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To determine the restoring force per unit extension of a spiral spring by statical and dynamical methods and also to determine the mass of the spring.
Center for Cancer Systems Biology (CCSB), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. The reason you're getting so much push-back on this is that weight penalties have real consequences on airplanes, either in reduced payload or higher fuel consumption. And then there's this: How many Americans actually have space in their garage for a car, let alone a car and an airplane.
Originally Posted by Topaz The reason you're getting so much push-back on this is that weight penalties have real consequences on airplanes, either in reduced payload or higher fuel consumption. While many do take care of their airplanes, the fact is even simple bits of blow up stuff off the runway can cause measurable damage to a light structure. Originally Posted by orion But if you know what you're doing and account for the design weights up front, there is no reason that the payload has to be decreased in any way.
Topaz is right, the trailer is the key to garage storage - and you COULD design that to hold up some junk. That's what we've been thinking for how different warbirds could hopefully all use the same frame. Well instead of doing the bulkheads in the manner as shown, the other more traditional way would be to use laser cut ply or aluminum or even vac-formed individual bulkheads, that are then positioned in the mold, so that the polymer is bonded to them right as it is formed. I started into using single-piece same-material for a bulkhead web structure because the material would end up being the same initial square footage as the skin itself, the forming process would draw it up into those shapes. I'm at the point I suppose where it looks like I've gotta start counting square-feet and getting some real weights.
I'm not suggesting the airplane be subjected to abuse on purpose, I'm just suggesting that all these aircraft advertised as fitting into a car garage likely wouldn't be able to survive a real-world car garage: when the target market is the retired old guy with no kids, it's relatively easy to ensure the safety of their bird, and treat the plane like a newborn Ferrari.
When I mention these extremes, I'm thinking in the same way as the 'Will It Blend?' guys stuffing rakes and iPhones into their blender. Well, you haven't done any aerodynamic or loads analysis yet, so determining material gauges is extremely premature at this point. I am wagering that the same process be done for all options on the table, including all-aluminum and all-composite options, just take an educated guess and compare the numbers, get some baseline. Safety & Health Expo 2016Showcasing more health and safety exhibitors than any other UK event, in 2015, Safety & Health Expo 2016 will be even bigger. Soils are an extremely complex matrix to analyse, particularly on contaminated sites - the actual soil matrix can vary from a sand (silica) to limestone (calcium carbonate) to clay (complexed minerals), or a mixture of many. Methods of chemical analysis need to cope with this very wide range of materials and compounds, which is difficult, and the introduction of MCERTS (the Environment Agency’s Monitoring Certification Scheme) has raised awareness of the issues associated with reliable testing over such diverse matrices.
This is an absolutely critical step, and tends to be overlooked in a review of methods, but if the preparation is not carefully done, then no amount of sophisticated instrumentation will improve the result. Volatiles, leachate testing, phenols, ammoniacal nitrogen, sulphides, cyanides, most organics, hexavalent chromium.
Homogenisation can be done by a classic cone and quartering technique, or using a jaw crusher to break up larger chunks, or kneading clay type samples. Once a subsample of soil is weighed out, then for most methods, some form of liquid is added to the soil to extract the required parameter of interest. During the validation of a method, the robustness and applicability over a range of matrices must be determined, and this is usually done by using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) or spike and recovery (spiking a range of soils with a known amount of a standard and then testing to see how much is recovered). All analytical instruments require calibration, and this is usually performed by preparing a range of standards (five or six is common) at increasing concentrations, putting these through the instrument, which will then construct a calibration curve or graph.
Methods fall into two main groups: spectroscopic methods for most inorganic analytes, and chromatographic methods for organic compounds.
Most laboratories will use some form of automated spectrophotometer, such as a Kone or an Aqua. Metals comprise one of the most commonly requested groups of analytes in environmental analysis, and these are usually measured by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - OES). The dried and crushed soil is weighed out (usually 5 g of sample), and then digested on a hot block with aqua regia (a 3:1 mix of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids) for up to two hours.

