Map create route basecamp,time management skills for college students ppt,holiday cooking classes nyc,online urdu lessons - Plans On 2016

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A US Airways Express plane departs from a gate past an American Airlines plane at the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in Arlington County, Virginia, February 10, 2013. American Airlines, which was already the biggest passenger airline in the United States, will retain its name in the merger. The combined company will have about 94,000 employees and a fleet of more than 900 planes servicing thousands of flights every day.
Industry analyst Richard Aboulafia, vice president of the Teal Group, said he expects travelers to benefit from the merger. US Airways pursued a merger since the larger American Airlines began operating under bankruptcy protection in late 2011.
The move convinced American's creditors that a merger would allow the airline to remain in business.
US Airways most recently declared bankruptcy in 2004, but restructured and came out of it in 2005.
Amnesty International says almost a dozen children, including babies, have died this year in squalid conditions at a military detention center used to hold suspected Boko Haram militants.
When roads are blocked by floods, landslides or hostile checkpoints, often the only way to get vital medicine and supplies to remote areas is by air.
Nigeria has pledged to crack down on armed nomadic herders accused of a series of brutal raids against communities across the country. Donald Trump — the presumptive Republican presidential nominee — has some tough talk for U.S. Discarded plastic bottles are piling up around the world despite recycling efforts, and people are coming up with new and creative ways of using them.
A year ago, Turkey's biggest city in the predominately Kurdish region, Diyarbakir, was hoping to cash in on a wave of tourists attracted to its rich history and legacy of multiculturalism.
Rescue workers in Nairobi continue to dig through the rubble of a building that collapsed more than a week ago. Conservative advocates of providing nuclear weapons to America's closest Asian military allies could move from the political fringes to the mainstream if Donald Trump becomes the next president of the United States. If I don't use a layout for a while, (thinking of UK Branchlines), I tend to forget the stations and which Platforms face which direction. Short of hand-drawing a route map of my own and scanning it as a BMP or JPG image, is there an alternative way of doing a simple route map? Well, I won't suggest TrainzMap then , allthough the number of pages depends on the drawing size you can setup in a dialog somewhere. I've personally never tried this, but I suppose you could make screenshots from the map in surveyor with allmost all added data switched off.
You see, the old LSWR just used three sheets of paper (or light card) was sufficient for quite a detailed map of a sprawling network 220 miles from Waterloo to Padstow to place in a railway carriage! You could use a text document like word pad and list all stations for each route (Exeter to Barnstaple or Plymouth to Exeter) then place the platform name for the up line and the down line next to them. As Jananton mentions, you could take screenshots of the in-game map, and if you have photoshop, you could use its photomerge option to automatically stitch the images together.
When the time comes to make a Timetable, I again use an Excel Worksheet (in the same Workbook) to keep them all together. I think he means a simple line map, like the various cities transport routes, such as London's simple underground maps.
ABSTRACT: The newly- discovered Evesham world map, a map that was almost certainly commissioned for Evesham Abbey in about 1390, was added to and amended some 20 years later, and was then reused by 1452.
The College of Arms in London is England's most important heraldic institution, where coats of arms are officially devised and registered. The Evesham Abbey map tells us much about the context of English map making at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries and about some English perceptions of their country and the world at that time.
To understand the map now in the College of Arms, it is essential to go back to Ranulf Higden (#232) and to his use of maps in his best-known work, the Polychronicon. Higden began work on the Polychronicon early in the 1320s and regularly updated it until his death in 1363. There is no evidence that Higden himself, unlike his famous predecessor, the chronicler Matthew Paris, was particularly cartographically literate. The map that Higden finally selected for what is now the Huntington Library manuscript was probably an already rather ancient model. There is no pictorial illustration on the Huntington map apart from the depiction of Adam and Eve in Paradise and two dogsa€™ heads outside the map. The absence of any explicit connection between illustration and text brings to mind the acute observation made by Rudolf Wittkower in relation to the divergence between the illustrations and the text in 15th century copies of Marco Poloa€™s travels: a€?No medieval artist aimed at a descriptive illustration of a text. In the course of the 1340s - possibly before Higden had selected a map to fill the space left in the text for it - a copyist, perhaps working for Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire, created a larger, more detailed and better-executed world map, which illustrates the text much more fully. If evidence is needed of the decline of cartographic consciousness in England in the second half of the 14th century - perhaps as a consequence of the Black Death pandemic of 1348 a€“ one needs also to bear in mind that only twenty of the surviving 120 or so complete Polychronicon texts in Latin (and only those of the intermediate text and its continuations) contain maps.
The map now at the College of Arms can only be understood in the general context of these Higden maps. In the second half of the 14th century, Evesham Abbey was the centre of considerable intellectual activity, typified by the production of works such as the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi, a chronicle of events in England during the reign of Richard II, which is usually found as a continuation of the Polychronicon. This brief excursion into English chronicle writing is relevant to the Evesham world map for two reasons. Thus we can summarize the main lines of descent of the various Higden maps (see time diagram below).
Possible relationships of maps associated with surviving manuscripts of Ranulf Higdena€™ Polychronicon, c.
It is highly probable that the map now owned by the College of Arms is the map referred to in the Herford inventory.
The most striking features of the Evesham map are its size and its extremely good state of preservation.
As in the case of the Huntington Library map and its successors, the Evesham map neither depicts nor refers to any of the fabulous creatures or Marvels of the East that make a regular appearance on so many of the more elaborate mappaemundi such as the Ebstorf, Psalter, Hereford, Duchy of Cornwall and the Aslake maps. Despite the relative absence of biblical references on the Evesham map, the mapmaker's profoundpiety is obvious and not surprising. Unique to the Evesham map, and not seen on any other map associated with the Polychronicon, is the land of the Huns. The prominence given to the Huns - the only place or territorial name apart from Jerusalem to place have its name picked out in red - is difficult to explain. Furthermore, the position of Hungri on the Evesham map corresponds approximately to that of the land of Gog and Magog on the Anglo-Saxon, Psalter and other world maps.
On the Evesham map, Europe is divided into its medieval provinces, though Mount Olympus, a reference from classical antiquity, is shown.
For the significance of this manner of portraying France, reference should be made to the representation of Britain and France on the Hereford world map about a century earlier.
In the case of additions to the map, the new draughtsman was much less skilled than his predecessor and much less geographically aware.
