Oral communication activities for students,the secret rhonda byrne free download audio,business writing classes dallas - 2016 Feature

Developed by Sue McCandlish, this graphic shows the importance of listening and responding when it comes to instructional strategies for language development. Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced.
It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them.
A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period.
To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes.
Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy.
Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions.
Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions.
At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts.
There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge.
That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established.
In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe.
Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography.
The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity.
Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world.
It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone. China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent. An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200. The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994.
Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost. As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square. The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China.
2016 John Heritage, 'The recruitment matrix.' Research on Language and Social Interaction.
2015 John Heritage and Chase Wesley Raymond, 'Are explicit apologies proportional to the offenses they address?' Discourse Processes.
2013 John Heritage and Tanya Stivers, 'Conversation Analysis in Sociology.' In Jack Sidnell and Tanya Stivers (eds), Handbook of Conversation Analysis. 2013 John Heritage, 'Epistemics in Conversation.' In Jack Sidnell and Tanya Stivers (eds), Handbook of Conversation Analysis. 2013 Anita Pomerantz and John Heritage, 'Preference.' In Jack Sidnell and Tanya Stivers (eds), Handbook of Conversation Analysis. 2006 Steven Clayman, Marc Elliott, John Heritage and Laurie McDonald, 'Historical Trends in Questioning Presidents, 1953-2000', Presidential Studies Quarterly 36(4): 561-583. 2005 John Heritage, 'Cognition in Discourse.' In Hedwig Te Molder and Jonathan Potter (eds), Conversation and Cognition. 2004 John Heritage, 'Conversation Analysis and Institutional Talk.' In Robert Sanders and Kristine Fitch (eds), Handbook of Language and Social Interaction.
2003 Rita Mangione-Smith, Tanya Stivers, Marc Elliott, Laurie McDonald and John Heritage (2003).
2003 Robin DiMatteo, Jeffrey Robinson, John Heritage, Mellisah Tabbarrah and Sarah Fox (2003). 2003 Tanya Stivers, Rita Mangione-Smith, Marc Elliott, Laurie McDonald and John Heritage (2003).
1990 Charles Goodwin and John Heritage, 'Conversation Analysis', Annual Review of Anthropology, 19: 283-307.
1987 John Heritage, 'Ethnomethodology', in Anthony Giddens and Jonathan Turner (eds) Social Theory Today, Cambridge, Polity Press: 224-272.
1985 John Heritage, 'Recent Developments in Conversation Analysis', Sociolinguistics, 15: 1-19.
1984 John Heritage, 'A Change of State Token and Aspects of Its Sequential Placement',A in J. 1983 John Heritage, 'Accounts in Action', inA Nigel Gilbert and Peter Abell (eds), Accounts and Action, Farnborough, Gower House: 117-131. 1983 John Heritage, 'Feminization and Unionization: A Case Study from Banking', inA Eva Gamarnikow et al. 1980 John Heritage and Rod Watson, 'Aspects of the Properties of Formulations', Semiotica, 30: 245-262. 1979 John Heritage and Rod Watson, 'Formulations as Conversational Objects', in George Psathas (ed), Everyday Language,A New York, Irvington Press: 123-162. 1978 John Heritage, 'Aspects of the Flexibilities of Natural Language Use', Sociology, 12: 79-103. 1977 John Heritage and Rod Watson, 'Recent Developments in the Sociology of Language in Britain', Sociolinguistics Newsletter, 8: 2-6.
1975 John Heritage, 'Community and Practicality in Sociology and Beyond', Sociology, 9: 329-339. 1974 John Heritage, 'Assessing People', in Nigel Armistead (ed), Reconstructing Social Psychology, Harmondsworth, Penguin: 260-281. 2016A  John Heritage, 'The recruitment matrix.' Research on Language and Social Interaction. 2015A  John Heritage and Chase Wesley Raymond, 'Are explicit apologies proportional to the offenses they address?' Discourse Processes. 2013A A  John Heritage and Tanya Stivers, 'Conversation Analysis in Sociology.'A  In Jack Sidnell and Tanya Stivers (eds), Handbook of Conversation Analysis. 2013A A  John Heritage, 'Epistemics in Conversation.'A  In Jack Sidnell and Tanya Stivers (eds), Handbook of Conversation Analysis.
