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North American Corporations love teams — groups of employees with all the technical skills and authority needed to manage themselves.
The best team players have acquired, and continue to acquire, skill in three general areas: technical, interpersonal, and conceptual. Many organizations require that team members be familiar with the jobs of everyone on the team.
Learn all of the skills you will need so that you can perform each task for which your team is responsible. Be sure you have enough knowledge about specialized tasks so that you are able to step in and do someone else's job. Work on your ability to confront differences constructively and keep focused on team, rather than personal, goals. Develop distinct standards for performance evaluation based on team goals (for example, increasing sales or improving customer relations). Enhance team communication by providing tools like electronic mail, fax, or even teleconferencing if necessary. This three day national seminar was jointly organised by the Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment (KSCSTE), Thiruvananthapuram, and the C Achutha Menon Foundation (AMF), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala and included presentations and discussions on a range of water related themes such as water scarcity, water conservation, commercialisation of water, water conflicts and water management. The seminar aimed at creating awareness and triggering a dialogue among scientists, academicians, researchers, activists, as well as lay people on the emerging challenges related to water resources, water quality and water conservation in the state of Kerala. The seminar included discussions under five different themes related to water issues that included water scarcity, water conservation, commercialisation of water, water as an new area for conflicts and water management. However, in the presentation, it was argued that the meaning of literacy had changed in modern times and was not associated with awareness about issues and acting on them, but only with education. Thus, quality and quantity management of water was very important and there was an urgent need to involve the community in the conservation of resources, water management, species evolvement and resources management.
Thanal narrated their experiences of going from factory to factory to collect samples with the help of Cochin University and some of the factories were asked to be shut down. This was followed by the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) that followed the demand led approach, but corrected some of its flaws and emphasised water as a public good, with reliance on multiple water sources and need to build local capacities through various mechanisms, especially the need for PRIs and local communities to prepare and implement the water security plans for the management of resources and storage and maintenance of data to be fed on to a national level MIS on rural drinking water. The presentation highlighted that reaching the unreached would be very difficult without the active involvement of the stakeholders and that streamlining of the latest programme that had divested much of the responsibilities back to the state was essential and that none of the flagship programmes could work without the active involvement of the civil society. The presentation highlighted a case study of the groundwater crisis in Kozhikode, Chevayoor where flats were constructed in 2007, one well was present and one borewell was constructed, no sanction was taken. The presentation also informed that Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kumarakom had developed a eight hectare wetland structure to a water harvesting structure and it was found that an impervious layer of clay soil prevented percolation of water into the reservoir.
This session was chaired by M R Ramesh, Former Director, Groundwater Department, Kerala and included the following presentations:1. These wetland ecosystem values when converted into monitory terms were worth Rs 22,24,350 per hectare annually as reported by the TEEB in 2010 (The economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) as a part of the UN Millenium Assessment of Wetland values hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme in collaboration with various other agencies. What happened to the river, its natural flows, the basic and livelihood needs of the people at the downstream, the harm caused to the ecology and aquatic diversity were thus rarely the concern of any bureaucrat or the government. Manajemen Payroll merupakan bagian dari sistem Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (MSDM) yang mengelola berbagai komponen penggajian karyawan dalam satu kesatuan perhitungan. Transaksi yang termasuk dalam Payroll antara lain Gaji Pokok, Jadwal Kerja, Surat Perintah Lembur, Ijin kehadiran, Potongan-potongan, Uang makan, Uang Transport, Daftar Gaji Non Staff, Daftar Gaji Staff, Koreksi penggajian dan lain-lain. Aktivitas-aktivitas otomatis tersebut meliputi perhitungan lembur, PPH Pasal 21, Tunjangan Kehadiran Karyawan, Uang Transport dan lain-lain. There are many kinds of self-directed teams — quality circles, management teams, work teams, and problem-solving teams are just a few examples. For your team to be productive, you will need to avoid conflict when possible, and learn to deal with conflict when it arises.