The evidence of erasures on the mapa€™s surface shows unmistakably that the original map was later revised. The principal towns and ports of the south coast of Devon and Cornwall - Exeter [exeter], Totnes [Tottenis], Dartmouth [dertemowth], Plymouth [plinmowth], Liskeard [leskyrt], Fowey [Fowey] and Penryn [peryn] - are shown more or less in their correct sequence, with only Totnes and Exeter somewhat misplaced.
Taddiport is not mentioned in the cartularies of Evesham Abbey, making its inclusion on the map very strange.
It is more likely that Taddiport owes its presence on the map to a family connection, possibly with the unknown scribe or with Abbot Yatton, the likely patron of these later additions to the map. Another peculiar feature of the Evesham map, however, can be more firmly explained in terms of Boteler family links.
The Evesham mapa€™s close similarity to mapsfound with some of the continuations to Higden's Polychronicon could lead to the reasonable assumption that, despite its size, it had a particular association with Evesham Abbeya€™s own continuation (the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi). Another equally strong argument against an intellectual link between the Evesham map and either the Polychronicon or the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi is The mapa€™s simplicity.
The likelihood must be that its very simplicity means the Evesham map was intended as an aide-memoire about the nature of the world and that its function was to illuminate in a limited way all the traditional scholastic texts rather than one in particular, just as the T-O diagram (#205) was so often appended to geographical sections of medieval encyclopedic text. In their essentials - and despite the modernisms and innovations that most contained - world maps had become standardized in their contents, and their general image was conventionalized by the 14th century. The Evesham map thus provides further circumstantial evidence of the premise with which we started: that the map Higden initially used to illustrate his text would have been no more than the standard, basic image of the world of a design which had long been thought suitable for any didactic geographical purpose regardless of author and which could be elaborated to illustrate any text.
In size and complexity these signs vary according to the relative importance of the settlements as perceived by the mapmaker. If the work of the first scribe suggests that evenaway from the main centers of teaming there were those who had some grasp, albeit imperfect, of the nature and role of cartographic signs, the work of the second serves to remind us that such a consciousness was by no means universal.
There is no evidence as to why the verse of the leaf containing the world map was re-used for an illustrated genealogy in 1450, barely sixty years after its creation, and probably less than fifty after the most recent changes had been made. By the time the Evesham map was being created, however, maps of the world produced in the Mediterranean countries and influenced by the more accurate coastal profiles of portolan charts had already begun to reach England. The map of the world now owned by the College of Arms is striking because of the topicality of its perspectives and allusions. Despite its close resemblance to the maps most commonly found in surviving copies of the Polychronicon, we have concluded that the Evesham map was above all a wall map for general instruction and edification.
Description: During the thirty years after Columbusa€™ first voyage, the Spanish, British, and Portuguese were actively exploring the New World.
In Lyon a well-entrenched enclave of Florentine bankers and merchants imported luxury goods from the Orient.
The solution was to search for a sea passage that allowed its discoverer to control trade with the Orient. These people go altogether naked except only that they cover their privy parts with certain skins of beasts like unto martens, which they fasten onto a narrow girdle made of grass, very artfully wrought, hanged about with tails of divers other beasts, which round about their bodies hang dangling down to their knees. After passing Cape Fear and Cape Lookout, Verrazzano sailed the long reaches outside the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The people are almost like unto the others, and clad with feather of fowls of diverse colors.
The Abnaki shot arrows at the French when they tried to land, but they could still conduct some meager trade through baskets, let down on a line from cliffs at the shore by the Indians. They returned to Dieppe six months later after a fast Atlantic crossing, reaching Dieppe on 8 July after an extraordinary cruise that changed the maps of America and affected the direction of exploration for decades to come.
The original of this map, about 102 by 51 inches, a sea chart of the world on parchment, much faded and stained, is in the Museo Borgia, Propaganda Fide, Rome.
The large reproduction (approximately same scale as the original), entitled Verrazano Map, 1529, is from a photographic copy of the original made for E. The Atlantic coastline of this map, which extends northeastward as far as Labrador, is of the Sevillan type (so called because the first maps of this type were made at Seville), and the Pacific coastline is of the type of the Maggiolo Map (#340).
The most dramatic feature of the Verrazzano map is this vast nonexistent protuberance of the Pacific Ocean that appeared as the Sea of Verrazzano on maps and globes over the next sixty years.
This concept was taken up by various cartographers back in Europe and, subsequently, a great indentation along the western coast of America starting just north of California was a common characteristic of many early maps of the continent.
Wishful thinking no doubt impelled Verrazzano to place this enormous waterway in the middle of North America, contained on the east by the narrow isthmus of the Carolina Outer Banks. The Verrazzano brothers, Giovanni the explorer and Gerolamo [Hyeronimus] the mapmaker, combined to create an image that persisted to the end of the century.
On Giovannia€™s third voyage in 1528, while searching for a strait through Panama to the Southern Ocean, he again crossed the Atlantic (exploration and the cutting of logwood being the joint goals of the expedition), landing in Florida, then following the chain of the lesser Antilles. The coastal nomenclature given by Verrazzano differs from the Ribero (Sevillan) type (#346) and, unlike his Sea of Verrazzano, was not widely followed by later cartographers.
The Strait of Magellan is indicated but not named, to the south of which stretches an extensive but nameless continent. The map is large enough that, unlike other maps of the period, does not avoid the issue of the areas north and south of Eurasia and the New World. This is part of a large undated, unsigned manuscript map, oriented with South at the top, approximately 4 x 8 feet, which derives its name from a former owner, Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford.
Detail: North America from the Harleian map, 1547 showing the mythical (unnamed) Sea of Verrazano, the St.
Description:A  During the thirty years after Columbusa€™ first voyage, the Spanish, British, and Portuguese were actively exploring the New World. The most dramatic feature of the Verrazzano map is this vast nonexistent protuberance of the Pacific Ocean that appeared as the Sea of Verrazzano on maps and globes over the next sixty years.A  This now famous western sea that bisects present-day North America has no name or inscription actually on the Verrazano map itself, nor is it mentioned in Giovannia€™s letter to King Francis I. The coastal nomenclature given by Verrazzano differs from the Ribero (Sevillan) type (#346) and, unlike his Sea of Verrazzano, was not widely followed by later cartographers.A  The cartographer has introduced the name Norumbega (here, in the form Noranbega, applied to a river), by which the New England region was known throughout the 16th century. The map is large enough that, unlike other maps of the period, does not avoid the issue of the areas north and south of Eurasia and the New World.A  The mapmaker clearly believed that Asia was separate from the new discoveries. It's the latest in a series of accusations made by the human rights group against the Nigerian military. More than 20 percent of the plants known to science are facing extinction because more and more of their habitat is being used for agriculture and urbanization. As the cost of living continues to rise and the economy slows, some are considering returning home to look for work. Almost everything and anything that is made in China can be found and purchased in the city. But the collapse of a cease-fire last July between Kurdish rebels and the government led to violence, dashing hopes for the city's economic revival.