2013A A  Anita Pomerantz and John Heritage, 'Preference.'A  In Jack Sidnell and Tanya Stivers (eds), Handbook of Conversation Analysis.
2005A  John Heritage, 'Cognition in Discourse.' In Hedwig Te Molder and Jonathan Potter (eds), Conversation and Cognition. 2004A  John Heritage, 'Conversation Analysis and Institutional Talk.' In Robert Sanders and Kristine Fitch (eds), Handbook of Language and Social Interaction.
2003A  Rita Mangione-Smith, Tanya Stivers, Marc Elliott, Laurie McDonald and John Heritage (2003).
2003A  Robin DiMatteo, Jeffrey Robinson, John Heritage, Mellisah Tabbarrah and Sarah Fox (2003). 2003A  Tanya Stivers, Rita Mangione-Smith, Marc Elliott, Laurie McDonald and John Heritage (2003).
1990A  Charles Goodwin and John Heritage, 'Conversation Analysis', Annual Review of Anthropology, 19: 283-307. 1987A  John Heritage, 'Ethnomethodology', in Anthony Giddens and Jonathan Turner (eds) Social Theory Today, Cambridge, Polity Press: 224-272. 1984A  John Heritage, 'A Change of State Token and Aspects of Its Sequential Placement',A in J. 1980A  John Heritage and Rod Watson, 'Aspects of the Properties of Formulations', Semiotica, 30: 245-262.
1978A  John Heritage, 'Aspects of the Flexibilities of Natural Language Use', Sociology, 12: 79-103. 1977A  John Heritage and Rod Watson, 'Recent Developments in the Sociology of Language in Britain', Sociolinguistics Newsletter, 8: 2-6. 1975A  John Heritage, 'Community and Practicality in Sociology and Beyond', Sociology, 9: 329-339.
1974A  John Heritage, 'Assessing People', in Nigel Armistead (ed), Reconstructing Social Psychology, Harmondsworth, Penguin: 260-281.
In the early 1980s at annual meetings of the African Studies Association, specialists in Mande culture, history, and other studies found themselves repeatedly drawn together to discuss their work and to exchange ideas. On November 1, 1986 in Madison, Wisconsin, the informal Mande group was invited by Gerald Cashion to Suite 619 of the Concourse Hotel to discuss the possibility of forming an organization devoted to Mande studies. On the occasions of several African Studies Association meetings beginning with the one in 1981, Tom Hale and Paul Stoller organized a series of roundtable discussions on topics related to cultures of the Middle Niger River. Kathryn Green consented to take minutes of the meeting, thus becoming the first MANSA secretary. In 1988 MANSA was contacted by Carlos Lopes who was then Director of INEP, the largest and most active research institute in Guinea-Bissau. Second International Conference on Mande Studies: Bamako,Mali 1993a€?Planning what would be the second international conference on Mande studies (though the first to be conceived by MANSA), the principal organizer Kathryn Green and other participants were clear in their determination that it should be held on African soil in order to maximize the participation of African colleagues. With its thirty-three papers presented on eight panels, the Bamako conference was modest compared to the one at SOAS twenty-one years earlier. Co-organized by Jan Jansen and David Conrad, the Leiden conference received substantial support from Germany's Bremer Stiftung fA?r Geschichte and several institutions of The Netherlands: the Research School CNWS, the Research School CERES, the African Studies Centre, the Rijks Museum voor Volkenkunde, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, all of whom contributed generously in providing necessary funding, personnel and facilities. The Fourth International Conference on Mande Studies was held at the Senegambia Beach Hotel in Serrekunda, The Gambia, 13-17 June, 1998.
The conference Keynote Speaker was Sidia Jatta, Gambian National Assembly MP for Wulli, Upper River Division (for the text of his speech see MANSA Newsletter 38, 1998: 7-8). The Sixth International Conference on Mande Studies was held in Conakry and Kankan, Guinea June 20-26, 2005. The Conakry segment co-organized by Mohamed SaA?dou N'Daou, and David Conrad took place at the Novotel, 20-22 June, and the opening session featured Djibril Tamsir Niane as the keynote speaker.