To make self-directed teams work, and to provide you and your team members with the needed tools, your company has responsibilities, too. The seminar was inaugurated by Shri V M Sudheeran, Ex MP and former speaker, while Dr Rajasekaran Pillai, Executive Vice President KSCSTE, delivered the keynote address with the felicitation by Shri M P Achuthan, MP. Water literacy by Professor M K Prasad, Former PVC, Calicut UniversityDr Rajashekharan from Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad (KSSP) presented the paper on behalf of Dr M K Prasad. This was evident in the way in which the water resources were being handled in the state and how there was a very little role that literacy had in changing the poor condition of water resources in the country through activities for conservation of water.
Privatisation and commmercialisation were some of the current problems and access to water was becoming a problem day by day. Management of inland water resources of Kerala for the conservation of aquatic biodiversity by Professor K V Jaychandran, Dean, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, KochiDr Jaychandran highlighted the situation of the inland water resources and the aquatic biodiversity in the state that was being affected by the poor water management practices, the undaunted and aggressive urbanisation and industrialisation, which were taking its toll on the water resources of the state and the threat to the biodiversity in the state. He also described the case of Technopark in Trivandrum where construction of buildings had led to the gradual death of a stream in the area, which had abundant freshwater prawn species not found anywhere else, which had gradually disappeared following the death of the stream.
Water conservation and climate change: Issues and challenges by Dr Biju Kumar, Head, Department of Aquatic Biology, University of KeralaThis session highlighted the impacts of climate change on water resources and highlighted that climate change had led to scarcity of water resources and crisis of management, which in combination with other factors such as urbanisation and industrialisation had led to more demand than supply of water. All these needed capacity building at various levels and most importantly at the Gram Panchayat level.
The presentation ended by suggesting that a preliminary plan to develop capacities of educational institutions and civil society organisations to help local institutions was necessary. Forest influence in water conservation by C K Karunakaran, IFS, Former chief conservator of forestsThe presentation highlighted the important role of forests in the conservation of moisture.The presentation informed that the forest ecosystem normally advanced towards the climatic climax state and any interference during the climax state could lead to lowering of the stage to subclimax stage. Sustainable water management - Rainwater harvesting: Problems and prospects in Kerala by Dr P Rajendran Nair (Department of Economics, NSS College, Pandalam) and Dr Madhava Menon (Department of Economics, NSS College, Chertala)The presentation provided the details of rainwater harvesting as the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse before it reached the aquifer.
Contested borewells: Apartment boom and groundwater crisis in Kozhikode city corporation by Dr Rose Mary George, Providence College, CalicutThe presentation highlighted that the apartment boom associated with urbanisation was not an odd phenomenon in Kerala. When people went there to stay, an open well was constructed of 5 meter diameter in which pipes were fitted and  a borewell was made inside this well. Water conservation challenges of Kerala by Varghese C Thomas, Chief Subeditor, Malaylam ManoramaThe presentation informed that the wetlands played a vital role in maintaining Kerala's rural water balance, but were being ignored in the broader developmental agenda by the government. Perspectives in biodiversity decline and infraction of water access: Mastering the challenges in the riverine flood plains of Kuttanad, Kerala by K G Padmakumar and Noble AbrahamThe presentation highlighted the fact that agriculture was the biggest user of water in Kuttanad and needed to be conserved and judiciously utilised as improper management of  water resources led to destruction of the natural biodiversity. A treatment plant was fitted to treat water to remove high iron content and acidity of the soil, which used reverse osmosis.
Testing the waters: Engaging China on transboundary governance by Dr Nimmi Kurien, Centre for Policy Research, New DelhiThis presentation highlighted the growing water thirst and energy hunger in China that had resulted in a concerted national campaign to develop and augment the country's huge hydropower capacity and its implications for India.
Interstate water dispute and the role of India's federal institutions by Dr Midatala Rani, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of MysoreThe presentation highlighted the increasing disputes in the different states in India and the limitations faced in solving these disputes. Water resources management: Challenges and responses presented by Dr Shankhamugam PillaiThis presentation highlighted the problems related to water resources in Kerala that included variations in precipitation in different regions of the state, more discharge to the sea, the prevalence and gradual increase in sand mining, deforestation had led to the reduction of water bodies.
