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The definition of Leadership is as diverse as the vast variety of personal and professional style. 1) A List of Core Leadership Attributes, 2) a List of Technical and Professional Skills that need to be achieved to receive the distinction of mastery required for Leadership and 3) a List of Required Advanced Interpersonal Skills that equip Leadership Teams with the Interpersonal Skills that allow leaders to motivate, manage and move the organization into a leadership position. Once you define what Leadership means for your organization, you then have to go about assessing your capability to build and maintain leadership within your organization. Create a Leadership Plan that looks forward only one-year and clearly defines: 1) What Leadership Is, 2) What Skills and Abilities are going to be focused on and Developed and 3) What tangible actions will be measured and monitored to show how the organization and individual professionals within it have grown and changed. That’s why in this 6,500+ word article, I am going to list over 100 crucial leadership qualities and characteristics along with some of my favorite leadership quotes.
This comes from their passion, pride and desire to become better and the motivation to do things better than everyone else.
To succeed as a leader, you need to be motivated, and no one else can do that for you except your self. Leaders hold them selves and the people around them to a higher standard than most, both on a personal and professional level. Unfortunately, confidence can be one of those things you either have or don’t have, but I believe that it can be practiced and learned. Confidence has to do with your inner perception of your ability to fulfill a particular role and is built through your experiences and dealings during your life. You gain strength, courage and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. Where others might think a project or task is too difficult, leaders face those challenges with energy and positivity. Positivity is contagious, so be sure to focus on your attitude and understand you set the tone for your business and the people around you. Being accountable means that you accept responsibility for the outcomes expected of you, both good and bad. Great leaders take initiative to influence the outcome and take responsibility for the results. Aristotle called courage the first virtue, because it makes all of the other virtues possible. Leadership sometimes involves making unpopular decisions which requires a certain level of bravery.
If you want to be more courageous you need to try new things, have more trust and confidence in others, as well as be able to raise difficult issues that others would leave unresolved. Great leaders are able to focus their attention on the problem at hand without being distracted. Even when your extremely busy, you need to make sure that you’re participating in the process with team members and not giving orders from the sideline. Personal Story: There's a local Mexican restaurant that I love, not only because the food is awesome, but I love how it's run. They understand that the things who make them different are the things that define their character. Many leaders are perfectionists, which tends to make them critical of themselves and the people around them.
You should have a healthy sense of humor about life and not take your self too seriously (which can be difficult when you want others to take you seriously). Effective leaders have the ability to laugh at them selves and understand that they are only human and can make mistakes like everyone else. The amount of passion you have directly affects your attitude, energy and that of your followers as well.
Having strong moral values is an important leadership trait because it will allow others to clearly identify with you.
Having sincerity and honesty in all your dealings assures your followers of your intentions. Enticing a deep sense of admiration and loyalty in your followers in key to successful leadership. Being respected makes it easier to put your plans in action and have others quickly buy into your vision. Personal Story: The first job I ever had was taking foreign exchange students to California attractions like Disneyland and the beach. When dealing with tough (sometime moral) decisions, great leaders should do so in accordance with their own values and ensure their actions are positive, not damaging. Also, when you govern the moral principles of the people you are leading, you can establish an unspoken ethics code that helps better guide their decisions and behavior.
When we are talking about loyalty and leadership it’s usually about the followers, but loyalty is not a one way street. You need to give and show firm, constant support to your followers if you ever hope that they will give the same to you. Successful leaders are magnetizing and charming which inspires devotion in their followers. This charisma can be difficult to learn, it usually requires most people to go outside of their comfort zone by speaking with more strangers as well as learning how to command the attention and speak to a group of any size. It might be cliche, but you really should be doing what you love and what you’re passionate about. The ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you is crucial.
People with a high degree of emotional intelligence know what they’re feeling, what their emotions mean, and how these emotions can affect other people. Similar to emotional intelligence, once you can understand your emotions, you can learn to control them. The ability to stay calm, assess your self, then make adjustments comes down to simple self-control. If you can control your emotions and reactions to the world, you can better control the outcomes.
Leaders know that many situations and decisions in business involve risk and there is an opportunity cost associated with every decision you make. You need to be open to people’s feedback and criticisms and know how to admit that you’re not perfect and when you’ve made a mistake.
Discipline in leadership is less about punishing and rewarding others, but rather having self-control, inner calm and outer resolve.
A high level of determination and willpower play a significant part in your ability to be self-disciplined. Leaders know how to remove them selves from a situation and observe it from multiple perspectives with a open mind.
You need to identify, evaluate and address risks so you can positively affect the outcome by handling that risk in the best-suited way. Every road to success to filled with people who will find any reason to give you why it won’t work.
You need a healthy level of self assurance that gives you a practical (sometime impractical) sense of faith in your cause that drives you forward with no excuses, roadblocks or negativity holding you back. Maturity comes from being courteous, knowing how to communicate like an adult and being the bigger person in difficult situations. Also, your confidence in your self and your ability to follow through without excuses are strong indicators of maturity.
Leaders understand the value of building long-lasting relationships with people in their industry and make a point to pursue partnerships whenever they can. Both employees and customers want to work for and purchase from people they like, you need to be one of those people if you want to succeed. Situations where public speaking is required can range from just speaking up at a meeting, to pitching a new idea in a room full of people.
Not only is this important for you to be able to get your message across clearly, but it improves your credibility as a leader. People respect those who are able to honestly share and react calmly to good and bad news while being able to quickly put a plan in action to move forward. That’s why practical leaders are fair, sensible, never make unfound assumptions and have sound judgment when making decisions.
In order to give your followers the feedback, support and attention they need to be successful, you need to make a true effort to listen when they speak. You need to be there for your people during important situations as well as help team members across your organization find solutions to roadblocks. Leaders stay true to the things that make them unique and tirelessly move towards their goals despite outside pressures to change or conform.
