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May 20, 2014 by Bernie Roseke Leave a Comment Scope management, or rather the lack of it, is one of the biggest reasons for project failure. Project scope management is the second knowledge area in the Project Management Institute’s (PMI) Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).
Control Scope: The ongoing process of monitoring and managing changes to the project scope.
Newly added into the 5th edition of the PMBOK, this planning step involves the creation of a scope management plan. The success of any project is directly related to the accurate definition and documentation of stakeholder needs.
To design a bridge that meets all state road design standards while providing adequate stream flow for a 1:100 year flood event. In this section, a detailed work breakdown structure is created, which is a break down of the deliverables into smaller, more manageable work packages.
Quality means delivering the product so that its requirements meet the customer's expectations. Inspection can reduce the probability of defects, but prevention through planning, designing, and building in quality can reduce that probability of defects for a lot less cost than through the inspection process. The Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle, which is the basis of the concept of continuous improvement, is derived from a business process model developed by Walter A. Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma, and the Japanese Toyota Way are modern quality improvement initiatives that improve the quality of project management while improving the quality of the final deliverables. Plan - Understand the existing situation and then establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the target or goals.
Check - Study the actual results of the previous phase and compare them against the expected targets or goals to discover any differences. Act - Where there are significant differences between actual and planned results request corrective actions. Rather than thinking that quality is what job operators do on the factory floor, the modern concept of quality improvement initiatives mentioned in the last paragraph require the approval and active participation of management.
However, if the inspection process does not catch the defect, and it goes out to the customer, then the costs could be in terms of the claims the customer makes for replacement or repair under warranty. The International Standard for Quality management (ISO 9001) adopts a number of management principles that can be used to guide organizations towards improved quality. Customer focus - Since the organizations depend on their customers, they should understand future needs as well as current ones.
An organization attains customer focus when all people in the organization know what customer requirements must be met to ensure that both the internal and external customers are satisfied.
Process approach - The desired result can be achieved when activities and related resources are managed as processes.



System approach to management - Identifying, understanding and managing all interrelated processes as a system that contributes to an organization's effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its quality objectives.
Continual improvement - One of the permanent quality objectives of an organization should be the continual improvement of its overall performance. Factual approach to decision making - Effective decisions are always based on the data analysis and information. Mutually beneficial supplier relationships - Since an organization and its suppliers are interdependent, a mutually beneficial relationship between them increases the ability of both parties to add value. The ISO approach to quality management emphasizes: customer satisfaction, prevention over inspection, continuous improvement, management responsibility and the cost of quality. Correctly defining what is and is not included in the project is absolutely foundational to good project management.
It includes the processes that ensure all of the required work (and only the required work!) is included in the project. Erosion of the bridge abutments must be controlled, and environmental concerns such as fish passage and habitat must be accommodated. In my engineering company, we sometimes give clients a scope statement and ask them to give verbal approval, particularly if it contains many non-standard things (i.e. However, this does not mean gold plating, or adding requirements that the customer did not request.
Look for deviation from the plan in implementation and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to enable the execution. For example, if the defect is caught before the product gets shipped to the customer, this is an internal cost of nonconformance, and involves scrapping the part or reworking it so that it is in conformance with the quality standards. The cost could potentially involve legal liability, if the customer or a third party is injured.
They also need to meet customer requirements and try to exceed their expectations where possible. They should go for creation and maintenance of such an internal environment, in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization's quality objective. Quality control involves checking transformed and transforming resources in all stages of production process. I’ve seen many projects go south even though they had the right expertise, schedule, high quality deliverables, and even satisfied clients. But regardless of how you structure it, the WBS should contain the man-hours, equipment, tools, contractor expenses, and any other item of cost. Any changes in stakeholder expectations or requirements during the project’s execution must be integrated into a new scope statement and work breakdown structure.
The price is very reasonable, and it really does provide all the information that is needed to follow the processes and identify the flow.


The WBS is not about the cost; Pricing and cost control are part of the Project Cost Management knowledge area. Other stakeholders, like landowners around a new development, are given scope statements which may or may not require acceptance depending on the circumstances and stage of the project. This iterative four-step management method is used for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products.
I hung it on my wall and used the clearly defined process flow to re-enforce what I was learning from my exam prep. The Knowledge areas are color coded and the required outputs have icons so you can easily visualize (and remember) requirements.
Utilizing this poster while reading the exam prepbook actually helped tie everything together, and greatly contributed to my ability to pass the exam! I found that the PM Process Flow poster was extremely valuable in helping me understand the PMI project management methodology.
There is a great deal of information that needsto be digested in order to prepare for the PMP exam.
In reading the PMBOK Guide and other PMP test prep books the 42 processes are described over many chapters and it is not always apparent what the sequence of events are or how the processes are related. I kept the poster handy and after reading a chapter would trace the processes on the poster.
In a couple of weeks I could visualize much of the poster and true understanding of the PM processes were firmly rooted in my memory.
The "PM Plan 'n' Docs" and "PM Primary Formulas" are two downloadable reference guides that should be reviewed thoroughly before the exam.
This is also useful for PMO's, PM's and any organization wishing to adopt the principles and practices of professional project management.
It is very easy to follow with color coding to guide you through the various knowledge areas and processes. I've bought several of them because they keep disappearing from the office, which is ok, because a number of people are studying for the PMP. *** Eric, I found the summaries on your site particularly useful.The poster is incredible! It pulls together visually what you are reading in PMBOK and other books. *** I am studying for the PMP exam.
I have ordered the PMP Process Flow poster and your suggestions and links and great resources.



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