VOA’s Brian Padden reports from Seoul that comments made by the presumptive Republican Party nominee about disengaging from Asia have raised doubts about the U.S.
Local officials say those carrying the right papers, and those who are injured, are allowed through — but Ankara says it is under pressure to tighten controls following the recent migrant deal with Europe. Then open up your favorite paint program, open those screenshots, make them BW and then patch them together. Ive done this with my route and also show any via trackmarks etc that you would need to use for the route to run ok. It derives from what was probably a standard world map copied for Ranulf Higden for his Polychronicon.
Over many centuries it has accumulated an unrivalled collection of heraldic and genealogical manuscripts. An exhibition catalogue of 1936 concentrated mainly on the pedigree, and the map was simply reported as a€?a fourteenth century map of the world, with Adam and Eve, the tree and serpent at the heada€™.
It also raises questions about the relationship between medieval authors and the maps illustrating their works. It depends largely on classical writings such as Pliny's Etymologia (especially as transmitted by earlier medieval writers and encyclopaedists, notably Isidore of Seville, #205), on medieval chronicles, on travel accounts such as those of Vincent of Beauvais, Giraldus Cambrensis and Marco Polo, on the Alexander legends and, above all, on the Bible.
Other chroniclers contributed their own a€?continuationsa€™ to Higdena€™s text until after 1400.
Their occurrence or non-occurrence, however, is so apparently arbitrary and the design of most of them so unrelated to the text as to prompt questions about Higden's attitude towards maps and about the nature and purpose of these so-called Higden maps. Almost certainly the now-lost original short version of the Polychronicon did not contain a map. It presented the essentials of his world-view without the frills (such as the texts and illustrations relating to the Marvels of the East and to the Bible) found on the great 13th century world maps.
Only the principal cities, rivers, seas and provinces of the classical world are named, except in western Europe where some medieval place-names appear. In some ways this work resembles the great maps of the previous century with their descriptive texts. Even if a few of the other hundred mapless texts may originally have been accompanied by larger, separate maps - in the way that a copy of Gervase of Tilburya€™s Otia Imperialia may once have accompanied, explained and elucidated the Ebstorf world map (#224) -the likelihood must be that most had none. However, its particular context was that of the prosperous wool country of the Cotswolds rather than Higdena€™s hometown of Chester or the fens and marsh and water then surrounding Ramsey Abbey.
First, the tone of the Evesham chronicle and of its principal sources, unlike the internationalism of Higden, is distinctly local and patriotic - a characteristic that is also a notable feature of the Evesham map.
Both the Oxford and the Paris maps may have been indirectly derived from a circular map in a text of the Polychronicon, dated 1367 by its scribe, one Walter of Donyngton, and now in Cambridge University Library. Herford was a man of some learning who has been suggested as the author or patron of the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi. In addition to a Polychronicon (Polichronica) and another chronicle (a chronicae abbreviatae), the list details a Descriptio orbis cum chronicis abbreviatis, a Quaternus de Peregrinatione Terrae Sanctae, an Imago de Mounde, a treatise on making astrolabes, an Albumasar (perhaps an Arabic astronomical treatise), an unbound volume on the division of historical time (Quaternus Divisione Temporum), the writings of the English medieval cosmographer John of Holywood (Johannes de Sacro Bosco) and a Quaternus de Mirabilibus mundi et Astronomiae.

At 940 X 460 mm, on a skin measuring 990 X 550 mm, it is far smaller than the Ebstorf (#224) and Hereford (#226) world maps but is of comparable dimensions to the Vercelli (#220.2) world map (840 X 720 mm).
The known, inhabited world or oikumene is divided into three continents, subdivided into provinces and surrounded by an Ocean Sea dotted with islands including (as in all other Higden maps) Wyndlond which has traditionally been associated with Finland, Denmark-Jutland or, less probably, the land of the Wends and Sorbs (now in eastern Germany), but which might also be an echo of Vinland.
Given the detailed attention paid to the Marvels in the text of the first book of the Polychronicon, their omission from the map is unlikely to be due to a more rigorous intellectual analysis or to a narrower focus on Higdena€™s part, though these factors may have been relevant to the map that Higden seems to have copied from.
In an age troubled by foreign wars, civil unrest (for example, the Peasantsa€™ Revolt), religious dissent (Lollards and Hussites) and fresh memories of the Black Death, the reality of human mortality and the evidence for divine wrath were ever-present. This is shown as a castellated tower labeled Hungri placed between Gothia, Scandinavia and the province of the Amazons, which is shown as close to Asia Minor. It is unlikely to be a reflection of the power achieved by Louis I of Hungary, whose domains in the 14th century stretched from the Baltic to the Balkans, but it could well reflect a confusion in the mind of the Cartographer between the Huns and the equally fierce Mongols. Since Gog and Magog were to sweep through the world on the Day of Judgment, it was perhaps feared that the Mongols would act in a similarly apocalyptic fashion. Europe, too, that the differences between the Evesham map and the other oval Higden maps are most apparent. Exceptionally, Artois (Artyes) is indicated on the map (there appears to be no sign of it on other Higden world maps) in order to make possible the depiction of Calais, which had come into English hands in 1347. There, England is far smaller than it is on the Evesham map while France is far bigger, and more French towns are marked than English towns. There is clear evidence, however, that the map was further embellished at some unknown date. The original intention would seem to have been to depict England on a north-south alignment consistent with the rest of the map. The scribe responsible for these revisions evidently failed to understand the alignment of England.
The ports may have been included on the map primarily because of their trade with the foreign ports of Bruges, Rouen and, especially, Bordeaux. The place-names start with the tiny settlement of Taddiport [tadiport], which at that time would have possessed little more than a chantry chapel, a leper hospital and a bridge across the Torridge. Small settlements with bridges such as Taddiport do indeed feature prominently on the Gough map because of their importance as intermediate points along the routes that constituted the mapa€™s internal structure. Abbot Yatton is known to have been related to the Boteler family - probably the Botelers, or Butlers, of Droitwich, Worcestershire - who were also associated with the village of Yatton, now known as Eaton Bray, in Bedfordshire.