When you’re laser focused on your goals, it can be difficult to focus on the needs and feelings of others people. You need to know not only how your actions effect people, but what you need to do in order to show understanding and sympathy for others. Most people go out of their way to avoid confrontation for fear of an argument, leaders know how to approach others in a nice, honest way to address concerns. Stopping a problem earlier on will save a huge amount of time (not to mention headaches) versus leaving it unresolved.
As a leader, you need to set others up for success by entrusting them to make good decisions. Empowerment is not just about giving your followers the freedom to make their own choices, it’s about giving them the tools and processes to make those choices effectively and productively. Leaders know how to get what they want and can be very convincing (which can be good and sometimes bad). They do this by tapping the desires of others and building a sense of trust with people in order to come to a desirable outcome.
From settling differences to overseeing a large deal, leaders should be practical, fair and firm in their negotiations.
When social media is used as a tool to engage, educate and connect with followers, it can have powerful results and attract countless new people to your cause. When great leaders speak, they are able to clearly relay their thoughts in a way that’s easy to understand. Then they make sure there are no miscommunications and that their point(s) got across clearly. This ensures projects and tasks that are delegated get done the right way and without mistakes. Leaders need to be able to share the methodologies and processes that make their business run with the people they work with and hire.
If your managers are poorly trained, your staff will be poorly trained and it will reflect in your sales and operations.
That involves being open to honest feedback and the ability to have a positive attitude about that feedback and use it make adjustments that benefit everyone. This can be difficult, but your trust in your team largely depends on the people you hire, your ability to train them and the work you delegate to them. If you believe in their ability to do those things, you need to trust your team to get the results you want and not micro-manage every project.
But great leaders have the ability to inspire their team and make sure they know what they are doing has a bigger impact than they realize. Nike is about celebrating athletics not sneakers, Apple is about changing the world, not computers.
Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it. Sadly, as great as those ideas might be, they will never go anywhere if no one else knows about it. Not only can leaders share their vision, they have the ability to break that vision down into steps and a strategy that can be understood by others and executed over time.
By understanding what people really want, you can help them better perform by properly incentivizing (not only with money) their work and progress towards larger goals.
To get the best from others a leader needs to understand their motivations, be positive, generous, open-minded and be able to control their attitude. If you want to build a ship, don't drum up the men to gather wood, divide the work, and give orders.
For better or worse, human beings tend to care mostly about themselves and are motivated by selfish altruism. In the same way leaders are quick to give their team credit, they are also quick to take responsibility for negative outcomes. Great leaders know that when they accept responsibility for their actions, they can postivey effect the outcomes. A good leader is a person who takes a little more than his share of the blame and a little less than his share of the credit.
Being decisive doesn’t mean making a decision quickly, it means making the right decisions in a practical, timely manner.
Don’t allow your decisiveness to alienate team members from the decision making process. After all, if your an entrepreneur, you usually get to work with people that you like which can be distracting.
When you show respect towards other people, it is much easier to build meaningful, beneficial relationships. It’s one thing to identify your top performing employees, but you also need to nurture their success and help them grow within your organization.
In order for you to successfully lead a growing number of people, you need to enable your key people to lead as well and help push progress forward.
You can enable others to act by giving them the tools and processes they need to succeed, trust them to handle the rest.
When it comes to leadership, the ability to judge situations and people with fairness is essential because it shows them how you value them.
There’s many examples in history of leaders who took advantage of the people they were leading, things hardly ever worked out in their favor.
The competition doesn’t wait and there will always be someone out there trying to outwork you. Leaders understand that in most situations it’s about who gets there first which is why they value of both persistence and urgency.
Being decisive is not just about making decisions quickly, it’s about fostering a confident and effective way of thinking, deciding, and acting. In order to make the best decisions possible, understand and assess each option carefully while approaching the right people and resources to help you make your decision. Every overnight success you’ve heard about likely has another side to the story: the long hours, bootstrapping and testing many iterations before finding the right combinations.
Leaders need to appreciate the process as much as the outcome and stay committed to their vision through thick and thin.
Like professional quarterbacks, great leaders follow strict routines to keep their skills sharp and their delivery consistent.
Remember that practice makes perfect and the more consistent you can be, the more efficiently you and your organization will be.
Leaders embrace this as well as the uncertainty and risk that are inherent parts of owning and running a business. Great leaders have the ability to recognize those changes and guide their organization and team accordingly. Personal Story: One of the first businesses I started was focused on developing and designing mobile apps for retailers. It’s fascinating how many business owners and managers refuse to change the simplest aspects of their business because they have the “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” mentality. While that might work for a time, as years pass the business and their leaders who refuse to learn, adapt and grow will be left behind. To be an effective leader you need to be open to learning about new things and exploring new experiences.
Leaders need to face life and business with strength and determination, especially when things get difficult. When most people might give in, that’s the exact moment you need to push through and overcome adversity. When faced with a challenge, smart leaders are able to find creative solutions to problems. Being resourceful involves understand all the resources at your disposal, adapting by applying other experiences, sometimes bending the rules and never being of afraid to ask for what you need. Effective leaders approach roadblocks with a high level of positivity and creative problem solving that allows them to overcome situations that others might give up on. The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.
Knowing how to trust your gut, quickly analyzing situations as well as the people you’re dealing with and knowing how-to spot a bad deal or scammer is an important aspect of leadership. When you make good, practical decisions, you build trust with your followers that gives you the power to make future decisions quicker, with less pushback. Making good decisions involves generating good alternatives and analyzing each option diligently. In order to think two steps ahead, you need to develop a long-term mindset, using research to make decisions and take time to reflect on your decisions.
When you plan for the long-term, you can layout, then take small, actionable steps towards a bigger picture. The opposite of proactive is reactive, which means you react to the world around you instead of taking steps to positive effect the outcomes.
If you want to positively effect you life and the lives around you, start by learning to control (not manipulate) situations to cause something to happen, rather than waiting for it to happen.