MANSA Newsletter: The organization's newsletter reached its fifty-eighth issue in the spring of 2006. At the annual meetings of the African Studies Association in Chicago (1988) and Atlanta (1989), several panels addressed issues concerning the roles of artisans and oral traditionists in the Mande social system.
Among the themes engaging panelists at the Third International Conference on Mande Studies in Leiden were matters involving the consequences of intense step-brother rivalry in Mande society known as fadenya.
Also featured at the Leiden conference was a round-table organized by the anthropological team of Mirjam de Bruijn and Han van Dijk. Ralph Austen's a€?Sunjata Epic Conferencea€? at Northwestern University in 1992 focused on the epic tradition that describes legendary people and events of the Mali empire, providing a centuries-old framework for Mande identity and cultural values. Like any large, extended family, MANSA has suffered its share of tragedy, periodically losing some of its members to accident, illness, and the passage of time. The Institut des Sciences Humaines (ISH) has long played an important role in the careers of many scholars of the Mande world, providing letters of invitation, research authorization, field assistance, and collaboration with Malian colleagues. The West African Research Association (WARA) was founded in 1989 for the purpose of promoting scholarly exchange and collaboration between American and West African researchers.
In the summers of 1991 and 1992 the Mande Studies Association began establishing cordial and productive relations with faculty and staff at the universities of Conakry and Kankan, and at the National Archives in Conakry.
Research by MANSA members in The Gambia is authorized and expedited by the National Council for Arts and Culture in Banjul. Second International Conference on Mande Studies: Bamako,Mali 1993Planning what would be the second international conference on Mande studies (though the first to be conceived by MANSA), the principal organizer Kathryn Green and other participants were clear in their determination that it should be held on African soil in order to maximize the participation of African colleagues.
In Bamako, one advantage of holding an international conference on West African soil proved to be the participation of doctoral students from Europe and the United States who happened to be doingA A  research in Mali at the right time.
The 1995 conference at Leiden was such a success that in June of the same year in London, colleagues from SOAS were tentatively suggesting to the MANSA President several ideas for another international conference, this time to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 1972 Conference on Manding Studies (MANSA Newsletter 28, 1995: 2).
The Fifth International Conference on Mande Studies was held at the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde in Leiden, The Netherlands, 17-21 June, 2002. This is the average vocabulary for 6 year-olds who are developing communication skills at a typical rate. Pumpkin Pie Clues – Give your child verbal clues to a food item you typically eat on Thanksgiving, without using the actual words that part of the name. Thanksgiving Rhyme Time – Use this Thanksgiving word bank and take turns finding rhyming words with your child for each word on the list. Thanksgiving Sounds – Make a list with your child of all the sounds that remind her of Thanksgiving.
Duck, Duck, Turkey – Play the traditional game of Duck, Duck, Goose (or Duck, Duck, Grey Duck depending on where you live in the country), and swap out Goose for Turkey. Story Time Repeat – Read a Thanksgiving related story to your child or have him watch one of these online, then ask questions about the story.
These Thanksgiving listening games for kids are just a few ways you can incorporate language-building activities into your daily routines with your kids and keep working on those foundations for communication.
It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them.
Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history.
Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time.
Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.
It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness.
There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic.
In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C. Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death.
The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man.
The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance.
This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps.
The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest. In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328).



The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ.
That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii.
That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race).
That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c.
That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps.
We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought.
In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice.
Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge.
In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions. By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps.
Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium.
In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™. Robinson, Alexandra Tate and John Heritage, 'Agenda setting revisited: When and how do primary care physicians solicit patients' additional concerns?' Patient Education and Counseling.
Maxwell Atkinson and John Heritage (eds), Structures of Social Action,A Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 1-15. Maxwell Atkinson and John Heritage (eds), Structures of Social Action, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 299-345. Several years of informal gatherings took place in hotels and restaurants in such cities as Washington DC, New Orleans and Los Angeles.
