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Northouse (2013) wrote that Stogdill performed two survey trying to identify what traits individuals have to lead successfully.  The first survey was between 1904 and 1947 and the second survey was completed from 1948 to 1970 (p. Although the leader should initiate the activities, one of the followers may become the emergent leader (a team member that communicates successfully with others, Northouse, 2013, p.
The self-confidence trait is the one trait that I am still working on.  However, it does take self-confidence to admit that a person cannot do all of the assignments themselves and ask for assistance in order to complete the project. This entry was posted on Thursday, May 22nd, 2014 at 8:14 pmand is filed under trait, Uncategorized. I agree with your analysis and evaluation of the various traits involved in successful leadership. Currently, I am a member of a very small knit community that who are the first parents to embark on the opening of a new Charter school in my area. What is so sad about this entire situation is that instead of being about the children in the school, the leadership of the school became an egotistical competition. As an example, I recognized this past week an individual that is in a assigned leadership position and began to assess his leadership abilities through the light of leadership as a process and not position. This week I traveled to Tobyhanna Army Depot in Northeast Pennsylvania where I participated in meetings with many of the management level people.
I went for several walks throughout the industrial areas and talked to people working on the shop floor. The trait perspective believes that leadership “resides in select people and reflects leadership to those who are believed to have special, usually inborn, talents.” (Northouse, 2013, p.
While leadership is certainly a process that involves both the leader and the followers, traits play an important part in the situation. As you might imagine, that was not necessarily the best way to find people with leadership traits.  It did result in the promotion of some good leaders, but simply put, it was a real hit-or-miss proposition. Following that transition, the new promotional test consisted of a written exam, followed by a structured interview and several role-playing scenarios.  Seniority was no longer a factor in the process. I don’t know if I completely agree with the trait approach, but I can say with certainty that the revised testing procedure, which featured extensive personal interactions with a review board, seemed to produce a more consistent result which made it a better predictor of future performance than the previous testing process. Being a CHRO is an important part of being a servant leader because it is how a leader can show employees that they are the priority. Since this will be an ongoing dialogue with some of my classmates, it makes sense to introduce myself in this initial blog. Personal experiences in my last few years with the agency I worked for inspired me to study leadership. I believe that I was an “accidentally” authentic, transformational leader in my former job. So far, we have looked at the Trait and Psychodynamic theories or approaches to leadership (Northouse, 2013). Emotional intelligence (recognizing your own feelings as well as the feelings of others) and social intelligence (feeling empathy and acting in accord with it) were severely lacking in the administrative team that I worked under (PSU WC PSYCH 285 L.2, p.
As with the trait approach, the psychodynamic approach relies upon the lifelong development of self-awareness.
I would consider myself a thinker and a very open minded individual and I have personally thought about what makes up a good leader a time or two.
Before reading one sentence of formal leadership literature, my definition of a leader would have been defined as: A person with the ability to influence an individual or group of individuals to accomplish a task.
The table describes the distal (trait-like) and proximal (state-like) attributes that “good leaders” possess.
There are five major leadership traits; intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability (Northouse, 2013).
So overall, I think it’s important to distinguish between the power of being a leader compared to the ability to get things done. I, however, was cursed to inherit a team of three leaders that in every regard exhibited one or more dark-side personality traits. In 1994, brothers Bert and John Jacobs, founders of the Life is Good Company, came up with an idea that changed their lives forever. Transformational leaders “recognize the problems of a present system and offer a vision to overcome these problems,” while also being “talented at sharing their visions” (Lesson 10: Transformational Leadership, 2014, p.
Transformational Leaders are able to build trust in their followers through personal example and an image of self-confidence (Lesson 10: Transformational Leadership, 2014, p. Now years after the first drawing of Jake, Bert Jacobs speaks as a motivational speaker at a number of conferences and their image of positive energy continues to grow along with their business. The earliest approach to the study of leadership sought to identify a set of traits that distinguished leaders from nonleaders. The traits that show relatively strong relations with leadership are discussed below.Judge, T. Many observers believe that Carly Fiorina, the ousted CEO of HP, demonstrated high levels of intelligence but low levels of empathy for the people around her, which led to an overreliance on numbers while ignoring the human cost of her decisions.Karlgaard, R.