Sure, we all work for someone, whether it’s stakeholders, clients or someone else, we usually have the ability to make our own schedules.
Leaders need to use this flexibility the become more available and involved in organization initiatives as well as other people’s lives. After any failure, big or small, you usually have two options: give up or find a better way. You can’t sail your ship if you don’t know where the sail is, likewise, you can’t run your business if you aren’t organized. Leaders know that value in keeping their personal and professional things (both physical and electronic) in order. Contrary to popular belief, creativity is not something people are born with, like many leadership skills it can be learned and practiced. Go out of your way to explore new experiences, learn new things and practice open mindedness by continually asking new questions.
It can be difficult to let go of logic in some situations, but uncertainty and risk are a natural in business. Even though leader usually means “the person in charge” it’s important that you seek out the experience and skill sets of trusted advisors, partners, customers and peers. To stay prepared for any road bump in business, leaders actively pursue new experiences that allow them to learn and grow.
From starting a new venture, to coaching little league, challenge your self to be better by enjoying new experiences. Read everything related to business and your field that you can get your hands on, both print and digital.
Leaders understand that education does not stop after school, in order to stay relevant, you need to stay informed with both timeless and timely resources.
Leaders are often driven be an insatiable desire to learn, push the limits of what’s possible and explore things other people have or will not explore themselves. Competence in most cases refers to someone being properly qualified and educated, but just people some people can learn something quicker than others doesn’t necessarily mean they are more intelligent. Willpower, determination, consistency and willingness to learn play important roles in your competence as a leader. Life is full of distractions, great leaders know how to remain on track and block out distractions. Remaining focused involves keeping your eye on the bigger picture, allocating your time deliberately and training your brain like a muscle to eliminate non-essential work. Intentional learning is a continuous process of acquiring, understanding information with the goal of making your self more intelligent and prepared on a specific subject.
Which is why they take the time to enjoy life and what they have already achieved because they know nothing can last forever. Leaders working toward a brighter future want to share that future and it’s success with the people they care about.
Leaders must act with generosity and gratitude by effecting positive change in the lives of the people around them. Improving the lives of people around you also means helping them become better individuals. Help other people grow by encouraging and fostering their potential both professionally and personally and help them learn from your experiences.

Great leaders believe that success is something to be shared with everyone because there is no “I” in team. When you share your success with others, you build loyalty, trust and admiration that enables you to push the success even further. You need to be generous and make sure your team can share the organization’s success as well as grow personally and professionally with your guidance. They convey their mission clearly to followers and posses an unwavering drive that keeps them on track to their goals. Smart leaders know how to productively challenge the process, find bottlenecks and make improvements.
If you really want the key to success, start by doing the opposite of what everyone else is doing. Like a professional athlete, leaders strive to make improvements and become better every singe day. They know that there is always room for improvements that can be made to make themselves and their team more effective.
Great leaders are driven by performance and the motivation to see how far they can take it. While it may seem counterintuitive, the best leaders often act more and servants by enabling their team to be great. As a leader, you have more resources at your disposal than the average person, it’s important you share those resources with people in your organization. It’s important to make sure your voice is heard as a leader, but in a constructive, helpful way. You need to get your point across clearly, and involve your self in the day-to-day operations of key team members. This often refers to not depending on others, but a true leader knows how to collaborate with the right people while remaining resourceful when faced with a setback or roadblock on their own. A firm belief in a cause can often be a driving force in a leader’s ability effect change in the world.
This deep faith often comes from being inspired and staying inspired throughout your journey.
Smart leaders know not to expect results over night, whether it’s a new marketing campaign or an entirely new business. Leaders know that patience is not about waiting around for results, it’s about following through and executing the plan, not giving up when you face hurdles, working hard and learning how to enjoy the journey as much as the destination. It takes a lot to effect the status quo, leaders not only have high energy, but they know how to find and utilize their most productive time.
Remember, working long hours doesn’t always equal success because time is a finite resource. But energy can be fueled by staying healthy and active, passionate and positive about your work as well as establishing productive rituals. Now that I’ve shared my favorite leadership qualities and leadership quotes with you today, I want to turn it over to you. Brian Downard is the author of this blog and Co-Founder of ELIV8, a consulting firm that helps entrepreneurs and business leaders grow their revenue in a digital world. Nearly every community – large or small, urban, suburban, or rural – must cope, to some extent, with the use and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. The difference is sometimes in the way they approach the problem.Those that are most successful often try to prevent the problem from starting.
Most of the models we’ve described in this chapter look to both the present – addressing a current issue – and the future.
The Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) outlines a process that an organization, initiative, community, or state can follow in order to prevent and reduce the use and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. This framework can also be applied to other community issues, such as violence, health-related problems (obesity, heart health, diabetes, HIV), homelessness, or racial tensions and discrimination. The availability of alcohol in the community (number of liquor stores, willingness of adults to buy alcohol for teens). The Strategic Protection Framework addresses risk and protective factors with a five-phase process. The Community Tool Box has hundreds of how-to sections that can be used to help implement the Strategic Prevention Framework in your community. Given that there are a large number of models available, what are the advantages of using SPF? SPF aims to create long-term social change by focusing on risk and protective factors that can be influenced by short- or medium-term prevention efforts. SPF’s focus on risk and protective factors can improve the long-term well-being of the community.
These disadvantages largely apply to those who seek CSAP grants to implement SPF, either through state funds, or directly from CSAP. The reality in most communities, however, is that given the problems that already exist, most issues don’t get addressed until they reach crisis proportions, or at least become cemented in the public consciousness. You can often hurry this process along by assessing where the community is at, and beginning a campaign to raise that readiness to the next step, or whatever step is necessary for the community to get on board with a prevention plan.