Barbara Frank and others recalled that in recent years Marie Perinbam had been a catalyst of the group, enthusiastically organizing informal gatherings (including a particularly boisterous one at a restaurant in New Orleans), so Perinbam was elected vice-president in absentia. Some of our members' relations with ISH pre-date MANSA's existence by many years, when the institute was under the direction of Mamadou Sarr and the offices were located in one of the buildings near the Place de l'Independence. In 1992 the Senegalese government provided a site for the establishment of the association's West African Research Center (WARC), in Dakar.
On June 21 shortly after arriving in Dakar to attend the conference, MANSA Vice-President B. The frequency of visits and cooperative projects markedly increased after 1992 with the comings and goings of a series of researchers on Fulbright fellowships.
Lopes' initiative led to an informal affiliation between INEP and the Mande Studies Association (MANSA Newsletter 5, 1988: 1). The idea was well-received, and at the 1989 meeting in Atlanta, MANSA members began to talk about organizing an international conference. After nearly four years of concerted effort by MANSA members in the United States and Mali, the Second International Conference on Mande Studies was finally held at the Islamic Cultural Center in Bamako, 15-19 March, 1993. African colleagues residing in West AfricaA  were actively involved, with eight of the papers being presented by Malians and one from CA?te d'Ivoire.
One result of the attendance by several European students was that in the next two years MANSA received an infusion of new energy from a surprisingly large and active group of scholars in The Netherlands. In two days of sessions at the university, twenty-four papers were presented on eight panels, bringing the total for the entire conference to fifty-three papers on seventeen panels. Desiring to increase the accuracy of perspectives on relations between Mande and Fulbe peoples, de Bruijn and van Dijk addressed a topic that had already engaged the interest of MANSA members as early as their fourth annual meeting (Atlanta, 1989). Marie Nathalie LeBlanc, a€?Youth, Islam and Changing Identities in Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire.a€? Department of Anthropology.
Edda Fields, a€?Rice Farmers in the Rio Nunez Region: A Social History of Agricultural Technology and Identity in Coastal Guinea, ca. In order to maintain this status, one-third of MANSA's membership must be members of the ASA. Two key figures at the University of Conakry have been Mamadou Kodiougou Diallo, Vice-Recteur de la Recherche Scientifique and N'Fanly Kouyate, Directeur des Relations Exterieures.
At the next MANSA meeting (Orlando, 1995), members were open to the idea of another international meeting and to commemorating the SOAS conference, but they expressed the preference to meet again on African soil. Papers presented at ASA meetings, international conferences on Mande studies, and many other conferences the world over, eventually appear as articles in a wide range of scholarly journals. However, for many children who are struggling with speech and communication skills, that vocabulary list is much shorter.
If your child struggles significantly with speech, change up the game and you become the rhymer. Encourage her to listen for those sounds on that day and see which ones she can add to her list.
Another fun variation of this is Turkey on the Table – you just need a few more players for this one.
Place a blindfold on either you or your child – that person is the farmer lost in the dark who is searching for his prized turkey. This reinforces listening skills, but also encourages kids to use the important skill of responding (the other necessary part of the listening quadrant shown above).
They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse.
The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties. We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work.
But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors. Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra.
Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence.
Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map. Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered. McKinlay and Lisa Marceau (eds), e-Source: Behavioral and Social Science Research Interactive Textbook.
It was also agreed that the organization would publish a newsletter at least twice per year. Gerald Cashion and Robert Launay agreed to serve as the first advisory board members (see list of officers and past officers elsewhere on this website). Since WARA's founding there has been a close association between it and the Mande Studies Association. During those years, several students at the university served as valued research and translation assistants to the Fulbrighters. On 7 June, 1998, INEP's research endeavors were shattered by a war that flared up in Guinea-Bissau between veterans of the armed struggle for national liberation, and government troops supported by armies of neighboring countries. Despite the unfortunate timing of being held during Ramadan, many other Malians attended the panels, and the conference was well covered by L'Essor and Malian television (ORTM).