Water resources challenges in the urbanising world: A study on Chennai city by Dr Prakash Nelliyat, National Biodiversity Authority, ChennaiThis presentation highlighted the huge growth in urban population and its impacts on the water sector in urban cities in India such as Chennai and argued that mobilising huge quantities of water for meeting the increasing urban needs was a big challenge. Management of water for irrigation and household uses: Changing patterns in Kerala by Dr M Lathika, Head, Department of economics. Time to plan for the revival of rivers in Kerala by Dr Latha Anantha, Scientist, River Research Centre, TrichurThe presentation started by highlighting the technocratic view that continued to be used to view rivers  that looked upon rivers as resources that could be engineered to any extent to suit the needs of human beings, which had led to building of more and more dams and diversions across rivers and extracting more and more water from rivers for different purposes.
The early drying of rivers and the increasing saline ingress inland were indications that most of the rivers in Kerala did not reach the sea in summer. Water footprints of energy options and sustainable development by Dr K G Thara, Head Disaster Management, KeralaThe presentation informed that majority of the freshwater resources were used up in power plants whose prime reason was to create comfort zones such as cooling systems and other amenities in our day to day life. Payrol juga memiliki berbagai perhitungan otomatis yang dikendalikan oleh aktivitas-aktivitas lain yang bersifat otomatis dalam sistem yang disesuaikan dengan sistem di perusahaan. Oleh karena itu apabila penanganan Payroll tidak benar akan sangat merugikan, baik bagi kepentingan karyawan maupun perusahaan sendiri.
The session on water literacy highlighted the meanings of literacy as "the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute and use printed and written material associated with different contexts and involved a continum of learning to enable an individual to develop his or her knowledge or potential and to participate in the wider society". For example, inspite of the rich tradition India had in the past, many were totally oblivious of the water wisdom that we had in olden times and  the technologies that our ancestors used to preserve and conserve water.
There was a need to have a water literacy campaign, developing awareness among the population was also very important along with encouraging optimum use of water, water quality testing, water conservation education, education of the population on groundwater recharging, rainwater harvesting, recycling and preservation of water. He highlighted that there were a total of 210 freshwater fish varieties in Kerala, 20 species of freshwater prawns and 17 varied species of shrimps. The environmental impact assessment studies showed chemical contamination, but nothing was being done, in fact, trade unions also supported factories while people fighting pollution were blamed as anti developmental activists in the process.Shreedhar argued that the pollution in the rivers was increasing day by day with highly toxic wastes such as ferrous sulphate being found in the river Pampa.
For India, climate change was predicted to lead to severe water scarcity and increased vulnerability because of decrease in rainfall, erratic rainfall patterns, melting down of snow from the Himalayas, sea level rise, increase in evapotranspiration. The session described the findings of the study  that aimed at documenting the paradigm shifts in policy and the related governance challenges in the provision of rural drinking water in the past decades. The mature floor possessed different layers from undecomposed litter to fully decomposed plant residue and pores of various sizes mainly resultant of the root decay. Rainwater harvesting provided an independent water supply during regional water restrictions and in developed countries was often used to supplement the mains supply. People started using this well water and water levels in 13 neighbouring wells declined and they had to dig deeper.
The decline and loss of species here had been far worse than that of the forest and grassland ecosystems.

The filtered water qualified to the BIS drinking water standards, which suggested the potentialities of using derelict swamps and polders in Kuttanad as water harvesting structures to improve the water situation in the area.
China had been thus witnessing  a virtual dam building boom in the wake of the reforms in the energy sector and much of the expansion had been happening in the western region, which had been projected as the energy powerhouse of the country. The presentation argued that Indian water dispute settlement mechanisms were ambiguous and opaque. Dumping of wastes into the rivers, lakes and reservoirs had led to increasing pollution of water bodies, increasing use of groundwater for commercial purposes was also creating a problem of overextraction of groundwater beyond replacement levels. The efficiency of the public water system was questionable as sources were highly uncertain.
N S S College, KaramanaThe presentation argues that although the state of Kerala had been richly endowed with resources, the steadily growing population and the increased and diversified water uses had constrained its general supply, and the recent changes in the climate had made matters even more difficult. A river was thus never looked upon as a living entity, but as a resource to be compartmentalised, harnessed to be used by different users for different purposes. The presentation argued that rivers were thus being managed without understanding or accounting for their fragile nature. Present technologies in nuclear, coal and natural gas power plants resulted in massive withdrawal of water from rivers, lakes and aquifers.