When a community problem has entered the public consciousness, but before it has reached crisis stage. When there’s a community economic development effort under way, and people are looking at the community’s quality of life. When a grassroots movement for community improvement has arisen, and is looking for a way to address community issues. State Incentive Grants (SIGs), which go to states to fund statewide assessments and to be distributed among communities for state-monitored local prevention programs. Drug Free Community Support Program grants, which go directly to local community coalitions. Grants to state and local organizations, institutions, and agencies to address methamphetamine use.
The first answer, then, is that SPF should be implemented by those who administer these grants at the state and local levels. If you take a community perspective on prevention, then stakeholders comprise all sectors of the community, and should be represented in planning, implementing, and evaluating the framework. All or most of these groups would probably be part of the Epidemiological Working Group mandated under the various grants, but should also be part of any SPF effort. In addition, there are those who might run SPF programs that aren’t funded by CSAP, but that simply use the framework to structure their work. A typical universal program might involve community education efforts through the media, schools, and organizations. Populations at risk that might be the subjects of a selective program vary from one community to another. Indicated programs focus not on probabilities (populations likely to be at risk, for example), but on specific individuals who are known to be already involved in substance use. One of the ironies of a prevention effort is that those most affected and damaged by the issue – substance users and abusers – are those least likely to want to be involved. A community assessment of substance use can be conducted using some or all of a number of methods. In surveys, and particularly in talking to community members, there may be some people you specifically want to reach. Community leaders – those people from various walks of life whom others look to for leadership and guidance.
Those who deal with the population of interest – health and human service workers, teachers, police, youth outreach workers, etc.
Determine the most pressing need that a prevention effort can influence.There may be many possible areas where prevention is needed – among teens, among elders, among people below the poverty line, etc. Not only does the community have to be ready to take on a prevention effort, but it has to have the capacity to do so. This doesn’t mean that everyone in the community has to understand, support, and be willing to participate in a prevention program, although this may be an ideal.
Use what you know about the community’s level of readiness to publicize the issue and encourage participation. If the community is already well aware of the problem – you may be able to concentrate on gathering support and volunteers to start planning your program.
Protective factors for CTC reside in individual characteristics, in bonding (with family, particularly, but also with mentors and other significant adults), and in the healthy beliefs and clear standards imposed on adolescents by families and the community. Developmental assets (similar to protective factors) for children and adolescents can also be divided into external and internal. The goal here is to understand how these factors operate in your community – which are important and which less so, which are most likely to influence substance abuse among populations at risk. Research and choose an evidence-based approach that can be used with the risk and protective factors you’ve settled on.
Individual programs are aimed at helping individuals to develop the knowledge, attitudes, and skills they need to change their undesirable behavior, or to maintain healthy behaviors. Environmental programs seek to alter the environment to make it easier for people to change or maintain their behavior. In some cases, however – because communities and populations often differ in subtle and not-so-subtle ways – even the program that comes closest to addressing your situation may have elements that are unlikely to work in your community, or lack elements that would improve its effectiveness.
If you’re funded by CSAP, you might try to negotiate appropriate changes in the implementation of the evidence-based model you’ve selected. Your plan should be detailed enough that it could still be followed even if everyone involved in the planning suddenly decided to retire to a tropical island and left no forwarding address. Only by monitoring and evaluating your effort can you tell just how successful it is, and know what parts of it you need to change or strengthen. The results of your evaluation should be reassessed on a regular basis (typically once a year), and used to adjust your program to respond to changing community needs or to change or improve areas of it that aren’t working as well as they could. When you make major changes, tell the community about them, and ask for help if you need it. The Community Tool Box considers evaluation such a valuable part of any intervention or initiative that it devotes four chapters – 36 through 39 – to it. CSAP’s Strategic Prevention Framework is intended as a structure for substance abuse prevention programs, although, because of its generality, it could easily be used for other prevention programs as well. The Strategic Prevention Framework, like several of the Other Models for Promoting Community Health and Development.
CSAP provides funding for prevention both through states and directly to organizations.  More important for the majority of prevention programs not funded by CSAP grants, the agency also provides web-based tools and information to help with each phase of development and implementation.
Roger Connors, CEO, New York Times Bestselling Author, Bestselling Author of How Did That Happen? The Accountability Sequence highlights how to hold others accountable for achieving Key Expectations. To ensure the expectation is consistent with the current vision, strategy and business priorities.
To ensure that the expectation is portable and can be clearly communicated through the Expectations Chain.
To ensure that progress toward achieving the expectation can be tracked and that ultimate fulfillment of the expectation can be measured. The Why-What-When® approach to communicating your well-formed expectations provides a powerful tool for taking the next step in the Outer Ring of the Accountability Sequence.
To be most effective, the "Why" needs to speak to people as individuals and convince them that accomplishing the "What" and "When" matters to them on a personal level.
With the "Why" and the "What" clarified, you can set about framing your expectations in terms of time. Restate the expectation, agree to use the Alignment Dialogue and ask: How aligned are you on a scale from 1-10 (1 is low, 10 is completely aligned)?
When an inspection reveals that the Key Expectation is unmet, in jeopardy of being met or will require some extra steps to ensure delivery, then go to the Inner Ring and have an Accountability Conversation. The four variables of motivation, training, culture and accountability, provide direction and clarification to those who hold others accountable. People at every level of an organization and in every type of business imaginable struggle with the same fundamental question: "How do I effectively hold other people accountable for results?" Experience shows that it's not an easy question to answer. The Others Track Training provides a simple, rational and fair path to getting it right, a path you can take time and time again to hold people accountable in a way that builds morale and gets results.
In order to create effective Leadership in your organization, you have to first define what it means in and for your organization. Strong Point Strategy helps companies define and develop their own components of Leadership. This is usually defined in terms of money, but it may also be considered in terms of time, person-hours, or any other finite resource. The people around you will notice if you are dedicated and working hard to grow your business.
Unfortunately, we were a little early to the party and found it difficult the line up consistent projects. They focus on the community as a whole, and try to devise ways to help the community members who are most at risk – typically youth – to avoid the behaviors or situations that would put them in harm’s way.