For example, Carlisle [carlyl] is placed in Scotland even though it had been finally ceded to England a century and a half earlier, in 1157. Scholars have increasingly emphasized the vital importance of the interplay between text and image to the intended didactic purpose of medieval maps. The first must surely be that had the map been intended to be associated with the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi, or with the Polychronicon, or had it been so regarded by contemporaries, the monk who compiled the inventory following Nicholas Herforda€™s death would have linked them in some way. Despite its size and the opportunities this could have given for textual and visual elaboration, the map lacks the traditional imagery and explanatory texts found on the great 13th century world maps and the miniature Psalter map, or even on maps from the previous generation, such as the more elaborate Ramsey Abbey Higden map and the fragmentary Aslake map. Of course the Evesham map is cartographically much more complex than a T-O diagram and reflects its creators' mentality and their immediate concerns, which are also evident in the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi on which they were probably working simultaneously.
Such an argument accords with the lack of intellectual originality that is so characteristic of Higdena€™s writings. In this respect the Evesham map represents an advance from the Gough map of the Previous generation (itself possibly derived from an earlier prototype). He continued to mark settlements outside the British Isles with roughly sketched towers of different designs, but he used no sign for Bordeaux or for most of the named towns in England, Scotland and Ireland. It brings to mind the inconsistent use of signs by the creator of the Aslake map a generation earlier. Copies of Higdena€™s Polychronicon, sometimes accompanied by a map, were still being produced elsewhere in England in the mid-15th century and Caxton printed John Trevisaa€™s English-language translation as late as 1482. While maybe not immediately appreciated by native mapmakers, evidence shows that by 1450 merchants and mariners in certain ports, notably Bristol, were beginning to take these modem maps seriously. It was not specifically intended as an accompaniment to the Polychronicon or any other written text. The relative lack of intellectual freshness of all the Higden maps contrasts as much with the great world maps of the 13th century as with the portolan charts of the 14th and the newly circulating Ptolemaic maps of the 15th century.
France, however, the fourth European maritime nation, remained uncharacteristically quiet regarding overseas exploration until 1523 when an Italian brought the French flag to North America. They knew the traditional overland routes of European trade with Asia through the Levant could not bear the competition of Portuguese imports coming by sea around the Cape of Good Hope.
A group of powerful and wealthy Florentine Lyonnaise agreed to sponsor a voyage westward in search of a route to Cathay [China]. Verrazano had been provided with four ships, but two of them shipwrecked shortly after depart, while a third one was sent home carrying the prizes from privateering on the Spanish coast, so only the flagship La Dauphine actually made the crossing of the Atlantic. He sighted Cape Hatteras and continued northward, traveling the 150 miles around Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds.
They came towards us very cheerfully, making great shouts of admiration, showing us where we might come to land most safely with our boat.
Because the natives were very friendly, for once he decided to break his habit and anchor near the coast.
What displeased the French even more were the Abnakia€™s disdainful manners when the Europeans left, such as exhibiting their bare behinds and laughing inmoderately.
This is the first Italian map on which the designation a€?Americaa€? appears on the northern part of South America.
The name of the author of this map is found in the inscription at the top: Hycronimus de Verrazano faciebat. Even in the 1670s, when John Lederer made his famous explorations of Virginia and North Carolina, most colonial settlers believed that the Western Sea was only about 10 or 15 days inland from the coast.
It must have been the same motivation that caused European mapmakers to accept this delineation for many years.
In 1527 his men mutinied and ordered him to return to France, but Verrazano, using their incompetence in navigation, nonetheless reached Brazil, cut logwood (a red dye wood then named brazil wood) and his backers made good profit from it. On one of the islands (probably Guadeloupe) his habit of anchoring away from the shore became fatal. It is worthy of notice that the latitudes given in a column on the map, just west of Africa, are inaccurate and do not correspond with the two latitudes mentioned in the letter sent by Giovanni da Verrazzano describing his voyage. This inscription is particularly important as it records the opinion prevalent in 1579 that the landfall of the Cabots was far to the north in Labrador. Sailing along North Carolinaa€™s Outer Banks in 1524, Verrazano saw the sound on the eastern side of the isthmus and postulated that it must be the Pacific. The Nigerian government denies the allegations, and says it is succeeding in its fight against Boko Haram. He already wants to force Mexico to pay for a border wall and is threatening to impose huge tariffs on Chinese imports to offset America's record $366 billion trade deficit with China. VOA's Zlatica Hoke reports the installation aims to promote art, health and environmental protection. As worries persist about the Chinese economy and the possibility it could see a hard landing, sellers in the mountainside city of commerce say they are feeling the pain, but also finding ways to weather the storm.
In response to the tragedy, the government has begun demolishing other condemned buildings. As Henry Ridgwell reports, the restrictions have divided families trying to flee the civil war in Syria. After that remove the unimportant bits, or the pieces that you will show in a more detailed section map.
Its not going to look quite so authentic as you might be hoping but it would be relatively easy. Just have say a rectangle for say a yard or depot, (& maybe have an inset for these), and for example thicker lines to represent multiple maps, and thinner lines for single lines. However, there is no evidence that the Evesham map was ever intended to illustrate any particular text.
More specifically, it questions the validity of referring, as has hitherto been the case, to a Higden group of world maps.
Although Higden occasionally interjected stories and observations of his own, and sometimes criticized earlier authors, he was generally satisfied with their information. After a few years, however, Higden evidently concluded that a Map would be appropriate, and the intermediate and final versions of the text specifically refer the reader to a map. Furthermore, the one copyist of the 1340s who was sufficiently enthusiastic to create the more elaborate of the Ramsey Abbey maps, which closely corresponds to Higdena€™s text, was an isolated figure. There can be little doubt that the map it the College of Arms was made in, or commissioned for, Evesham Abbey, Gloucestershire. Second, the two Higden maps that most closely resemble the Evesham map, though probably created a few years later, are both to be found in continuations of the Polychronicon that are directly or indirectly linked to Walsinghama€™s Chronicon Angliae. Albans in or soon after 1388, is textually the closest to the Walsingham source for the Evesham Historia.
Most significant of all, however, the Cambridge, Oxford, Paris and Evesham maps all name Aragon twice.
On Herforda€™s death a list, with valuations, was made of the vestments, chalices and books that he had bought or commissioned for Evesham.