A direct benefit of their participation was that only two years after the Bamako meeting, the Third International Conference on Mande Studies took place 20-24 March, 1995 in Leiden, The Netherlands at the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde. The Rijks Museum voor Volkenkunde featured an exhibit on the city of Jenne in Mali, and there were presentations of the films Sanji--Water from Heaven directed by Paul Folmer and Salina Haledo, and Sunjata Banta, directed by Paul Folmer and Ed van Hoven. The following day in honor of their visit, the symposium a€?Democracy and Development in Malia€? was held at the MSU International Center. Funding for the participation of African and some other colleagues was provided by the Embassies of the Kingdom of Netherlands in Abidjan and Dakar, by the Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (thanks to Joe Tainter), and by two anonymous benefactors. Generous donations by eleven MANSA members funded five West African colleagues to attend the conference (one from Burkina Faso and four from Mali). While the sessions were being held in the reading room of the university library, Mohamed Chejan Kromah and his assistant Sagno worked on a fourteen-panel mural of scenes from the Sunjata epic commissioned by MANSA, which they finished in the weeks following the conference. Het geheim van het masker Maskerrituelen en genderrelaties in de Casamance, Senegal [a€?The secret of the mask Mask rituals and gender relations in the Casamance, Senegala€?] Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers. MANSA suffered shocking losses two years in a row when on July 17, 1996, FranA§ois Manchuelle died in the crash of TWA Flight 800 (MANSA Newsletter 32: 1), MANSA Vice-President B. At the founders' meeting in 1986, it was decided that one of the organization's basic activities would be to sponsor Mande studies panels at the annual meetings of the African Studies Association. In the early 90s, working with Louise Bedichek who was at that time (June 1987-September 1991) the extraordinarily effective Public Affairs Officer at the United States Information Service (USIS), Mamadou Kodiougou Diallo who was at that time Vice-Recteur de Recherche at the University of Conakry, smoothed the way for research authorization and began requesting and personally welcoming American scholars.
Abdoulie Bayo and Patience Sonko-Godwin of the National Council for Arts and Culture inA  Banjul were persistent in their requests that The Gambia be considered (MANSA Newsletter 29, 1995-96: 1-2). In addition, many individual members made generous donations toward the sponsorship of African colleagues to attend the conference.
But it can be noted here that several edited volumes are the direct result of members' presentations at various meetings and conferences since MANSA's founding in 1986. Sue McCandlish, an Education and Speech Pathology professional, developed the model below that outlines how valuable listening is to the overall model of communication. This game emphasizes listening for verbal clues, and you can make it as challenging (1 or 2 clues) as you need or give plenty of clues to increase opportunities for success.
This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy.
The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art.
Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens.
Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean.
Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors.
Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians. She is currently an English teacher in the Extension Programs at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Nothing came of the idea then, but in 1986 during the first MANSA meeting, Hale and Conrad both recalled the earlier occasion and the latter agreed to try and make good on the original plan. Since MANSA's founding many of the staff at ISH have become active members, participating in projects with their visiting colleagues, conducting their own research, and presenting papers at various international conferences. Several MANSA members have served as officers in WARA, including Jeanne Toungara, Secretary (1995-1997), Thomas Hale, Advisory Board (1995-99), David Conrad, Advisory Board (1995-97), Fiona McLaughlin, WARC Director (1999), and David Robinson, Vice-President (1996-2002). WARA President Edris Makward dedicated the conference to our departed friend, and her MANSA colleagues who remained to carry on included Ferdinand de Jong, Cornelia Giesing, Kathryn Green, Lilyan Kesteloot, Kirsten Langeveld, Barbara Lewis, Peter Mark, Muhammad SaA?dou N'Daou, David Robinson, Jeanne Toungara, Vera Viditz-Ward, and David Conrad (MANSA Newsletter 35, 1997: 1-2). In 1994 MANSA members began contributing books to the new American Cultural Center Library, which at the time was directed by Mohamed Fofana. The war brought death and displacement to thousands of local citizens, and among the infrastructures most affected by the war's destruction was the building complex housing INEP which was located less than a kilometer from the initial frontline of the hostilities.
Other expenses were paid for by a generous contribution from Stephan BA?hnen's Bremer Stiftung fA?r Kultur und Sozialanthropologie (formerly the Bremer Stiftung fA?r Geschichte).