In this section, we examine another that does the same – the Strategic Prevention Framework developed by CSAP, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, part of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the U.S. By the same token, while SPF focuses primarily on youth, there is no reason that the model can’t be adapted to any population group. Risk factors are those elements within an individual or her environment that make her more susceptible to particular negative behaviors or conditions. We’ll list the phases here, and discuss them in more detail later, in the “How-to” part of the section.
The above Strategic Prevention Framework diagram is overlaid with the core competencies for community health and development found in the Community Tool Box.
To begin, a working group is assembled that includes representatives of all stakeholders (those who will be affected, directly or indirectly, by the prevention effort) to survey the community and decide on the most pressing issue that can be successfully addressed with the resources available. Developing the community’s capacity to engage in a prevention effort involves mobilizing the human, organizational, and financial resources necessary, and then providing the appropriate training and technical assistance so that the community has the knowledge and skills to plan and do the work. In this phase, a diverse group of stakeholders creates a plan with goals, objectives, and action strategies aimed at meeting the needs of the community.
The framework involves the representation of all stakeholders in the process from the very beginning, including the group the effort is aimed at.
A cornerstone of the framework’s philosophical base is that prevention only works when the whole community supports it, and when the real needs of the community are taken into account. The emphasis on risk and protective factors both makes prevention manageable and makes it seem more manageable.
Rather than prescribe a particular program, SPF provides resources to help communities find best practices that suit their own needs.
Through its website, CSAP links communities and prevention programs to a great number of online resources from a variety of sources. Over and above their influence on the issue at hand, most risk and protective factors are general as well. It should be noted that, while CSAP makes grants to states and communities, those grants are relatively few.
While it certainly makes sense to use proven practices, rather than trying to reinvent the wheel, it is also important to understand that even the best programs don’t necessarily work everywhere, and that all parts of a given program may not be appropriate in a particular situation.
Reporting requirements on CSAP and SAMHSA grants are considerable, and cover every aspect of the development, implementation, and evaluation of the prevention effort.
For those who simply want to use the framework, CSAP does provide access to a large amount of information, and can make it possible to put together an effective prevention program using local resources.
Thus, the best time to embark on a strategic prevention initiative may be when the community is ready to turn its attention in that direction. The first part of a prevention initiative may in fact be an effort to increase community readiness. Some of those resources may come from CSAP, in the form of grants and technical assistance. The ideal time to begin a prevention effort is before the problem has become so large that prevention may take a back seat to dealing with its immediate effects, but after people have become aware that it could get considerably worse without some intervention. The best way to reduce the risk for any population, and particularly for youth, who are still unformed in many ways, is to keep them from embarking on high-risk behavior. Because SPF has the potential to influence substance abuse over the long term, it’s an ideal way to approach quality-of-life issues. The multiple answers here stem both from the way CSAP grants are made and from the fact that SPF is intended to be inclusive and participatory. They might be state and local health and human service officials, coalition coordinators, human service providers, universities, hospital and clinic administrators, etc. As stated constantly in the Community Tool Box, we believe that, in most cases, participatory planning and implementation of programs leads to efforts that both meet real community needs and assure community support.
They are likely to be community-based health or human service organizations, community coalitions, local health departments, or similar groups that engage in prevention efforts either to respond to community needs or as part of a larger local initiative. It might try to explain the effects of alcohol and various other drugs, conduct prevention classes in middle or elementary school, identify risk and protective factors, let people know where they can get more information, and generally raise community consciousness and concern about the issue. Older people who live alone, far from family and often isolated, may be at risk for alcohol abuse. Depending on the program, these individuals could be identified and referred by school personnel, parents, the court system, law enforcement, social workers, therapists, or others who have contact with them. In the assessment phase, you determine community needs and resources, and identify existing risk and protective factors. Perhaps the best way around this, in addition to recruiting workgroup members from the population(s) most at risk, is to include those recovering from alcohol and drug dependency.
In general, the more methods of collecting information you use, the better picture you’ll get of the issue in your community. A focus group is a specific kind of guided discussion intended to get information on a particular topic from a group. They may hold leadership official leadership positions in government or institutions, be respected for their professional status or social leadership, or they may simply be known as people of integrity and wisdom. Legislators and others who determine laws and regulations regarding substance use, as well as those opinion leaders in the community who help to determine attitudes toward it. There are different ways that observation might be used in this kind of community assessment. Much of your work may have been done for you by various federal, state, and local agencies. Community readiness is the degree to which a community is ready to take action on an issue. An instrument for determining community readiness that can be easily applied and scored by community members can be found in Community Readiness, and related Community Tool Box sections that support improving readiness. The questions are where your effort can have an impact, and what you have the resources to do. Rather, it implies that there has to be a critical mass of support and knowledge in order to run an effective program. The group that conducted the community assessment and others that have been interested in the prevention effort from the beginning constitute a core group. A logic model will expand the SPF framework to help you map out exactly how you’ll approach.
Depending on what people in the community are aware of, you may want to draw attention to the issue of substance abuse, and emphasize its existence and nature in the community. As the community grows more knowledgeable about substance abuse, it should be easier to recruit people to help with the prevention effort.
You may be able to find volunteers who are experienced in curriculum development, public relations, youth work, filmmaking, and other areas that might benefit the effort. This team might be the same as the assessment team, might include some members of the assessment team and some others, or might be entirely different. If the planning team is truly inclusive, at least some members of it may never have had experience in meetings or in group problem-solving, let alone in planning a community intervention. Respecting everyone, making clear that everyone’s opinions are equally valued, drawing in those whose thoughts haven’t been heard, dealing with ideas rather than personalities, listening carefully to everyone without interruption, keeping an open mind, being willing to compromise, not allowing anyone to dominate, reaching consensus, etc.