General mental ability, which psychologists refer to as “g” and which is often called “IQ” in everyday language, has been related to a person’s emerging as a leader within a group.
Psychologists have proposed various systems for categorizing the characteristics that make up an individual’s unique personality; one of the most widely accepted is the “Big Five” model, which rates an individual according to Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Self-esteem is not one of the Big Five personality traits, but it is an important aspect of one’s personality. Research also shows that people who are effective as leaders tend to have a moral compass and demonstrate honesty and integrity.Reave, L.
There are also some traits that are negatively related to leader emergence and being successful in that position. Condoleezza Rice had different responsibilities as the provost of Stanford University compared to her role as secretary of state for the United States. Despite problems in trait approaches, these findings can still be useful to managers and companies. Many studies searched for a limited set of personal attributes, or traits, which would make someone be viewed as a leader and be successful as a leader. 40).  One negative aspect is there is not a “definitive list of leadership traits” (Northouse, 2013, p. That doesn’t mean I haven’t been put in leadership positions, and that doesn’t mean I have failed in those positions. Being the first parents to enroll our children means we get to see all of the successes and failures of the new school. But it is ironic that as I am watching this, I am also studying leadership and all of the various approaches and theories on what leadership is exactly.
The vision that was painted for us when we first heard about the school from the director was amazing. Maybe being scared of crashing and burning with the rest of “could be leaders” is enough to keep anyone away from trying to be a leader.
Many people in assigned leadership positions demonstrate many of the concepts that we have been learning about in our PSYCH485 course. I always made the assumption that this individual was a good leader because of their management position, rank, and external traits. The people in attendance were all high quality leaders in their own right and they fit my stereotypical idea on how a leader should look. They can influence other by providing ideas to improve processes, speak up when they see unsafe acts, or just encourage others that may not be having the best of days.
Emotional intelligence concerns the “ability to understand emotions and apply this to life’s tasks,” (Northouse, 2013, p. It is important to decipher a leader’s personality traits in order to determine how well they will work with their followers. Following a major change in administration, I was fairly certain that I was learning far too much about what leadership isn’t. While I don’t believe that personality traits or types necessarily make a leader, they can certainly influence a leader’s effectiveness. I have also thought about what makes a “good” leader and I would define a good leader as the following: A person with the ability to influence an individual or group of individuals to accomplish a task happily and to the best of their abilities. It combines both the innate traits of the individual with the skills that are learned throughout life to describe a successful leader. Many of my personal beliefs will now be changed based upon the research that has been done in this area. I’m sure everyone has had a boss or coach or any other form of person in a position of power who didn’t have one or more of these traits. Is it more important for a leader to lead those who follow or to be able to accomplish a task.
There are plenty of inept bosses who are completely outdone by their employees every day, yet they remain in a position of power while the employee remains in a lesser position.
Bert and John, through their creation of a vision and spreading of a positive idea, converted from two young men selling t-shirts out of an old, used van, to not only the founders of a $100 million company, but also transformational leaders. Transformational leaders focus on sharing personal bonds and appealing to emotional states of their followers (Lesson 10: Transformational Leadership, 2014, p.
By embracing the characteristics that transformational leaders possess, Bert and John Jacobs prove to be excellent examples of transformational leaders for their followers at Life is Good.

What were the personality characteristics and the physical and psychological attributes of people who are viewed as leaders? Specifically, people who have high mental abilities are more likely to be viewed as leaders in their environment.House, R. Several of the Big Five personality traits have been related to leadership emergence (whether someone is viewed as a leader by others) and effectiveness.Judge, T. For example, to celebrate Microsoft’s 25th anniversary, Ballmer enthusiastically popped out of the anniversary cake to surprise the audience. The degree to which a person is at peace with oneself and has an overall positive assessment of one’s self worth and capabilities seem to be relevant to whether someone is viewed as a leader.
For example, agreeable people who are modest, good natured, and avoid conflict are less likely to be perceived as leaders.Judge, T. For example, knowing about leader traits helps organizations select the right people into positions of responsibility.
Some traits that are consistently related to leadership include intelligence (both mental ability and emotional intelligence), personality (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, self-esteem), and integrity.