Penguasaan dasar tentang Payroll mutlak diperlukan agar personil yang menangani Penggajian dapat melakukan penyesuaian dengan cepat, mengingat penggajian memiliki ruang lingkup kerja yang besar. Sometimes they hire and fire, establish budgets, purchase supplies, track expenses, conduct reviews, reward performance, and render discipline. No attempts were also being made to learn from the past and value water in the same way as our ancestors.The presentation made references to the Rig Veda, The Ramayana, the Indus Valley civilisation where there was ample evidence that indicated that there was abundant knowledge on technologies for construction of tanks, water management and sanitation, canal irrigation, use of instruments such as rain gauge etc. The presentation ended by pointing that the NGOs had an important part to play in increasing the literacy of the population on water related issues.2.
All these organisms had habitat preferences and were very sensitive to variations in the quality and quantity of water. Thus, climate change was predicted to affect the water cycle and have a huge impact on the Indian economy, agriculture, food security etc. The analysis found that the capacity gap was a running theme with related issues of lack of transparency and accountability of the governance system.This was most acute in the current phase where the advantage was of reclaiming the state, but that posed a huge challenge to the gram panchayat that demanded challenges of capacity enhancement at the local level.
Studies showed that total rainfall in a locality was higher by 20% in forests as compared to non forested areas. Rainwater harvesting systems were appealing as they were easy to understand, install and operate. This had been having an inverse impact on the groundwater levels in the city that were being depleted at alarmingly high levels and the number of borewells in the region had been found to be increasing dramatically.
A study was consequently done by CWDRM and the Groundwater Department who advised to control groundwater use and the residents were forced to take the water authority connection, the well had to be registered, and rainwater harvesting had to be made compulsory. For example, an airport was being constructed at Aranmula  and inspite of the criticisms directed against this move, it was awaiting some last minutes clearances that would lead to destruction of a 2500 acre lake like wetland system without consideration to its environmental impact. Kuttanad was known for cultivation below mean sea level and water was one of the most abundant resources in these places and the people of Kuttanad had been denied the basic human right of access to clean water. It highlighted that water management supply had undergone a dramatic transformation, around the world, over the past three to four decades. The provinces of Yunnan and Tibet were emerging as focal points for the hydropower expansion and many dams were being planned on the major international rivers such as the Salween, Mekong and the Yarlung Tsangpo, which flowed into some of the most populous regions of South and South East Asia and thus had implications for the quality and quantity of water flows received below.The presentation argued that given the interlinkages across the region, designing norms of benefit sharing, negotiating trade offs, allocating risks and burdens on collective goods and bads needed to be part of a regional deliberative process. A cooperative bargaining framework suggested that water could be shared efficiently with compensating transfers as necessary, if initial water rights were defined and if institutions to facilitate and implement cooperative agreements were in place. The shifting crop pattern had not only tampered with water recharge and discharge systems, but also changed drastically the water demand regime for irrigation driving the  huge investments on major irrigation projects hugely underutilised. The presentation argued that strategies for river revival that needed to be backed by an enabling policy and legal protection for rivers.
When people take direction from the work itself, rather than rely on procedures and supervision, they often increase productivity and improve quality. The presentation referred to the current situation of water where the world was running out of freshwater and there was increasing pressure on water resources from the agriculture and irrigation sector, industries.
Groundwater management in Kerala: Challenges and prospects by Dr P Nandakumar, Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), KeralaThis presentation by Dr Nandakumar highlighted the unique characteristics of the water resources in Kerala and the challenges incurred in groundwater management in the state.
A presentation by Dr M Lathika, Head, Department of Economics, NSS college, KaramanaThe presentation highlighted the impact of the growing urbanisation, increase in population and the diversified uses of water on availability of water and its impact on agriculture in the state. Climate projections indicated that variations in rainfall and temperature would lead to shorter, but extreme rainy days, cyclonic storms, sea level rise, decline in groundwater availability.
They were effective in green droughts as water could be captured from rainfall where runoff was insufficient to flow into dam storages.The session argued that rainwater harvesting was the viable solution in the monsoon rich state of Kerala and that the common structures feasible for Kerala were sub surface dykes, nala bunds, check dams. Rules such as the Kerala Groundwater Regulation Act 2002 and the Kerala Municipal Building Rules section 109 A were ignored that made permission for wells mandatory.