Methods of approaching problems in a group, including such techniques as brainstorming, small-group discussions, and role plays.
This might mean information on the effects and health implications of various widely-abused substances, which substances present the greatest problems, which populations are most at risk, etc.
What they are, how they work, how they can be used in the context of a prevention program, and some examples. Many team members might not have thought about figuring the cost of a prevention program into their plans, or that program resources include not only funding, but also volunteer time, community knowledge about the issue, community and media support, local expertise (from professionals, organizations, and institutions), and the willingness of local officials and the community to change bylaws and policy to favor prevention.
What constitutes an evidence-based program, how to sort out those that can be reproduced from those that are specific to the situations in which they operate, and how to tinker with such programs to make them more appropriate for a particular community. CSAP recommends hiring a consultant – The KU Work Group or a similar organization – to work with the community on this step, but the reality is that many organizations or communities won’t have the resources for that.

CSAP (see Tool # 2) adds a societal domain to these four, encompassing the roles of the national media, the Internet, and the wider culture in forming community and adolescent attitudes and behavior. The adolescent has the opportunity to exercise responsibility, and to feel in control of important parts of his own life. The adolescent understands the value of learning and education, and can apply herself in school and other areas of learning.
The adolescent possesses the personal and interpersonal skills to conduct his own life and to engage in positive relationships with others. You should select a manageable number of factors – you can’t address everything at once: that will almost undoubtedly doom you to failure by overextending your capabilities and resources and diluting your efforts in any one direction.
Drugs may be equally available in the next community or neighborhood, or through sources other than those you crack down on. Evidence-based programs are those that have been formally studied using carefully-structured research designs, and have been found to be effective in preventing substance abuse with the populations they served. We’ve already discussed universal (aimed at the whole community), selective (aimed at a particular at-risk population), and indicated (aimed at identified at-risk or substance-involved individuals) programs.  Another way to look at programs is as either individual or environmental.
At the same time, for programs it funds directly or indirectly, it requires that, once they choose an evidence-based model to implement, they copy that model exactly.
In these cases, it’s important to acknowledge your experience and understanding of the community and its history. If you’re not funded by CSAP, but are simply using SPF as a framework for a community prevention program, you can make your own adjustments as you plan your program.
Reinventing the wheel is unnecessary, especially if you already know that the wheel works quite well.
Strategy includes not just what the program itself will look like, but a number of other elements as well.
The assumption here is that a prevention effort, to be successful, must be aimed at and involve the whole community.
This phase isn’t easy, but it will be a lot easier if you’ve done a good job planning and have the support of the community.
Whether your program uses paid staff or volunteers – or a combination of both – it’s important to find the right people to work in it. While timelines can often be affected by external factors – how long it takes to hire staff, a contractor’s work on space, etc.
You’ve chosen an evidence-based model because it has proven itself and because it seems to fit your community, your population, and the issues they’re dealing with.
You may have obtained the resources you need for the moment, but that doesn’t mean you should relax. Through placing news articles and press releases, presentations to groups, maintaining a presence at community events, and other actions, you can broadcast the program’s successes and continue to generate community interest and support.
Is the program having the desired effect on the risk and protective factors you’re aiming at? Has the effort led to the desired outcomes – lower rates of drug and alcohol use, fewer drunken driving deaths, better services for elders?
Adjustments may require more volunteers, more funding, a different method of reaching people, or some other change that the community can assist with. You can find information about almost any aspect of evaluation in the more than 30 sections that comprise these chapters. The components of its process – assessment, capacity building, planning, implementation, and evaluation – are similar to those of the other logic models and frameworks described in this chapter. We define a "Key Expectation" as "An expectation that must be achieved and will require the commitment from everyone you depend on in the Expectations Chain® to do what needs to be done to deliver the result." Key Expectations are formed when not delivering is not an option.
Take the complimentary anonymous Others Track Team Assessment and get the report to find out how your team or organization ranks and compare yourself to the general business population. Consisting of three simple steps, this dialogue helps you determine the current level of alignment (or Complyment) and what else you can do to gain Complete Alignment. As you begin to inspect how closely expectations are being fulfilled, people begin to validate that you are entirely serious about holding them accountable.
They make up the Inner Ring Solutions and are fundamental to the Accountability Conversation that allows you to deal effectively with people who are falling short on expectations, whether they report to you or not.
Strong Point then helps to create the assessment tools that test, measure and scale the Leadership, Technical & Professional and Advanced Interpersonal effectiveness of the organization as a whole.
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Others find themselves doing everything they can think of, and barely staying even, or – worse – losing ground. Although they don’t ignore law enforcement, medical treatment, policy decisions, public education, or other actions necessary to address the problem as it already exists, these successful communities try to reduce substance abuse permanently by taking a long-term perspective. Protective factors are the opposite – those elements within an individual or his environment that make him less susceptible to those negative behaviors or conditions. In many upper-class communities, at least until 20 or so years ago, large amounts of alcohol were consumed at dinners, weddings, etc., with the assumption that guests – many of them underage, and most at least slightly drunk – would then drive themselves home. The program is evaluated in terms of process (Did you actually carry out what you planned to do in the way and time period you planned?), impact (Did your program have the intended effect on the targeted risk and protective factors?), and outcome (Did the program achieve its overall community-change goals?). This leads to community ownership of the prevention program, which in turn leads to community participation and support, both major factors in its potential for success.
It provides a broad range of proven options to choose from, and encourages communities to develop their own variations where appropriate, thus empowering them to solve their own problems and develop their own assets for the future. The fact that it doesn’t seem overwhelming makes communities more likely to keep at it and be successful. In particular, we refer you to the Community Tool Box supports for Strategic Prevention Framework founding in Tool #1 of this section.
Such protective factors for youth, for instance, as parent-child communication, attachment to the community, self-respect, and high expectations are likely to lead not only to a reduction in dangerous and self-destructive behavior, but to young people themselves developing into better parents and citizens, and becoming role models for the next generation. States distribute much of their funding to communities, but grants are competitive, and it may be difficult, particularly for communities with few resources, to obtain the funds that might increase those resources.
