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Our flagship tool with 18 different models for mapping and valuing ecosystem services provided by land- and seascapes. InVEST is a suite of free, open-source software models used to map and value the goods and services from nature that sustain and fulfill human life.
Governments, non-profits, international lending institutions, and corporations all manage natural resources for multiple uses and inevitably must evaluate tradeoffs among them. InVEST enables decision makers to assess quantified tradeoffs associated with alternative management choices and to identify areas where investment in natural capital can enhance human development and conservation. InVEST models are spatially-explicit, using maps as information sources and producing maps as outputs.
The spatial resolution of analyses is also flexible, allowing users to address questions at local, regional, or global scales.
InVEST models are based on production functions that define how changes in an ecosystem’s structure and function are likely to affect the flows and values of ecosystem services across a land- or a seascape.
The tool is modular in the sense that you do not have to model all the ecosystem services listed, but rather can select only those of interest.
InVEST put our team of meteorologists, hydrologists, and ecologists on the fast track to start mapping and quantifying ES in watersheds of Patagonia. The InVEST Carbon Storage and Sequestration model estimates the current amount of carbon stored in a landscape and values the amount of sequestered carbon over time.
Coastal vegetation and wetland habitats can remove large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, helping to regulate the Earth’s climate. The InVEST Coastal Vulnerability model uses geophysical and natural habitat characteristics of coastal landscapes to compare their exposure to erosion and flooding in severe weather. The InVEST Crop Pollination model focuses on wild pollinators providing an ecosystem service. The InVEST Fisheries Production model produces estimates of harvest volume and economic value of single-species fisheries. The InVEST Habitat Quality model uses habitat quality and rarity as proxies to represent the biodiversity of a landscape, estimating the extent of habitat and vegetation types across a landscape, and their state of degradation. The InVEST Habitat Risk Assessment model evaluates risks posed to coastal and marine habitats in terms of exposure to human activities and the habitat-specific consequence of that exposure for delivery of ecosystem services.
The InVEST Managed Timber Production Model estimates the net present value of legal timber harvests over user-defined time intervals. The InVEST Marine Fish Aquaculture model estimates the weight and economic value of Atlantic salmon grown in netpen aquaculture facilities. The InVEST Marine Water Quality model assesses how management and human activities influence the water quality and structure of coastal and estuarine ecosystems. The InVEST Nearshore Waves and Erosion model quantifies the protective services provided by natural habitats of nearshore environments in terms of avoided erosion and flood mitigation. The InVEST Offshore Wind Energy model measures the electricity generation potential of wind over ocean and large lake surfaces. Recreation and tourism are important components of many national and local economies and they contribute in innumerable ways to physical wellbeing, learning, and quality of life. The InVEST Scenic Quality model assesses the visual quality of a landscape based on sited or planned features that impact visual quality. The InVEST Sediment Retention model estimates the capacity of a land parcel to retain sediment by using information on geomorphology, climate, vegetative coverage and management practices.
The InVEST Water Purification model estimates the nutrient retention capacity of a land parcel under current and future land use scenarios.
The InVEST Wave Energy model measures and values the electricity generation potential of ocean waves.
When translating policy to planning, it is often important to take guidelines (or “storylines”) and examine how they might play out across space. RouteDEM calculates flow direction, flow accumulation, slope and stream networks from a DEM using the d-infinity flow direction algorithm. InVEST Dashboards automate common synthesis and visualization tasks that may be necessary after running an InVEST model.
A data matrix that identifies the optional, required, and valuation inputs for each InVEST 3.0 model.
We have assembled potential parameter values for InVEST sediment and nutrient models based on a global literature review. This Microsoft Excel file contains data sources of spatial data that may be of use for InVEST models.
The InVEST User’s Guide introduces InVEST and its use in decisions, provides tips on getting started (installation, data preparation, etc.), and describes each model within the toolbox in detail (inputs, outputs, and the functions between them).
The Forums are a great place to get help with InVEST from NatCap staff and from our broader user community. We offer a number of different courses to familiarize you with an ecosystem services approach, help you learn to use InVEST, and to connect with other InVEST users. Stay Connected with The Natural Capital ProjectGet the latest news on our tools, projects, and research by signing up for our monthly newsletter. Our process  The Renaissance Risk process starts by taking a fresh look at your values and goals, and how they impact your company's financial future. The emergence of pico projectors as a part of future mobile devices presents unique opportunities for collaborative settings, especially in entertainment applications, such as video playback.
Our objective is to use new cognitive power management techniques for memory dominated mobile devices that exploit the variable nature of the wireless channel.
Today, video accounts for a significant portion of data transferred over the internet, reaching over 50% in the near future.
In this project we investigate the effect of voltage over scaling on the embedded memories functionality.
This project introduces a distributed automata-based runtime verification (RV) architecture for specifications in a highly expressive _first order linear temporal logic of events (FOLTLe) applied to multi-many cores and networks on chip, to address the substantial performance and power overhead of pure software RV frameworks.
This project focuses on developing power and thermal models that can be used by system designs for early exploration.

