the embryo and will ultimately connect the AVE (Anterior Visceral Endoderm) and the node.
At the anterior end of the primitive streak is the node, a two-layered structure and important signaling center in the embryo. The ventral layer of cells in the node comes from the Epiblast and generates the notochordal plate, which then forms the notochord.
Endoderm, which will give rise to the Gut, also develops near the node, along the sides of the notochord. Meanwhile, the anterior region of the Mesoderm that develops from the primitive streak prepares to give rise to the heart. The Anterior Epiblast generates the Neuroectoderm and the Ectoderm that covers the surface of the Embryo. The Ectodermal tissue that lies dorsal to the Notochord will generate the Neural plate, which will round up to form the Neural tube, the precursor to the Central Nervous System (Brain and Spinal Cord) (Ref.4, 5 & 6).

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