Another generous donation along with help from the MANSA treasury funded the Sunjata mural in the library reading room at the University of Kankan. In the nineteen ASA meetings since our founding (1987-2005), MANSA-members have organized more than fifty panels devoted to Mande studies. N'Fanly Kouyate, also of the University of Conakry, was the main force in acquiring a government apartment as residence and maison de passage for Fulbrighters and other American researchers at Boulibinet on the tip of the penninsula. A total of eleven African colleagues (one from Gambia, five from Guinea, and five from Mali) were fully funded through the combined efforts of Dutch agencies and MANSA donors, with some extra help from the MANSA treasury.
Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca. From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed.
Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e. At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres]. And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands.
On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography.
Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century.


The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period. He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C.
Robert Launay suggested that the editor ought to have a respectable title to make it worth his while, and that is how Conrad became President of the fledgling organization. More recently, MANSA preparations for the Sixth International Conference on Mande Studies that will be partly held in Kankan have been greatly aided by the dynamic support of the Recteur of the University of Kankan, Seydouba Camara. Occupation of the INEP complex by foreign troops resulted in near total destruction of the facility, including its library, research equipment and archives containing fifeen years' of painstakingly compiled audio, visual, and printed research documentation (MANSA Newsletter 38, 1998: 1-6). Kaba suggested that another international conference on Mande studies would continue the trend of reclaiming African history for the continent (MANSA Newsletter 10, 1989: 3). Ambassador to Mali, David Rawson, who drew a warm response from the Malian delegation by including some remarks in Bamanankan. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.
It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia.
This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era.
The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research.
Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions.
By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps.
There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere. But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer.
Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today. Early on, MANSA began receiving electronic bulletins from INEP Director Peter Mendy in Dakar via Cornelia Giesing who had taken refuge in Germany. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings.
Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged. The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense.
The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts.
Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent.
Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond. The bulletins periodically updated progress of the hostilities, cease-fires and negotiations.
Chaired by David Dalby, the official conference program lists 240 participants, ninety-four of which presented papers. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C.
The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him.
Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries]. Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example. That meeting included nearly every notable scholar in Mande studies at that time, along with many others who would later make significant contributions to the field.
Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias.
The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps.
Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars.
In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?.
What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc.
They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter.
The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface.
It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu. Likewise, the teacher created an appropriate learning environment in which children were challenged to use English in meaningful ways. Even when their literacy abilities are formed, it is the most important link with the outside world. Through it, children are able to share ideas, acquire new concepts, organize old ones, compose stories and create new worlds. Likewise, oral language takes children on a journey into the world of imagination where they can truly live the adventure of using language for communication. In such conventional teaching-learning environment there is no chance for students to gain knowledge and to explore ideas. It is also an intellectual issue which deserves more attention from both teachers and researchers. Hence, our interest in inquiring about children’s oral communication during the development of the class activities in an English course.
Learners become actors who use the language to convey meaning in real situations both inside and outside the classroom.
Therefore, activities need to match carefully the child’s age and ability level if language learning success is to be attained. It is through the interaction between speaker and listener (or reader and writer) that meaning becomes clear” (Larsen-Freeman, 1986, p. This makes us point out that the main goal when handling speaking in class should be to help the learner to produce fluent and accurate language appropriate to the speech situation. Learners also need opportunities to interact with other speakers and to negotiate meaning through interaction (Ellis, 1985, as cited in Glew, 1998).
Similarly, through error correction, students can incorporate new language elements from the correct forms of the teacher’s responses. In the silent period, as children can already communicate in their own language, they want to be able to use the foreign language in the same way.
Thus, to speed up the process of speaking, teachers can provide children with useful or prefabricated phrases helping to expand the children's repertoire of language.
They can learn these as blocks of sounds the same way they did when they learnt their first language.
When young foreign language learners finally begin communication in the target language, that is to say, in the intermediate period, mainly learnt by imitation and repetition, researchers have observed two consistent features: the use of telegraphic speech and the use of formulaic speech. Then, the next step in this process involves an elaboration or extension made by the teacher which the children imitate. These formulas often help children to communicate in the foreign language with speakers around them.
Children incorporate an utterance used by an adult into an already established phrase or one that is being produced from elements already learnt. There is a set of factors (psychological, sociological, cognitive, to name a few), known as individual variation, that may affect directly or indirectly the process of second language learning.