The beauty of the ICP is that it will measure several wavelengths at once, so over 20 metals can be analysed in about 4 minutes, ensuring this is a very efficient method. Chromatography is the separation of a complex mixture by the use of partitioning between a stationary phase (the column), and the mobile phase (a liquid or gas).
Speciated phenols are analysed by HPLC, and will give results for phenol itself, xylenols, cresols, resorcinols and napthols.
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and pesticides (chlorinated and phosphorylated, plus many others). A mass spec can be run in two ways, either in full scan, where the instrument is set to look at every peak, or in selected ion monitoring (SIM), where it will only look for specific target compounds and ignore anything else which may be present. This review gives only a summary of some of the many methods of soil analysis, but these cover the more widely used techniques. ALcontrol tests soil, water, food, oil and air for contaminants or hazardous substances to allow our clients to ensure health and safety, comply with law or conserve the environment. ALcontrol provides testing and analytical services for soil, water, food, oil, asbestos and air to help clients demonstrate compliance with regulations and achieve their health, safety and environmental goals.
When the target market has anything from a teenage son to a 2-year-old running around causing havok, they either have to keep their ride at the airport like my dad always did, and eat the costs, or put it in the car garage and make sure the kids don't mess it up. I absolutely agree with you that some weight and performance can be sacrificed to usability and aesthetics.
In many airplanes the skin carries some degree of load, and damage to the skin compromises its ability to do so without failure. No way, I'm not going that route unless it WAS a laminated thing using fiberglass and what inside in a bunch of ways.
Imagine metal truss or even a composite bathtub hull) and then we started thinking about doing a tail boom (but it could be more truss structure just as well) and then essentially the rest is large fairings that would be attached.
That process would create natural dimples in the skin which could be easily drilled out and riveted later with mo extra jigging or Clecoing required. Is anyone going to actually go parking their aircraft in the back of a garage and put a tarp over it and use it for holding all their old crap? It could well be that the material has to get heavier, perhaps double the estimate: then we'd know its a bad idea. The validation must cover the preparative stages of a method, as well as the instrumental analysis. Samples, when run through the instrument, are read off this graph to give the concentration of the analyte within the sample. This has been used by chemists for hundreds of years, although instrumentation is much more automated nowadays. The acid extract is filtered and then loaded into the autosampler rack on the ICP - OES, where it will be aspirated and pumped into the plasma (a very hot, ionised gas at 10,000oC).
ICPMS can be used instead of ICPOES, but the samples require large dilutions due to the sensitivity of the instrument to the high acidic and dissolved solids content in the digests.
The separation occurs because of different properties of the compounds - either their mass (so larger molecules take longer to pass through), or their polarity (the charge associated with a compound - the greater this is, the more reactive the compound will be and the more slowly it will move through the column). Depending on the site, clients need to request just phenol, total phenols, or speciated phenols. The pattern of the chromatogram enables the analyst to identify the type of product in the soil.
All methods must be fully validated and proven to work across a range of matrices, and are monitored on a batch by batch basis with the use of blanks and Analytical Quality Control (AQC) samples. Through its network of laboratories it services customers in 11 European countries and provides support to customers globally. We hope our customers choose us because we are easy to deal with, provide fast accurate results giving our clients Confidence to Act on our results. She has worked for ALcontrol Laboratories for 30 years, initially as an analyst, but then in a series of managerial roles. Hazel participates on several industry committees (BSI, MCERTS, SCA and EIC), is a frequent speaker at conferences, and runs several seminars each year for Alcontrol.
More than 2000 employees in 30 laboratories across 11 European countries support a global customer base providing millions of tests per year.
It might make for better customer satisfaction in the long run, but where's the pitch to be made on this?

It can also indicate damage to underlying structure that needs to be investigated before the airplane returns to the air. If one gets damaged, ya could repair it if you want (it'd be easy to take that whole side off I should think to get access for glassing a crack) or if it's practical, buy a new one to replace it fresh. Obviously you'd need to run the numbers on the structure, but if those deep ribs inside the aft fuselage shells are same-thickness plastic, it's going to weigh a lot.
You can rough out the concept without any numbers, but you need to do the engineering before you can do the detail work. If a subsample can be dried, this is usually at a temperature of 35 - 40oC, or 105oC if a moisture content is required.
Samples must be shaken, refluxed, or digested for specific periods of time, then filtered or centrifuged, and the liquid extract then analysed by an instrument specific for the analyte in question. Alternatively, internal standards of a known concentration are added to the sample, and the concentration of compounds within the sample are calculated according to their response measured against that of the internal standard - this is more common in organic methods.
All instruments will have an autosampler, and a system for sequentially adding the appropriate chemicals to develop the colour. These automated analysers are very efficient and can run up to two hundred samples per hour. Here, energy causes electron excitation, and then as the sample passes out of the plasma, this energy will be emitted as the electrons return to their ground state. An alternative method of metals analysis is atomic absorption, and there are several forms of this, but the downside is that only one element can be measured at once. Each of these will provide a target list of 60 + compounds plus up to ten Tentatively Identified Compounds. In addition, laboratories accredited to ISO 17025 (and MCERTS) must participate in proficiency testing schemes, where blind samples are tested at regular intervals to ensure the laboratory methods are fit for purpose.
Intensity-ratio histograms are generated between pairs of samples, and a number of metrics are derived.
Nah, a way better route for my money is to make the (enclosed) trailer the place the airplane sleeps outdoors, and sell that as part of the package. It's all stuff that could be analyzed relatively straightforward like to make sure it's all kosher, and they look pretty good so far. It could be that the web could be .03 as well, depending on how thin it gets in the forming process. More likely, they'll dedicate a bay to it just like they would if it was their new Range Rover or Muscle Car restoration project or what-ever-else, and hopefully keep all the sharp pointy stuff out in a shed, telling all the kids to not screw up mom's P51 same as they'd expect the kids not to smash dad's '77 Mustang. Moisture contents will be needed for all testing performed on as received soils, as these must be adjusted back to a dry weight basis for reporting purposes. The energy emitted will be at specific wavelengths, according to the metals present in the sample, and this energy is detected by the spectrophotometer.
If the likely compounds are known, then it is better to use the methods run in SIM, as these will provide lower detection limits. Environmental analysis today is complex, time consuming, and is subject to rigorous quality procedures. Even sailplanes, designed to be the easiest possible aircraft to stuff regularly into a trailer, generally sleep in that trailer out at the airport. Over 30% of samples analysed are QC or validation samples, and this represents a heavy cost to the laboratory, but data must be defensible. I'm still moving numbers around watching loading and weights change in sometimes surprising ways.
However unrealistically, people go into big purchases with the notion that they'll take awesome care of the thing forever. But they don't see the point of something that takes care of their own sloppiness - because they honestly don't think they're going to be sloppy. You used to baby it and, back when you bought it, if someone had told you you'd be tossing it around the shop covered in dents and grease, you'd have told them that they're insane.

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