While the total amount of these grants is relatively large, the number of recipients is still quite small, and most are large organizations and institutions.
An insistence on following program implementation guidelines exactly can ignore the knowledge of the community that may be a local organization’s greatest asset.
For many small community-based organizations with limited staff, this requirement may make it impossible to compete for grants.
In that case, having to contend with the potential problems raised by points 2 and 3 is not an issue. In fact, with its emphasis on risk and protective factors, particularly for youth, the framework could act as prevention for nearly any undesirable issue, as well as promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. You may not begin to devise and implement a prevention program for a while, but the readiness development is all part of the same effort.
Others may come from the community itself, and consist of people with successful prevention experience, local sponsorship for prevention efforts, funding from community foundations or municipal agencies, media support, etc. It’s a good time to persuade the community that a prevention program can help to create a future where the issue at hand simply isn’t an issue at all. Working with young children and their families, for instance, can have its effects not only when those children become adolescents, but – more profoundly – when they become parents themselves.
An ongoing, successful prevention program is a community asset that can be used to attract businesses and their employees to a community. A prevention effort can be an ideal vehicle to address such change, because it can deal with both the current situation and the next generation. It might be aimed at a neighborhood, at the community as a whole, or even at a whole county or state. Excessive drinking during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome, which produces babies with a number of serious developmental problems, almost always including brain damage and abnormal facial features, and often including growth problems and mental retardation. Their substance use is often one of the reasons that they are homeless, and contributes to their difficulty in changing their status. In such cases, it would be not only the participants, but those who referred them who are the users of SPF. Since the prevention effort takes a community perspective, the workgroup should involve all sectors of the community. They understand the substance abuse culture from the inside, while being clear on the need to prevent people from joining that culture.
If the sponsor of the assessment is the municipality (the Mayor’s office, for example), a large institution or organization (a university or a large-city United Way), or a state agency, it will probably have the resources to do that. They can be given to groups or individuals, at random or by selection (population, geographic area, age, etc.) If they’re well-conducted, they can cover various topics, and yield a broad range of answers. It can be used effectively for assessment, but requires a trained facilitator to draw out the participants and keep them on the topic. You might focus on youth, for instance, even though the worst problems are among adults, in the hope of curbing substance use in the future. It could mean walking the streets and noting conditions, watching to see whether kids approach adults to buy alcohol for them outside of liquor stores, noting obvious crack houses, or simply watching interactions in various neighborhoods and parks. Once you understand your community’s level of readiness, you can plan your effort to start at that level and move the community to the next, and to continue to move the community, a level at a time.
Until community members are aware of the problem and believe it is important, it’s unlikely that you’ll get much of the support needed for a successful prevention effort.
The substance abuse problem among a particular population may be more than you have the ability to take on at the beginning.
Many or most of them may be willing to remain active in continuing to plan and implement the program.
Using the stories of community members recovering from substance abuse, especially if they’re willing to tell those stories themselves, is a powerful way to emphasize the need for prevention. You can reach community members through the media, through brochures and bulletin board messages in appropriate places, and – most effectively – through personal contact.
People whose only apparent skill is a willingness to help can network, provide logistical support (stuffing envelopes, scheduling meetings, making phone calls), and help to recruit still others, as well as developing leadership capacity over the long term. Most may have relatively little knowledge about substance abuse or its prevention, beyond understanding that it’s a local problem that they wish to address. The results of the community assessment, as well as statistics from various sources, can provide team members with a profile of community substance abuse, and some ideas about which directions to move in.
Help may be available from a local college or university, or from one or more local organizations or individuals.
You should also select factors that you can truly influence, and in a reasonable period of time. Furthermore, the new sources may be more dangerous to users than the old, both in terms of the drugs they offer and in their potential for violence. Some may have been tested and found to work in different circumstances and with different groups; others may be specific to a given population or situation – a program targeting rural elders, for instance, or one aimed at urban teens. There are obvious reasons for this: once a model has been proven to work, it makes a certain amount of sense to try to reproduce it perfectly, since any change in it might affect its success. You can borrow some strategies from another evidence-based program that you’ve examined, for example, or devise some strategies of your own to add on to the program you’ve chosen.
Improving the wheel is not impossible, however, and if you have the opportunity and the ideas to do so, you might come up with a prevention program that works faster or more smoothly, and that avoids the particular potholes presented by the peculiarities of your community. The greater the community ownership of the plan, the more likely it is that the plan will be carried out across the board. Paying attention at the beginning of and throughout the implementation phase to some specific aspects of it will also make the task easier. It makes sense to stay as close to the model as possible, at least for an initial period, to see if it works as well for you as it did for others that tried it. Did you meet timelines, reach the number of people and the population you planned to, provide the kinds of service or activities you intended in the way you intended? You may be doing exactly what you planned, but it may have little or no effect on your chosen risk and protective factors, or it may be having effects you didn’t count on. Again, your program may be affecting the chosen risk and protective factors in the ways you anticipated, but that may not have led to the outcomes you were aiming at.
The opportunity to provide real aid leads to community ownership and support of the program. Risk factors are those elements in the individual, family, peer group, or society that make it easier or more likely for someone to fall into substance abuse.
The positive, principled way to hold others accountable using the simple steps in both the Outer and Inner Rings of the sequence model. Holding People Accountable for Results the Positive, Principled Way introduces the Accountability Sequence Model, a complete framework for holding people accountable in a way that produces results and positive morale. Everyone in the Expectations Chain must See It,® believe in it, and share responsibility for making it happen. At the same time, you manifest your own accountability and your personal dedication to doing everything you can to get the result. Leadership assessments and capability profiles can also be created for Business Units, Regions, Business Functions and Cross-Functional Organizations. Even though I was only 16, it wasn't difficult for me to see why his turnover rate was so high. Grow." I specialize in and write about inbound marketing, growth hacking, conversion funnels, strategy, leadership and being an entrepreneur. The results of the evaluation are then used to adjust the program to make it more effective, and the cycle begins again.