20).  In my leadership assignments, I have tried to use all of these traits to lead the team at one time or another. Self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness: Applying social cognitive theory to leadership.
Being these parents also means we get to have front row seats as the newly minted director of the school fails.
Of course when I am studying a topic, I can’t help but apply what is being learned to everyone around me.
These fears are probably why motivation is listed so high on the needs of successful leaders. Under routine circumstances, most of my previous everyday experiences with these individuals would not have included an assessment of certain leadership traits or techniques. Now I realize that my vision of what a leader is included factors that might not have been all that valuable when making an assessment. The men all wore either suites or shirt and ties while the woman wore dresses or paint suites; there was nothing out of place. It was great to have a chance to catch up with some of the friends that I worked closely with in the past.
The process based perspective of leadership defines it as “a phenomenon that resides in the context of the interaction between leaders and followers and makes leadership available to everyone.” (Northouse, 2013, p. I have no doubt now that leadership is not something reserved for those in the assigned management positions, but something much more.
My verbal response was “Wow, where do I begin?” However, my first line of thought went to traits.
The trait approach assumes that a leader that works better with their followers will result in a more successful organization, (Northouse, 2013).
My current major is Organizational Leadership, with minors in Human Development and Family Studies, Labor Studies and Employment Relations, and Sociology. Three are college graduates, and I will openly admit that I was thrilled to attend my very last high school graduation on Friday – whew!
But, transparency in my relationships occurred naturally, and I worked to facilitiate growth in my staff. By adding “happily and to the best of their abilities” to the definition emphasizes a point that not all leaders and good leaders and I believe good leaders are born with leadership traits that gives the an advantage of those who are not born with those traits. Zaccaro describes the cognitive abilities, personality, and values of a person combined with the social skills, problem-solving skills, and expertise of an individual yield itself to an effective leader (Zaccaro, 2004). I would say that the main role a leader plays, at least in a work environment, is making sure that everyone is accomplishing the goals that were set out for them.
That leader would be intelligent and capable of communicating and accomplishing goals in an effective way. I once had a boss who, in my opinion, was entirely inept at his job as a supervisor of employees.
These often go hand in hand, but plenty of situations can and do arise where the majority of work done is by followers, rather than the leader. Maybe the employee has terrible management skills and would make an even worse boss, regardless of how well they do their job. Bert and John Jacobs accomplished this through their choice of their way of life by being humble and spreading their optimism and enhancing their image of optimism to the best of their abilities. After a few Life is Good Festivals, and raising over a million dollars, Bert and John are still looking to spread more optimism. Because of the problems in measurement of personality traits at the time, different studies used different measures. Leaders with high self-esteem support their subordinates more and, when punishment is administered, they punish more effectively.Atwater, L. The key to benefiting from the findings of trait researchers is to be aware that not all traits are equally effective in predicting leadership potential across all circumstances. The main limitation of the trait approach was that it ignored the situation in which leadership occurred. As Northouse (2013) stated narcissistic leaders aren’t always wrapped up in themselves and vain, but they are proud of their accomplishments and their visions (p.
Successful leaders must really want what they are trying to achieve or else they wouldn’t be so willing to put their pride on the line. So far, this class has developed an awareness of these characteristics that I would have otherwise failed to recognize. Tobyhanna is an industrial facility for the Department of the Army that repairs communications and electronics equipment and it is filled with hundreds of blue collar workers. I think now think of leadership more as a verb then noun now that I understand what leadership actually is. Northouse (2013) suggests that leadership is not a trait that a leader possesses but instead, it is a “transactional event,” (p.
Each of these traits fit in with the traits that a successful leader is likely to possess, (Northouse, 2013).
A leader with a high level of emotional intelligence can understand the emotions of the team members, their own emotions, and use the emotions to lead effectively. Jennifer possessed multiple traits that made her an effective leader and, as a result, her team achieved their common goals.
My direct supervisor freely admitted that she did not feel empathy, that it just didn’t make sense to her. I am a huge fan of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Northouse, 2013), and plan to enroll in the certification program after graduation. As a person who already believed that 80% of who we are we are born with, the trait approach to leadership obviously caught my attention. This is the best model that I have seen thus far that aligns with my personal assessment of good leadership. I’m looking forward to my transition from a novice to someone who is knowledgeable in the subject. The most important responsibility of the leader is to guarantee his followers are working toward their common goal.