Also included is a text of the Alexander legends (Vita Alexandri), an important medieval source for the Marvels of the East and other Asian and African features depicted on the larger world maps, and the writings of Hugo of St.
The word factura rather than scriptura would imply a map of some considerable size, possibly of the kind often appended to the fabric of the monastery, and almost certainly not a map for use as a book illustration (as was, probably, the a€?Descriptio orbis cum chronicis abbreviatisa€™).
On the Evesham map, the Holy Land and Jerusalem are represented by pictorial signs that are disproportionately large even in comparison with the Huntington Library map and its progeny. It is quite distinct from Hungaria, located in approximately the correct position on the Danube near Bohemia. Memories of the Mongol invasions of Europe in the twelfth century were still vivid even in the late fourteenth century.
These could be explained by reference to contemporary English national loyal ties as well as to their commercial interests, reflecting the increasing patriotism that accompanied the Hundred Years' War and that is also seen in Polychronicon. In accordance with the subsequent claims Of English king to be also kings of France, the royal Abbey of St. On the Hereford map, Paris is indicated by a particularly large sign (exceeding even that for Rome), while nearby St. On paleographical grounds, it is unlikely to have been much later; it could have been in the first decades of the 15th century when the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi was also being added to and completed by a distinctly Anglo-centered and chauvinistic monk at Evesham. For instance, Mons Dotayin has been scribbled in, together with a hill sign, to the southeast of the Red Sea crossing. English-controlled Rouen (rona) is givenits own sign, and the capital of the English-ruled province of Gascony, Bordeaux an important entry point into southern Europe for English wool as well as an export center for claret, is named. Viewed from this perspective, and given the constraints imposed by the need to accommodate the island on the outer extremity of the ocean sea, on the edge of the map, there is some resemblance to geographical reality.The River Severn has become a sea separating England from Wales and the Devon-Cornwall peninsula a hump resembling East Anglia. He mistook the cast coast of the island for the south coast and transformed the interior into an image of England as viewed from Evesham.
It is also not inconceivablethat either the abbot or the scribe had personal links with merchants or mariners in the area. This is not the case with Taddiporta€™s presence on the Evesham map, however, since it features at the start and not in the middle of an itinerary.
Moreover, one of the monks who voted for Yatton's successor in 1418, at about or shortly after the time the later additions were made to the map, was a Richard Boteler. All these place, except Worcester and Chester, lie on the modern A49 road, yet neither Warrington nor Wigan is mentioned in cartularies of Evesham Abbey. It looks very much as though the scribe and his patron were personally familiar with the places between Fvesham and Taddiport and with the ports of the southwest of England. Instead, the reference to the map in the inventory (always, assuming, of course, that it refers to the map under discussion) stands alone. Apart from a mention of the Hebrewsa€™ crossing of the Red Sea, the depiction of Adam andEve, and some mountains and towns, the Eveshammap shows little more than coastlines, boundaries and the names of towns and provinces. The Evesham map, too, is so highly traditional in its essentials that most minimally educated viewers would have needed no special elucidation from Higden or any other writer to have understood its basic points. Indeed, one might question the extent to which the various simple maps traditionally associated with particular authors such as Isidore of Seville and Paulus Orosius or with subjects such as the Apocalypse had been specifically created to illustrate their texts or were simply selected from a stock of traditional images of the world. Brian Hindle has commented that, contrary to theopinion of earlier writers, the creator of the Gough map used signs, such as those for towns, arbitrarilyand inconsistently.
As on other Higden maps, such as thosein the Huntington Library and the National Library of Scotland, mountains on the Evesham map are indicated by greenish blots except for the Caucasus (shown in blue) and the Alps, which seem to have been mistaken for a settlement and are shown as a half-finished tower, as though the scribe had realized his mistake early enough to leave the tower incomplete but too late to substitute the proper sign. It could be, then, that by 1450 the authorities in Evesham, a relatively short distance from Bristol, had recognized their map as being unacceptably out-dated and inadequate in its form and conception. In fact, such modernisms were normal on the larger world maps and even, where space allowed, on some of the smaller ones.
This suggests that the tradition of classifying a certain group of maps as Higden maps simply on the basis of the context in which they are most commonly found today is misleading. Despite the enhanced interest in the contemporary world which it displays, the Evesham map reinforces the evidence of the Aslake map: that English cartography, until so recently in the vanguard in western Europe, had taken an abrupt downturn after about 1350. Furthermore, if Spain reached the Far East by sailing directly westward to China, the Florentine merchants at Lyon would lose their trade altogether. They engaged Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine pilot, to lead the enterprise, but needed the authorization of the King of France, Francois I, who had been occupied in regional warfare and in developing a brilliant court, found his treasury in need of immediate funds. Of the crew of 50, the only one who is known apart from Verrazzano himself was his brother Girolamo da Verrazzano, who was a mapmaker. The people are of a color russet, and not much unlike the Saracens; their hair black, thick, and not very long, which they tie together in a knot behind, and wear it like a tail. The large body of water inside the Outer Banks was visible from the ship but no inlet was found. We entered up the said river into the land about half a league, where it made a most pleasant lake [the Upper Bay] about three leagues in compass; on the which they rowed from the one side to the other, to the number of 30 in their small boats, wherein were many people, which passed from one shore to the other to come and see us. These Wampanoags showed him an even better sheltered harbor, present day Newport, and Verrazano stayed there for two weeks, waiting for better weather conditions. Their food, as far as we could perceive, often entering their dwellings, we suppose to be obtained by hunting and fishing, and of certain fruits, a kind of wild root. Stevenson, Maps Illustrating Early Discovery and Exploration in America, 1502-1530, New Brunswick, 1903-1906, map No. On latter 16th century maps such as Michael Loka€™s in 1582 (#419), it is called Mare de Verrazana 1524. Richard Hakluyt, Elizabethan propagandist and promoter of British overseas enterprise, included a map based on Verrazzanoa€™s in his influential Divers Voyage, Touching Discoverie of America published in 1582. Giovanni was going ashore in a boat to greet the natives, wading the last part while the boat, with his brother, remained at sea.
The islands of Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica are also incorrectly located north of the Tropic of Cancer. The islands of Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica are also incorrectly located north of the Tropic of Cancer.A  The Gulf of Mexico is too far north.