Water samples collected from different sources showed that turbidity, pH, iron content and coliforms exceeded permitted limits prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). With privatisation of water, ownership had been transferred from nationalised to private companies. At the outset, efforts towards effective transboundary water management needed to recognise its evident synergies with other public goods such as peace and stability. The presentation also emphasised the role of complementary investments and the need to expand the scope of bargaining to include these where feasible. People who did not have access to public sources of water used groundwater indiscriminately supplied through tankers leading to drastic declines in groundwater levels affecting livelihoods of people.
The highly invasive nature of urbanisation in Kerala villages in where food grain cultivation was the chief means of livelihood till recent past, heavily tilted the balance of water distribution towards the populace in the newly urbanised valleys whose per capita water consumption suddenly tended to shoot up at the cost of those at the top of the mountains who traditionally were mandated to conserve the environments where rivers originated. Management of drinking water in Kerala by Vadayar Ramanan , Social ActivistThe presentation highlighted the rich water resources available within the state of Kerala such as 3000mm of rain, 44 rivers in the state, the highest density of dugwells, 71 urban and 1978 rural water related schemes, presence of backwaters, lakes, canals, streams, traditional water bodies. The presentation highlighted the unique geographical, topographical and demographic situation of Kerala with its high population density, as high as 6 to 7 months of rainfall throughout the year ranging to about 3000 mm annually with 65% attributed to the south west monsoon and 20%  to the north east monsoon.
For example, urbanisation had led to a change in agricultural patterns with a major shift in cropping patterns that had not only tampered with regular water recharge and discharge systems, but had also drastically changed the water demand regime for irrigation , driving huge investments in irrigation under utilised. The upper catchment areas of rivers were thus being polluted because of factory wastes and the middle ones due to waste dumping. The rise in sea level may impact the coastal cities and coastal communities and the fishing industry. Participatory watershed programmes thus needed to be implemented in the state and mass awareness programmes on groundwater conservation needed to be arranged at the panchayat levels in all districts.
This was because there were no groundwater rights, wells were private and owners could extract as much water as they wanted as land and water rights were not separate. The presentation highlighted the urgent need to restore and conserve water by using rain water harvesting techniques  in the state and have a water secure household, ward, panchayat to solve the water problems in the area and restore the environment and the water balance in the state.2.
The transformation of the water supply industry to private hands was one of the the best examples of neo liberalisation of nature. This would turn on the capacity and willingness of India, China and other countries in the region to begin a conversation on regional public goods such as water management and biodiversity conservation with benefits accruing to all countries sharing international river basins. Delayed agreement over water could encourage inefficient non cooperative investments in dams, irrigation, agriculture and industry more generally.
The process of conservation of water resources needed considerable public participation, behavioural changes along with strengthening of institutions that could bring about a change through a participatory approach2.
Despite this, the present situation was that around 3 million people were facing acute drinking water shortage in summer. If you're going to be part of a team, work on improving specific skills so that you won't be one of those obstacles to success.
It was a common thinking that with its 44 rivers with lengths of more than 15 kilometres, around 53 reservoirs, 50,000 tanks and ponds and only 47% of the pumping derived from groundwater, Kerala was in a very comfortable situation with respect to water. Recent years had also led to gradual decrease in rainfall patterns in the state with variation from place to place leading to severe water stress.
No one was concerned and no one was doing anything about it, but this was a very serious situation.
Salt water intrusion in the river mouths had also become a common phenomenon, which could have repercussions for coastal aquifers, a major source of urban and regional water supply systemsThe session highlighted the importance of the need to focus on water while responding to climate change. Thus precipitation in the normal course was intercepted within the canopy and also within the forest floor of the organic matter even preventing runoff during heavy rainfall in a fairly stocked forest floor. Water as a human right by Professor Sanjay Biswas, Professor and Dean, IISc BangaloreThe presentation highlighted how the inalienability of water as a right was recognised in the UN General Assembly resolution (2012) when Bolivia with many other countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia sponsored the resolution  'clean water as a human right'   as much as right to life and health were human rights.Thus, right to water implied indivisibility of the right. In this context, the most appropriate solution was to develop sources of freshwater locally. Water supply management in Kerala was also undergoing a transition from state controlled system based on public water systems to projects that ran on the basis of market environmentalist principles that were being supported by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. The problems were compounded by the entanglement of interstate water disputes with more general center state conflicts and with everyday political issues.  The impact of these could be reduced by a more efficient design of mechanisms for negotiating interstate water disputes.