After making a good amount of money the brother joked that “after we got new mountain bikes, we didn’t know what to do… (growing up) we got a sense of what is really fulfilling…friends, family, laughter and love” (Chun, 2012).
After receiving letters from people who wore Life is good clothing, the brothers realized how many people they have begun to influence and how important their influence has been. Because they are both dominant and sociable in their environment, they emerge as leaders in a wide variety of situations.
Therefore, it is more useful to specify the conditions under which different traits are needed. Quite possibly it is because I have watched so many leaders fail, and it is really not a pretty sight.
But in this situation, I believe the problem I am witnessing is the failure of a Productive Narcissist. It hit me that I’m sure to find leaders here that do not fit my past definition of a suit and tie leader. I knew from our leadership lessons that leadership is a process and that it involved influencing others.
It’s good to know that leadership can come from many areas and it is not limited; you really can’t tell who is a leader by just looking.
The five traits that are central to this list are integrity, intelligence, sociability, determination, and self-confidence, (Northouse, 2013). Jennifer was aware of the emotional atmosphere in her department and could sense when there was discord among the members. Years ago, I persuaded the former administration of my agency to contract with a professor from PSU Altoona to provide a day-long seminar which included implementation and interpretation of the MBTI.
As a novice to psychology in general I’d like to discuss a few of the topics that have caught my attention. Northouse (2013) states that the “trait perspective suggests that certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that make them leaders”.   One argument of trait leadership is that traits alone do not guarantee a leader.

You could relate this to a boss who run runs a tight ship in his office and makes sure his employees are working efficiently. Transformational leaders exhibit the characteristics of having a vision and rhetorical skills to share that vision, are able to build a trusting image of self-confidence and personal example, and have personalized leadership (Lesson 10: Transformational Leadership, 2014, p. John took the idea of this hero and drew what is now the face of their company, Life is good, which is a stick figure known as Jake. With regards to growing their optimistic image, retailers helped the brothers build on Jake who evolved from just a man to a man eating ice cream, biking, fishing etc. The depth of the meaning of the brand was ultimately understood by Bert and John when a young girl who was diagnosed with terminal cancer was wearing life is good apparel while doing an interview. In recent years, though, after the advances in personality literature such as the development of the Big Five personality framework, researchers have had more success in identifying traits that predict leadership.House, R. Out of all personality traits, extraversion has the strongest relationship with both leader emergence and leader effectiveness. Leaders whose integrity is questioned lose their trustworthiness, and they hurt their company’s business along the way. But the fall came when the director had to hire a school board, and the school board questioned some of the decisions he was making. There is bound to be conflict within a team and if it is not resolved, it could result in the team being less productive. Prior to returning to school, I was employed by a nonprofit organization as a Program Specialist for 33 years. Working for a narcissist is not a pleasant experience; they don’t know themselves and they don’t care to know others.
This is the reason that the trait argument fell out of favor for so long by the leadership scholars.
They would ideally be self-confident, since it would make leading a group of people easier compared to someone with low self-confidence.
However, this same boss does little to no work of his own outside of his position of power over his employees.
On the interview, when asked why she was wearing something that expressed “life is good,” when she had only a short time left to live, she replied “before I was sick, I took my life for granted, but now that I might not live so long, I want to make sure I enjoy and appreciate every day” (Chun, 2012). This is not to say that all effective leaders are extraverts, but you are more likely to find extraverts in leadership positions. Maybe if the school board had read Maccoby’s book on how to work with narcissistic leaders they would have realized that they couldn’t smash the director’s ego and still expect positive results out of him. Integrity is a quality of a person that sense of responsibility for their actions, (Northouse, 2013). She would approach the situation as soon as possible in attempts to diffuse the tension and create peace among the group. Self-awareness and self-regulation are essential to a leader’s success, especially in terms of earning the trust of followers (Northouse, 2013).
We teamed up to gain insight into why our perceptions and reactions often differed, and we learned to work with our diversity rather than against it. Many studies have tried to put the pieces of the puzzle together and I came across a table in Wikipedia that was created by Steve Zaccaro, a professor at George Mason University.