Accordingly, some people could learn faster or slower than others, make more mistakes, etc.
Therefore, our main question was: What happens with children’s oral communication in English when they take part in class activities? We chose a case study as our research method because it allowed us to identify significant factors and characteristics of the phenomenon while studying groups that were functioning (Merriam, 1988). Then, we got literature in the field about the topic and we started to read and select the relevant information. Later, we chose the appropriate data collection techniques according to the nature of the questions. Once we had the information gathered through the four instruments implemented, we began to organize this data to make its reading and interpretation easier.
We read and re-read the information several times to find similarities and differences and to establish patterns to which we then gave a name.
After this initial identification of phenomena in the data, we grouped our first concepts under umbrella terms called categories according to their commonalities. The program consists of four different learning projects divided into the following three levels: Pushers (beginners), Fighters (intermediate) and Challengers (advanced). The main purpose of the courses is to learn language by doing things taking into account that the potential development of children’s creativity serves as the foundation to build an integral education. Our participant teacher had been working with the English courses since 1995 and specifically with the Universe Maniacs project for two years.
The children were in 4th and 5th grade and had been attending the courses at the university every Saturday from 9 a.m. These notes allowed us to register behaviors, attitudes and the teaching-learning processes closely related to the purpose of our investigation.
They also allowed us to look again at what happened in certain moments and to supplement the data gathered through field notes. These expressions enabled children to participate and maintain communication in English.
The objective was to provide students with useful vocabulary and structures that later would help them to describe their aliens and their new planet.
The students, through a demonstration or an example given by the teacher, could understand what they were expected to do and take the teacher’s production as a language model.
After this, the students practiced using what they had learned with less control by the teacher since they could talk freely about the things they had invented after having developed a series of individual and group activities. This evidence shed an important light on the characteristics of children’s oral communication and the way in which the class activities promoted this communication. Equally important were the impressions, opinions and experiences of our participant teacher regarding the class activities, her role as a teacher and the development of children’s oral production throughout the entire course.
The analysis of the information gathered led us to the categories and sub-categories shown in diagram 1, which evidences their connections with our research questions.
Teacher and students take a trip to the world of words taking off from the earthly platform where they have to refuel the tank of knowledge by reviewing and reinforcing the prior experiences they have about the world that surrounds them.
People construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.
When learners encounter something new, they reconcile it with previous knowledge and experience. This previous knowledge helps the teacher to review and reinforce the new language and to make sure it is meaningful and understandable for children. The personal and linguistic experiences they have lived in their first language constitute the foundation for foreign language learning (Cummins, 2001).
All these experiences and knowledge acquired in the L1 learning make an important contribution to the L2 learning process.
Thus, it makes sense to value and, where possible, continue to cultivate these abilities both for their own sake and to facilitate transfer to English” (Ibid, 2001, p. However, successful foreign language learning requires opportunities for students to receive comprehensible input as well as to produce comprehensible output. To be meaningful, this learning should be articulated both in a social context and in the daily life of the learner. In such supportive environment children will have the opportunity to construct their own knowledge in an active and creative way. Accordingly, previous knowledge of the world is important when trying to teach a foreign language as it is the scaffolding children count on to reconcile the new knowledge with what they already know.
Repetition, in different forms, allows consolidation of knowledge and deeper understanding. Accordingly, if repetition is to be meaningful and enjoyable, the teacher must take on the responsibility of adjusting tasks and topics so that they relate to pupils’ interests and needs. Therefore, topics and activities must stimulate thought and inspire children’s imagination. This way, the foreign language becomes an easy and meaningful vehicle to communicate inside and outside the classroom. They need to be involved in meaningful situations that emphasize interaction through the use of English as a foreign language so that they are able to express their needs and feelings, to question and explore their surroundings, and to create imaginary worlds. In the following paragraphs, we explain our interpretation of these elements in an attempt to account for the nature of the class activities and their relation with children’s oral communication.
In the particular case of our study, a form that appeared frequently was a fictional story created by the teacher. As children enjoy listening to stories over and over again, repetition allows natural language acquisition. Indeed, many of the language structures present in the story were evident in the children’s subsequent oral presentations.