Other resources include the CSAP Prevention Platform, a set of program development, implementation, and evaluation tools, the CSAP and SAMSHA websites and other best practices. Those who are interested in implementing SPF on their own can expect a certain amount of technical assistance and guidance from the CSAP and SAMHSA websites, but little else.
States may distribute their SIG’s to smaller organizations in communities, but the amount of money available is still relatively modest, and not all states have these grants. It’s important to convince the community that a prevention effort is vital to its long-term health. If the public understands that, prevention can become the mode of choice when addressing a population’s risk and protective factors.
An ongoing substance abuse prevention program can affect what happens next year, but can have even more serious effects on what happens in 20 years.
They are required to involve all stakeholders from the beginning, and that implies a much broader range of people.
Universal programs are geared toward a whole community or part of a community, even though everyone they reach is not necessarily at risk for substance abuse.
Who would be served in this case would be everyone the program could reach, in the hope of establishing community norms that work toward prevention, and alerting the community to existing risk factors. Adolescence, or just before, is also the typical age for people to start using alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. That doesn’t change the number of non-dependent teens killed or injured in alcohol- and drug-related motor vehicle or other accidents, or the amount of emotional and property damage they may cause or suffer while under the influence. Smoking during pregnancy can be responsible for low birth weight and other problems for the baby, over and above its effects on the mother herself. They may be overmedicated, or their medications may interact with one another or with alcohol to produce apparent dementia or other symptoms.
Substance abuse in the homeless population is also often tied to physical and mental health issues leading to the misuse of various medications prescribed for physical and psychological conditions, or self-medication with alcohol or narcotics to dull the emotional or physical pain of mental or physical illness. If it’s a small, community-based organization, or a coalition of such organizations, it may well have to rely on volunteers and on inexpensive techniques, and to focus more narrowly, unless members of the workgroup are able to provide financial and other resources.
Participant observation could mean riding or walking a beat with a police officer, getting to know drug dealers or runners, or actually making a buy. Local agencies, the National Institutes of Health (of which CSAP is a part), the Department of Health and Human Services, state youth service departments – all may have collected information on substance use in your community that’s just waiting for you to look up.
Your first tasks in that case may be to get the community to that point, and to involve it in planning. You may want to focus on a more manageable population, or a different issue – alcohol use as opposed to crack, for example – that you can be successful with, and thereby build your capacity to take on something more formidable. Whatever the overlap or lack of overlap, team members should represent all sectors of the community. At least some risk and protective factors may also have been identified in the course of the community assessment, and in evaluating community readiness. You might be able to rid your own neighborhood or community of drugs, but that doesn’t mean you’ve eliminated, or even reduced, their availability.
If the program you’ve chosen speaks directly to your community and your population, there is no real reason not to implement it just as its creators did. It’s often easy to skip steps or to ignore the plan, but those almost always lose you time, cost you extra money, or simply make getting the program off the ground much more difficult. Almost all funding is time-limited (often to a year, or even less), so the need for new or continuing sources never really ends.
You’ll have to find another way to affect those factors, or determine whether you were simply not implementing the program properly.
In that case, you’ll have to decide whether you were addressing the wrong risk and protective factors (and which ones you should address), or whether there’s another way to reach your goals. Protective factors, on the other hand, are those elements in the individual or his environment that make it easier or more likely for him to avoid substance abuse.The assumption is that if you can reduce or weaken risk factors and strengthen protective factors in a population or community, its members are less likely to experience substance abuse problems. This means that when you establish expectations, you must carefully weigh the specifics of what you want to have happen, as well as the specific people who will be required to take accountability to make it happen.
Creating an environment in your team, your department, your entire organization and even with outside stakeholders, where concrete deadlines really matter, greatly facilitates everyone's ability to deliver on expectations. For those that lack resources, this may not be enough to make it possible to use the framework. Selective programs are intended to reach at-risk groups: particular populations, neighborhoods, age groups, or cultures. If they can be persuaded not to start at all, or to delay until they’re mature enough to understand what they’re doing and what the results might be, the chances of their using and abusing these substances are greatly reduced. If all a prevention program does is to convince kids to think for a second before they act, it will have performed an enormous community service. Although the effects have not been as carefully studied as those of alcohol and tobacco, drug use – particularly of heroin and amphetamines – appears to pose dangers to fetal development as well. The range really depends on what you’re looking for, and what you and others involved in the assessment are capable of. Once community members understand the concept of prevention and see the need for it locally, it’s more than likely they’ll support and participate in your effort.
The team’s composition should be as diverse and inclusive as possible, crossing racial, ethnic, class age, gender, and other dividing lines, so that everyone in the community feels that her point of view can be heard. You don’t have to, and shouldn’t, spend every minute in pursuit of funds and other resources. Changes have to be maintained, and that means continuing at least some of the major elements of your prevention program for as long as substance abuse remains a problem in society.
Implemented effectively, Why-What-When puts in your hands a powerful tool that sets the stage for getting people aligned with what you want to accomplish. Indicated programs serve referred individuals who have been identified as at high risk for substance abuse. An effective prevention program can eliminate a lifetime of difficulty for both mother and child. Worst of all, these issues are seldom raised by health professionals, social workers, and others who work with older people, and may go unrecognized.
You should, however, be aware of the program’s needs, take advantage of opportunities that arise, seek new and maintain good relations with current funding sources, and always be preparing documentation and other materials for funding and other requests.
Prevention programs can raise and address them, and lead to a longer and more productive and satisfying later life. Just as the best treatment for substance abuse is to prevent it in the first place, the best remedy for a crisis over resources is to prevent it from arising.

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