Conservation challenges of wetlands: The life support systems and some important suggestions to protect them by Dr V S Vijayan, Salim Ali FoundationThe presentation informed that wetlands included all water bodies on land such as lakes, tanks, ponds, rivers, rivulets, reservoirs, backwaters, estuaries and paddy fields, which were the most productive ecosystems in the world.

Urban ecosystems were built enviroments and sustained a range of economic activities including industrial, commercial, residential and institutional structures. This also had to do some of the disadvantages in the state such as the topography with highlands, midlands and coastal areas due to which the rainwater met the sea in less than 24 hours.
However, the water problems such as acute water scarcity during summers, poor quality of water still existed. This has also had an impact on cropping patterns with a gradual shift from water intensive farming especially paddy to less water intensive crops. Half of the wells in the state were being converted to septic tanks, plus motors were being put on wells. Addressing water resource management was thus a priority and an inescapable part of reducing vulnerability and promoting adaptation to climate change.Thus a balance between mitigation and adaptation had to established at the policy level. The surface soil also remained well protected under the able cover of litter, the intervening decomposed layer and the elaborate root system. Irrespective of economic, social, religious status and the gender of the person, the state was obliged to ensure availability of clean water for drinking and sanitation to a citizen. All these posed as serious challenges to the access of common people to adequate quantities of water. The presentation discussed some of the possibilities including a National Water Commission functioning independently of daily political pressures, a federated structure incorporating river basin authorities and water user associations, and fixed time periods for negotiation and adjudication.3. Yet, they continued to be ignored and often referred to as water logged areas or waste lands out of sheer ignorance and this even extended to reclamation of wetlands for developmental activities. Hence infrastructure had to be planned not only for the population, but also according to the requirements of the economic sectors.
The rivers in the state were suffering from high levels of pollution with insecticides, pesticides, bacterial contamination as well as from the negative effects of sandmining.
There has been a marked decline in paddy and banana cultivation in the state and a marked decline in land under agriculture and water needed for agriculture in the state. The questions that were thus important were, how can we do management, how can we learn to use water efficiently. Water governance needed to be expanded and integrated with non water sectors, access to technology, science and information needed to be increased for sound planning. The absence of the litter layer as a result of fire or other biotic factors could cause considerable soil disturbance.
Water rights in India: Revising the state role by Dr T M Joseph, Principal, Newman College, Thodupuzha, KeralaThe presentation discussed the right to safe drinking water as an important and essential component of right to a dignified life and the provisions of the Indian constitution that had upheld the water rights of citizens in article 15(2), Article 21. The presentation identified the need for a paradigm shift in urban water and land management through coordinated efforts of various stakeholders. A very high level of the population suffered from water borne diseases as 90% of the dugwells in the state were polluted. Thus irrigation projects had not been utilised to the maximum and household consumption of water has drastically increased with urban population consuming more water than rural.
The session highlighted the need for collaborative water management at community level by incorporating all the stake holders.
In such a situation, the surface flow would carry the displaced soil resulting in aggravated soil erosion. In tune with these constitutional provisions, the government of India had been addressing these responsibilities through various schemes, over the last six decades. However, the reality was that 68% of the rainfall in the state was lost as runoff to the sea. The session argued that water conservation, efficiency and reuse strategies needed to be used to reduce the impact of climate change and carbon footprint of water use.
The national forest policies of different countries had laid down rules that asked for at least one third of the geographical area to be under forests and that it could be extended upto two thirds in the hills and one fifth in the plains.
In large parts of India, caste based barriers to accessing water, especially drinking water were still prevalent. A number of programmes like national Water Supply and sanitation Programme, Minimum needs programme, Accelerated Rural water supply Programme, Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, Swajaldhara, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission had thus been launched. The dying rivers of Kerala by S Shreedhar, Thanal, ThiruvananthapuramShreedhar from Thanal highlighted the terrible situation of the rivers in Kerala by giving the example of the biggest river, the Periyar river in Kerala. Thus it was important to understand that we were killing our rivers due to changing life styles and needs and we urgently needed to reverse this process to save our rivers, a valuable water resource and an integral part of our culture. The extent of the total forest area in India was less than 20%, the climax forest being much less than 5%.