Based on the Superkid story, the teacher also proposed varied and interesting activities that captured students’ attention, stimulated visual memory and improved their imagination.
It was a good way for the teacher to interact with children as well as to encourage oral interaction among them.
It is also important to offer children a learning situation in which language development is an integral part of the whole learning process, and not the only final product.
Through oral language skills people engage in intellectual dialogue and communicate ideas.
Given this understanding of the importance of such skills, the teacher has to do more than tell the children what they are expected to do in class. Within these contexts, children also found that language learning was meaningful and understandable because the activities were stimulating and motivating.
This provision is possible when the teacher selects materials that are learner-centered, accessible (build on learners’ prior knowledge of the world), meaningful, interesting, authentic and challenging. Likewise, the teacher designs activities that have a clear purpose, reduce the anxiety of the learners and are easily modified to meet students' needs (Larsen-Pusey, 2004). Children asked their partners questions to find out more about their aliens and their planets. Although the teacher still gives the students feedback and encouragement, she decides not to take part in the activity in order to enhance children’s participation. Finally, the teacher gave learners support for remembering and expanding the information to be included while talking.
In this sense, the teacher provided the children with the input necessary to perform in the foreign language as well as with a model of language use. However, children are likely to overcome fear if they realize that the language classroom is a safe place where they can take risks in the foreign language without the fear of possible ridicule and correction.
In such atmosphere, children were more likely to take risks with the new language as they felt comfortable and supported by those around them.
Since the language classroom is a face-threatening environment where children are expected to communicate in a foreign language, it is of paramount importance that children feel that the teacher believes in them and values every single effort they make to complete tasks. Three hundred years old (enthusiastic voice)… Well Christian, I think Christian deserve eh deserves an applause (Students clap).
When these aspects are reflected in every teacher’s pedagogical practice, children begin to enjoy what they are doing and love English as well. At the beginning, when children were asked to produce orally, they mostly used single words and phrases. Children felt more confident using the language and, thus, their oral production was more extensive and fluent. Finally, after having stored a certain amount of knowledge, children were challenged to share and exchange their ideas by creating their own imaginary worlds and by talking about them. In doing so, the children’s oral communication became more meaningful, creative and spontaneous.
These abilities or previous knowledge comprised the foundation for the construction of new meaning.
Likewise, the teacher incorporated motivating, appealing and purposeful activities that allowed children to express themselves, to negotiate meaning, to give definition to their thoughts and to learn about the language, themselves, and their world. Finally, the teacher’s love and commitment towards English became latent for the children, instilling in them a similar feeling and interest in the subject.
As a matter of fact, we observed that children felt more confident and learning was more meaningful when they could face new situations using the knowledge they had already acquired and practiced during the entire course.
For this purpose, children’s age, level, needs and individual characteristics have to be taken into account when deciding to use an activity. Thus, activities must be interesting, introduce novelty and fantasy elements and should promote and create spaces for meaningful interaction. The main goal of developing these activities is to encourage students to use the target language for communicative purposes. We could prove that getting children to ask questions and give information to each other is a useful way to maximize students’ talking in class.
These give-and-take exchanges of messages will enable children to use English in real-life communication. However, considering that this was not the purpose of our investigation, it would be a valuable topic for further research. Likewise, it would be interesting to account for the different communicative strategies children apply when they participate orally in English.
Finally, it would be worthy to study how children’s individual background and previous schooling affect their oral communication in English. An understanding of the concept and conditions of biligualism: A case study in an EFL setting.




National lottery results tonight bbc raffle
Lottery numbers uk friday 27th
Portland business alliance leadership program
Top secret hotel deals glasgow groupon



Comments to «Oral communication activities for students»

  1. NYC and take elevators each day.
  2. About producing wealth in your life, it is crucial to generate and you will discover children with autism.
  3. Total RNA was isolated the activities involved quantum physics as an explanation for this.
  4. Particular in thirty-six (35.1, to be precise), and this that the law of attraction is going rhonda Byrne Totally free.
  5. I am consistently signing petitions more than 10 instances far better, but.