Lawrence River shows the discoveries of Jacques Cartier on his second voyage of 1535; it may be based on Cartier's own map, now lost, of that expedition. Platform no's also are noted together with the compass directions and track running directions. Within the traditional geographical and spiritual framework, the pre-occupation with the universal, ancient, and mythical-typical of earlier large world maps-has yielded primacy to the depiction of contemporary England and the territorial, dynastic, and commercial aspects of English patriotism. However, the map belongs to a well-established group of English maps, the so-called a€?Higdena€™ world maps. His Polychronicon became the most popular history book in medieval England and even today more than 120 manuscript copies survive.
The original manuscript of the earliest version is lost, but the Huntington Library possesses whit is now generally accepted as Higden's working copy for the intermediate version, which contains the text tip to c.1327 with continuations recording events tip to 1352.
Unlike Paris, however, Higden was either unable or unwilling to create a map specifically for his description of the world. Its basic structure is to be found also on the Beatus (#207) and the Anglo-Saxon world maps (#210) of several centuries earlier, two map types probably deriving from a now-lost later Roman prototype and possibly thus going back to the administrative world map known to have been made for a portico on the Via Flaminia, Rome, under the direction of Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC).
The map omits all legends, notably those referring to the Marvels of the East or to the Bible (with the exception of an indication of the passage of the Hebrews across the Red Sea) even though these are dealt with in detail in the text. The other copyists became, if anything, less cartographically concerned than Higden and their maps even more conventionalized.

Evesham is the only place in England, apart from Canterbury, to be highlighted on the map by the depiction of a church instead of a tower (like those used for the cities of London, Dover, Bristol and Exeter) or a place-name alone. One was the continuation of the Polychronicon for the years 1348 to 1381, composed in the 1380s by John of Malvern, prior of nearby Worcester from 1395.
It can therefore be suggested that the immediate source for the Evesham map was probably a now-lost map in the early version of Walsinghama€™s chronicles utilised by the Evesham chronicler in about 1390-92, which gives us a likely date for the Evesham mapa€™s creation.
In terms of descent, the Oxford, Paris and Cambridge maps strongly resemble the Evesham map in both nature and disposition of content. This duplication is found neither on the Huntington Library map nor on either of the Ramsey Abbey maps.
The Abbeya€™s cartulary, now among the Harleian manuscripts in the British Library, contains a copy of the valuation.
Victor, one of the few scholars who in the 12th century had described and theorized about the construction and nature of world maps. The price of 6 Marks, or A?3 13s 4d (A?3.66p), was roughly equivalent to the annual earnings of an agricultural laborer or to the cost of an agricultural cart and horse.
Such charts were generally kept rolled and the unfaded state of the Evesham map suggests it too may have been stored in this way.
Apart from the passage of the Hebrews across the Red Sea (indicated by parallel lines at the crossing point and the words Transitus Ebreorum), and depictions of Adam, Eve and the Serpent and of the Tower of Babel, no biblical events are referred to, although Bethlehem is dignified by a squat tower with a spire. It suggests a shift in the mapmaker's interest away from traditional learning towards contemporary reality. Jerusalem is shown as grandiose walled Gothic cathedral city dominating the upper part of the map. The position of Hungri, which is found in the correct place on the Hereford world map (on which, however, Hungary is not shown), should correspond roughly with that described as the home of the Huns in the text of the Polychronicon. In the early thirteenth century, the Christian rulers of Europe had repeatedly attempted to ally with the Mongols of Iran against the Muslim Turks who were occupying the Holy Land. The most likely patron for these textual additions would have been Roger Yatton, Abbot at Evesham from 1379 to 1418. Mount Lebanon is now identified, and Acre appears to be labeled as the gateway (Jaunensis) to the Holy Land. Bruges, another major entry point for English wool within tile dominions of England's ally the Duke of Burgundy, is also named and graced by a large tower. East Anglia itself is left with no room for expression because of the lack of space between it and a circular Europe. Withmore than fifty place-names, England is toponymically richer on the Evesham map than on any other surviving medieval map of Britain apart from these by Matthew Paris and the Gough map and its derivatives. From Bath, a variety of routes would have taken the traveler through Gloucester to Evesham. The heads of another branch of the Botelers - albeit of unproven relationship with the Yatton Botelers - were lords of the manor of Littleham, which lies mid-way between Bideford and Great Torrington, and tenants in chief of Hole (of the eponymous parish).
However, another branch of the Boteler family were at one time lords of the manor of Warrington. In contrast, the other place-names - either well-known monastic and religious centers or important market towns - may only have been known to them indirectly from family links or from travelers who visited Evesham. The map in the inventory is no more connected with the Higden text or its continuation than with any other entry, such as the Abbeya€™s Imago de Mounde. Unlike the other great maps, it could have only marginally enhanced a readera€™s understanding of the Polychronicon or the Historia. Contemporaries, sharing the patron or the scribea€™s prejudices, would have easily comprehended its peculiarities, such as the derogatory depiction of the city of Paris. Chroniclers, encyclopedists and their copyists do not, after all, have to be graphically or geographically conscious. In contrast, on the Evesham map, seas are consistently shown in green-blue except for the Red Sea which, as is usual with these early maps, is painted red, and the Dead Sea which, more unusually, is also shown in red. Again in keeping with many, but not all, Higden maps, rivers are uncolored and are shown as broad blank spaces indistinguishable from provinces. It is in the portrayal of mountains, however, that the second scribe shows the greatest deviation from his predecessor. Its excellent state of conservation suggests that it was never much used, and the step from redundancy and neglect to re-use and renewed relevance as a pedigree of an influentialfamily must have seemed a small one. Studies of the Vercelli, Ebstorf, Hereford and Psalter world maps have demonstrated such updating.
The most likely patron for these textual additions would have been Roger Yatton, Abbot at Evesham from 1379 to 1418.A  It was Yatton who had the frater and the south cloister walk paved and some time before 1395 had a new detached bell tower built, the ancestor of the present bell tower that dates from the 1530s. His 1529 world map was one of the two first maps to show Verrazanoa€™s discoveries (the other was Vesconte de Maggioloa€™s 1527 map of the western hemisphere, #340. Verrazano believed that the sea that lay behind it, in reality Pamlico Sound, was the Pacific.
Sailing further north, he missed the entrances to Chesapeake and Delaware bays, because until New Jersey he kept quite far from the coast. And behold, upon the sudden (as it is wont to fall out in sailing) a contrary flaw of wind coming from the sea, we were enforced to return to our ship, leaving this land, to our great discontentment for the great commodity and pleasantness thereof, which we suppose is not without some riches, all the hills showing mineral matters in them. The degrees of latitude are along a line passing through the Canary Islands, which may have been intended for a prime meridian.