And most importantly, a leader should be comfortable in any social situations which may arise.
And last of all, he didn’t have the work smarts to actually accomplish his job in an efficient manner. Bert and John Jacobs absorbed the fact that their message was truly affecting people in such a powerful and positive way.
Despite this line of thinking, I still immediately began thinking of traits that I believed a successful leader should have. Now, I am a work-study student at the PSU Altoona Campus gym making a whopping $8.50 an hour part-time.
It’s important for a leader to make connections and to maintain relationships with coworkers and others. Despite all of this, that man was my boss for almost a year and has been a boss (and still is) for over a decade.
According to the interview, a few days after Jake was created, the brothers went to the street with t-shirts with Jake’s face symbolizing life is good and “sold 48 t-shirts, in 45 minutes” (Chun, 2012) and realized how big this idea can become. In the effort to grow such a positive, happy image, Bert and John were able to connect with their followers and continue to spread optimism and good vibes. The inspiration in Bert and John grew and has led them to create an annual life is good festival to raise money to help kids. He is known as an introvert, and he admits to not having meetings because he does not like them.Buckmaster, J. The director would go around the board, the board would find out and undo everything the director had accomplished, and eventually the director stopped trying. I began recalling leaders whom I consider successful that I have come into contact with in the past.
From this point Bert and John worked on building the image of Jake in effort to spread optimism to as many people as possible.
Individual attributes and leadership style: Predicting the use of punishment and its effects.
Intelligence is important for a leader because it can have an effect on problem solving skills, (Northouse, 2013). Individual differences in leadership emergence: Integrating meta-analytic findings and behavioral genetics estimates.
For example, in small, entrepreneurial organizations where leaders have a lot of leeway to determine their own behavior, the type of traits leaders have may make a difference in leadership potential. Jennifer was an excellent problem solver and if she ever came to a stumbling block, she sought assistance. Most importantly, charismatic leadership, which is among the contemporary approaches to leadership, may be viewed as an example of a trait approach.
In large, bureaucratic, and rule-bound organizations such as the government and the military, a leader’s traits may have less to do with how the person behaves and whether the person is a successful leader.Judge, T.
Sociability concerns having social relationships with the individuals in the group, (Northouse, 2013). Conscientious people are organized, take initiative, and demonstrate persistence in their endeavors.
Self-esteem: Relationship with leader behavior perceptions as moderated by the duration of the superior-subordinate dyad association. Self-confidence is the ability to recognize that one’s own competencies, (Northouse, 2013).
A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures.
Finally, people who have openness to experience—those who demonstrate originality, creativity, and are open to trying new things—tend to emerge as leaders and also be quite effective. It is possible that those with high self-esteem have greater levels of self-confidence and this affects their image in the eyes of their followers.
Self-esteem may also explain the relationship between some physical attributes and leader emergence. For example, research shows a strong relationship between being tall and being viewed as a leader (as well as one’s career success over life).
It is proposed that self-esteem may be the key mechanism linking height to being viewed as a leader, because people who are taller are also found to have higher self-esteem and therefore may project greater levels of charisma as well as confidence to their followers.Judge, T. For example, bravery is likely to be a key characteristic in military leaders, but not necessarily in business leaders. Scholars now conclude that instead of trying to identify a few traits that distinguish leaders from nonleaders, it is important to identify the conditions under which different traits affect a leader’s performance, as well as whether a person emerges as a leader.Hackman, J.
We should caution, though, that intelligence is a positive but modest predictor of leadership, and when actual intelligence is measured with paper-and-pencil tests, its relationship to leadership is a bit weaker compared to when intelligence is defined as the perceived intelligence of a leader.Judge, T. The effect of physical height on workplace success and income: Preliminary test of a theoretical model. In addition to having a high IQ, effective leaders tend to have high emotional intelligence (EQ). People with high EQ demonstrate a high level of self awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The psychologist who coined the term emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman, believes that IQ is a threshold quality: It matters for entry- to high-level management jobs, but once you get there, it no longer helps leaders, because most leaders already have a high IQ. According to Goleman, what differentiates effective leaders from ineffective ones becomes their ability to control their own emotions and understand other people’s emotions, their internal motivation, and their social skills.Goleman, D.

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