Selling bottled mineral water had become a money spinning venture for private organisations. However, the presentation argued that, despite these schemes, there was an ineqitable distribution and consumption of water along various towns and settlements and the worst victims were the people below the poverty line both in rural and urban areas. Massive crystalline rocks led to 88% less recharge of groundwater as the water retention capacity of the rocks was very less.
He highlighted how the lack of concern for the river along with industrialisation and discharge of effluents and toxic wastes, pesticides had gradually led to the deterioration in the water quality of the river and was gradually leading to the death of the river. Also in the context of communities such as the fisherfolk, the changed policies of the state also tended to affect them adversely. However, it had also been found that private water was not regulated and had been found to not meeting the required quality standards.
Limited aquifer thickness plus fast depletion with no chance for recharge imposed limitations on groundwater management. All upper catchment areas of rivers in Kerala were dumped with pesticides and river Periyar was no exception with as high as 270 factories dumping highly toxic wastes such as dioxins in its waters.
Connecting the last mile: Paradigm shifts in water policy in India and governance challenges to ensure drinking water to the end users in rural areas by Dr N C Narayanan, IIT BombayThe session highlighted the three phases in the provision of rural drinking water in India. The extent or content of the forest being much less than the desired level , there was a strong case for complete protection of atleast the available forests so that it could progress towards the climatic climax state. Governmental policies were often inconsistent with the constitutionally given and judicially interpreted right to water. Water companies had been found to take advantage of outmoded legal principles and purchased large tracts of land solely for indiscriminately abstracting groundwater for sale while destroying wells and water sources on which the local communities depended on.India was the tenth largest bottled water consumer in the world. It thus called for a revisit at the traditional role of the state in the protection of water rights.4.
Water quality issues included high salinity, nitrates, fluorides, iron as well as very high levels of bacterial contamination. The Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) in 1972-73 visualised water as a social right to be provided by the government and thus adopted a supply driven approach for providing drinking water to rural areas.
Thus, water in India traditionally was also a great divider further reconfirming these caste based hierarchies leading to differential access of people to water.
The national water policy gave priority to drinking water and at the same time to water privatisation, which was against the established norms of equity and social justice.
At the same time, over exploitation of groundwater in some hydrogeological zones had contributed to permanent lowering of water table and salinity intrusion into coastal aquifers.
The Swajaldhara programme that marked the beginning of the sector reforms project in the late 1990s introduced community based management of rural water supply that was demand based where users got the service that they wanted and were willing to pay for with a paradigm shift based on the principles of cost recovery and decentralisation. The case of Kerala (Plachimada issue) was a clear case of water being exploited undemocratically. P Sankarakutty Nair, Former Head, Department of History, University College, TrivandrumThe presentation highlighted the importance of river Periyar as one of the biggest rivers in Kerala of the 44 rivers in the state and informed that the Periyar was one of the biggest and the most polluted rivers starting from Idukki to Trichur.
There were more than six million open wells in Kerala and around 95% of the wells had been found to be bacteriologically contaminated, while those in the coastal areas were found to be under the threat of salinity intrusion. Water privatisation resulted in conflict at the core of democracy, a struggle between economic development and the need of the people. The growth of the bottled water industry in Kerala had also been found to lead the over extraction of groundwater in the state while the groundwater extraction for irrigation had been found to be decreasing due to less and less land being available for agriculture in the state. The problems in groundwater management also included a lack of integrated approach in looking at rainwater, surface water and groundwater, poor mechanisms for optimum use of available resources, and in exploring mechanisms for rainwater harvesting and artificial groundwater recharge, developing mechanisms to manage poor water quality issues in the state.
Pesticides had been started to be dumped in the river since the 1940s and now the pollution had assumed dangerous proportions. This was leading to increasing health problems among the populations such as abdominal ulcers, asthma, skin diseases, thyroid, depressions. The presentation pointed at the inefficiencies of the system that led to gross mismanagement of rivers and the lack of proper implementation of the policies and laws that were devised for the protection of the rivers and the need to take up urgent steps to revive and protect the rivers in Kerala.

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