The relative excellence of the delineation of the region of the Isthmus of Panama is worthy of note. Few geographical errors so confused the minds of explorers and mapmakers for a century as this belief in the nearness of the Western Sea (see also #340, 351, 357, 367, 371, 373, 377, #418; maps by Maiollo, Sebastian MA?nster, Battista Agnes, the Ulpus Globe, the Harleran, Baillya€™s Globe, the Wooden Globe, the single cordiform mappamundi of FinA¦us, Jacques Le Moyne, Michael Lok, Dr. Sir Walter Raleigha€™s colony at Roanoke was established on an island in Pamlico Sound presumably because it would be a strategic location on the main route to Cathay when the passage was discovered. Unfortunately, the natives were not a friendly tribe that wanted to trade, but cannibalistic Caribs. The eastern coast of North America trends too much to the northeast, as on most all early maps. Although he was evidently proud of Chester and of the English language, the tone of his text is not at all nationalist.
In this case, Higden himself is likely to have been responsible for the additions as well as the core text, and the Huntington Library manuscript, therefore, should be regarded as the most authoritative expression of Higden's own intentions. Skelton and David Woodward have all followed Konrad Miller (who, however, did not know of the Huntington Library map) in focusing their attention on this map from Ramsey Abbey. By the 1370s they were creating circular maps (or maps shaped like the aureoles often shown surrounding Christ in medieval art), which mostly lacked even the rudimentary coastlines and decoration shown on the Huntington Library Map.
The church symbol presumably refers to Evesham Abbey rather than to the secular town of Evesham, and the use of such a symbol must indicate the importance that the maker of the map attached to Evesham Abbey over all other English religious foundations - despite their greater contemporary importance - apart from St.
In particular, the Paris and Oxford maps share with their Huntington Library predecessor the same striking oval shape of the Evesham map, a shape which Woodward has convincingly argued stems less from the form of the codex leaf on which they were drawn than from Hugo of St.Victora€™s comparison of the shape of the world to that of Noah's Ark.
Most significant of all, however, is a note at the end of the document recording the price (pretium) of six Marks (vj. Although, therefore, not in the same league as luxuriously produced illuminated manuscripts such as the grander books of hours, the Evesham map cost a considerable sum.
The thickness of the skin and the size of the lettering, which would have been legible from a considerable distance, suggest that the mapa€™s creator may have intended it for display - for temporary consultation or for longer-term edification -somewhere in the monastery or even within the church itself. Paradise, personified by a roughly sketched depiction of Adam, Eve and the Serpent, is depicted in its traditional place at the top of the map, in the East immediately above India.
For instance, like the majority of Higden maps, the Evesham map depicts England as an island separated by the sea from Scotland and Wales, both shown as islands as are Ireland and the isle of Man.
In light of the changing English attitude France reflected by these on the two maps, it is likely that the marks of scouring that disfigure France - and only France a€“ on the Hereford map point to vandalism by a later English viewer enraged at such apparent favoritism towards the national enemy. The important trading city of Cologne [Colonia] is shown in Germany with a curious Gothic tower that may perhaps refer to its famous Gothic cathedral, then under construction.Yet another testimony of the influence of commercial interests on the map is the insertion of the Alps and between Catalonia, Provence and the Roman Campagna - of the Gotthard (Mons Godardi) the alpine pass which had been steadily gaining in importance as one of the main conduits for trade between northern and southern Europe since about 1220.
Northern Englanda€™s curve to the right, reminiscent of the Ptolemaic maps of Britain, is almost certainly accidental and the result, once again, of the overall shape of the map. A handful of place-names, including Minehead, Torrington, Penryn and Winchcombe, are shown on a map for the first time. David's (S[aicitu]S David) in Wales is marked by a tower as large as the place sign for London whereas towns in Scotland and Ireland are named but given no sign at all. The Littleham Botelers may have had links with the chantry chapel and leper hospital at nearby Taddiport.
At the same time, these texts would have provided much more information than a reader could readily have visualized in cartographic terms. Still less do they have to be active artists and cartographers, even if some, most notably Matthew Paris, Hugo of St, Victor and Paul Minoritas, possessed all or most of these attributes. A tower or group of towers with spires of varying designs and splendor represents all the settlements (except for Acre and Sidon, which are only named) in a tradition that can also be found on some other Higden maps and that can be traced back to the Vercelli, Ebstorf (#224), Matthew Paris (#225), and Hereford (#226) maps and in some senses To ancient Rome. They are generally not even labeled fluvius, though the Nile, serpentine in its course as on the Paris, Oxford and Cambridge maps, is depicted in red as though it were a continuation of the Red Sea.
Higden may have realized that the map he selected was not ideal, but he was not sufficiently cartographically sophisticated to be bothered by, it.
Francois had no inhibitions over poaching on the Portuguese or Spanish preserve; in fact, he was incensed at the arrangement between those two nations and at the Pope who had divided the world between them. Thus North America at this point seemed nothing more than a rather long, extremely narrow isthmus. Verrazano next discovered New York harbor, and anchored in the Narrows, later named after him and now spanned by the Verrazano Narrows Bridge.
The delineation of Verrazanoa€™s discoveries is one of the most important features of the map. They expertly killed Giovanni and ate him while still fresh, under the eyes of his brother. Lawrence too small; thus indicating that possibly the maps from which they were drawn may have been of different scales.
It is surely significant, as John Taylor has pointed out in his The Universal Chronicle of Ranulf Higden (1966), that several of the later copies of the earliest version have a blank folio-or a completely unrelated piece of text-at the end of the prologue to the first book-exactly where the map is to be found in the Huntington Library manuscript. Undoubtedly it is relatively more informative than the Huntington Library map, but there are major problems in terming it the Higden map, as has been the practice.
The relatively high level of map consciousness and cartographical skill that had distinguished England and the English in 13th century Europe had sunk low.
Albans by the monk Thomas of Walsingham, consisting of the shorter Chronicon Angliae (1328-1388), the more detailed Historia Anglicana (1372-1392) and the Annales Ricardi II et Henrici IV (1392-1406). The second map, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris but formerly owned by Norwich Cathedral, accompanies a Polychronicon continuation to the year 1377.
On the Oxford map, however, the copyist seems to have realized the duplication too late and deleted one of the Aragons, replacing it with another name, now illegible. Yet the scene is significantly different from the depictions of Adam and Eve found at the top of other Higden world maps by being set into the back of en elaborately carved throne. Almost all the place-names are given in English, a distinct change from the practice of a century earlier and evidence of the growing importance of the vernacular language. In this connection, it is worth remembering that the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi was partly, derived from the chronicles of John of Malvern, a monk in Worcester, while information about events of the year 1400 were probably supplied by an informant in the Augustinian house at Cirencester.
The naming of the hamlet of Taddiport on the Evesbam map may even have been a way of commemorating the foundation of the leper hospital there, which we hear of for the first time in 1418.
With its large lettering, it would have been easily seen from a distance: a conventional image conveying an essentially conventional message.
Possibly the scribe, who may not have known Latin, was confusing the Tree of Melopos on his exemplar with nearby Mons Garthabathmon. Almost certainly his chosen map was a familiar image that, because of its very familiarity, would have been as acceptable to his readers as to himself in providing an illustration of the world. As this area appeared impenetrable, they proceeded northeasterly in their search for the passage through to the Orient. This mistake led mapmakers, starting with Maggiolo and Girolamo, to show North America as almost completely divided in two, the two parts just connected by a narrow piece of land on the east coast. The coastline of Africa and of India reveals a surprising knowledge of the Portuguese discoveries. The older assumption that the central figure in the group below the river is an actual portrait of Cartier is now disputed. Book I is devoted to a geographical description of the world, while Books 2 to 5 encompass the history of the world.
In demonstrating how the Evesham chronicle repeats long passages verbatim from the Chronicon Angliae and the Historia Anglicana, Stow has deduced that the Evesham compiler must have had early versions or drafts of both works available to him. The text of this exemplar is in a similar hand to that of yet another text, namely Bodley MS 316, which is a copy of the Polychronicon with a continuation in the form of Walsinghama€™s Chronicon Angliae that was probably also originally owned by Norwich Cathedral.
On the Evesham map, the process seems to have been taken a step further, with a distinction made between Aragonia and a fictional Haragama. In its general form, the throne on the map broadly resembles the abbatial Great Chair of Evesham Abbey, now in the Almonry Museum at the Abbeya€™s former Almonry in the town of Evesham.
It extends from near Flanders and Zeeland, past the northern shores of Spain, which frequently adjoin the southern shores of England on other medieval world maps (for example the Anglo-Saxon, Henry of Mainz and Hereford maps)-to reach the north coast of Africa and the Fortunate islands! Close examination also suggests that the scribe enhanced the predominance Of Jerusalem by over painting the two rows of small squat pinnacles (not unlike those to be found as town symbols on the more elaborate Ramsey Abbey map) in the place sign, and replacing them with a profusion of crenellations, spires and a central tower surmounted by what look's like a weather vane in the shape of a bird top an orb.
In contrast, only a handful of place-names fall beyond a line running southwest to northeast from St. TheEvesham scribe, however, did not have Parisa€™ skill in placing hearsay evidence within at least an approximately correct spatial frame. The inset, which omits many details, is from a map based on photographs of the original and published in H. Previous encounters with cruel Spanish conquerors had obviously affected the Indiansa€™ protocols of hospitality. The coastline from Cape Briton to the south of Cape Cod is probably based upon a copy of the lost pardon generalA  of Alonso de Chaves, 1536.
Second, the inclusion in the same manuscript of another simpler map that is closely related to the Huntington Library map (and may, therefore, be a slightly later addition to the Ramsey Abbey copy of the Polychronicon, suggests a loss of confidence on the part of the copyist - a feeling, perhaps, that with the fuller map he was unacceptably stepping out of line. The Abbey's throne or Great Chair dates from the fourteenth century and could thus have been well known to the creator of the map, Interpretation of the allegorical role of the ensemble has to be tentative, but it could be that here as in the moral frames of the Hereford and the Duchy of Cornwall world maps we again see the symbolic representation, on the one hand, of divine authority over the world and, on the other, of the passage of human time.
So strong was the hope among European merchants and sovereigns that a convenient passage be found connecting an easy sea route from Western Europe to the Spice Islands and Cathay, we find the cartographer of the Harleian map obliging this desire by going beyond previous representations by Maggiolo (#340) and Gerolamo da Verrazano of a false Verrazanian Sea.
Third, it is worth recalling that the fuller Ramsey Abbey map produced no cartographic progeny, whereas the Huntington Library map is related to, and is probably the ancestor of, no fewer than ten oval or circular maps, including the Evesham world map, which were being created up to and into the 1460s.
As well as representing Paradise, Adam and Eve could also be personifications of the beginning of human time, while the throne would symbolize both divine authority over the world and the seat of judgment at the Last Judgment-the end of human time.
The Harleian map provides the belief that an actual strait had been discovered cutting through the north isthmus to the broad waters of an unnamed gulf recognizable as the aforementioned Verrazanian Sea (another false strait had appeared on earlier maps, farther to the south, on the Darien peninsula).
On the Evesham map, therefore the throne takes the place of the representation of Christ on the better of the known of the two Psalter maps and of the Last Judgment on the Hereford world map. In contrast but as on the other oval Higden maps, the rest of France on the Evesham map his been reduced to the size of an insignificant province, with the sign for Paris so small that it can easily be overlooked.
The strait on this map carries the legend, Gofanto mer osto, which may be freely translated as a€?Gulf before [or leading to] the South Seaa€?.A  Another manuscript map, La Virgenia Pars, by John White in 1585, shows a similar strait (#370). It was, after all, a commonplace in late medieval art to depict the sovereignty of Christ, the Virgin and the Trinity as enthroned, and most moderately cultured contemporary viewers would have understood the allegory without difficulty. However, as on other Higden maps, Scandinavia, a European region that was never a Roman province, is shown east of the River Don, bordering on Judea. Unlike maps that are closest in comparison with the Evesham map, the size of Asia Minor has been reduced, presumably in order to make more space for the Holy Land. The Marvels of the East, Ethiopia and the provinces of Trogodite and Garamante are all shown without comment.
Acre, which had remained in crusader hands until 1291, is shown with the name Acon, as on the maps of Matthew Paris and several Higden Map, rather than with its classical name of Ptolemais.
The Prominence given to Tyre - misplaced, like Sidon, to the south of Jerusalem - may also reflect its importance during the period of the Crusades as well as in classical antiquity.

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