In this collaborative work with KAUST, we study the high level modeling and mitigation of variability and access issues in large-scale memristor-based memories. In this project we investigate various issues related to FPGA systems: (1) optimizing runtime reconfiguration for structures exhibiting similarities, such as filters, (2) investigating means of aggressive power reduction and mitigation schemes for the resulting lack of reliability. The multi-service, modular design of InVEST provides an effective tool for balancing the environmental and economic goals of these diverse entities. Coastal marine plants, such as mangroves, seagrasses, and salt marshes, not only store carbon, but they also continually accumulate carbon in their biomass and sediments, creating long term carbon reservoirs.
When overlaid with data on coastal population density, the model’s outputs can be used to identify where humans face higher risks of damage from storm waves and surge. 2013 (Nature Climate Change) Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and storms.
The model estimates insect pollinator nest sites, floral resources, and flight ranges to derive an index of pollinator abundance on each cell on a landscape. The model is an age- or stage-structured population model, and is presented as a generic model that can be adapted to most species and geographies. The model combines maps of land use land cover (LULC) with data on threats to habitats and habitat response. The model can be employed to screen habitat risks under current and future scenarios of use, helping inform management strategies to minimize the impairment of habitat quality and function. 2016 (PNAS)  Embedding ecosystem services in coastal planning leads to better outcomes for people and nature.
Based on timber harvest rate, market prices, extraction and management costs, and a discount rate, the model calculates the economic value of timber in user-defined management zones. Using data on farming practices, water conditions and existing economic markets, the model calculates the weight of harvested fish and the net revenue per cycle for each farm that is specified by users.
The model’s profile generator prepares a 1D bathymetry transect of a shoreline, providing information about its backshore and the location of natural habitats. For a chosen region, the model estimates expected wind power and harvested energy, and calculates the levelized cost of energy and the net present value of constructing and operating a wind energy facility. To quantify the value of natural environments, the InVEST recreation model predicts the spread of person-days of recreation, based on the locations of natural habitats and other features that factor into people’s decisions about where to recreate. The economic model then estimates the value of the water yield for reservoir hydropower production. A land parcel’s estimated soil loss and sediment transport informs the service step of the InVEST model, which produces outputs in terms of avoided sedimentation.
It then uses data on water treatment costs to calculate the economic value contributed by each part of a watershed to water purification. For each specified region, the model estimates expected wave power and harvested energy, and calculates the net present value of constructing and operating a wave energy conversion facility. Learn more about these and other experimental tools by checking out the experimental tools thread on our Forums. The Scenario Generator offers a relatively simple method of generating scenarios based on user-defined principles of where land changes could occur and the possible extent of these changes.
Outputs can help decision-makers weigh potential conflicts among spatially-explicit management options that involve new activities or new infrastructure. Using a DEM, DelineateIT identifies the area upstream of points of interest and creates watershed maps for use as inputs to InVEST freshwater models or for other analyses. RouteDEM outperforms routing algorithms as implemented in other free and proprietary GIS software.
With the dashboards, you can explore InVEST outputs in a web browser with interactive maps and charts, share results with colleagues by simply sending a link, and spend less time fussing over layer symbologies in GIS and more time exploring results. Here we provide the raw values collected from the literature and allow the user to select values from certain land cover types or geographic areas in order to choose the parameter values that are most appropriate for their desired application.
We will help you take decisions about the many competing priorities in your business, and the inevitable tradeoffs between available resources, investment risk and return. By aggregating pico projectors from several users, it is possible to enhance resolution, brightness, or frame rate.
The approach is based on the novel concept of Dynamic Margin Scaling which redefines architectural error tolerance of memory blocks based on the time varying tolerance of the application to hardware induced errors. Then we propose fault tolerant adaptive voltage scaling and adaptive body biasing as a mean of reducing power consumption in embedded memories such as processor caches and other data and scratchpad memories.
Specifically we develop: (1) power models for processors and accelerator blocks that accurately match gate level tools’ output and account for variability (2) thermal models that accurately account for packaging and thermal effects on leakage power, (3) floorplanning tools that minimize leakage power, and (4) sensor configuration and placement on a chip.
Specifically, we introduce for the first time, a closed form solution for the memristor-based memory sneak paths with out using any gating elements. Running InVEST effectively does not require knowledge of Python programming, but it does require basic to intermediate skills in GIS software. It will open for you the door to NatCap, a most exciting project conducted by a unique blend of people and organizations, from academics to practitioners. A fifth optional pool represents carbon stored in harvested wood products, such as firewood, charcoal, or long-lived timber products.
By analyzing changes in carbon storage over time and comparing this across alternative management scenarios, the InVEST Blue Carbon model quantifies the value of carbon storage and sequestration services provided by coastal ecosystems. If desired, the model can creates an index of the value of these pollinators to agricultural production, and attributes this value back to source cells. Modeling habitat quality alongside ecosystem services enables users to compare spatial patterns and identify areas where conservation will most benefit natural systems and protect threatened species.
More broadly, the model enables users to visualize areas on the seascape where the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic pressures may create tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services.
This information serves timber companies, governments, and communities in exploring the benefit of timber production and its tradeoff with other forest ecosystem services.
The model also yields a map of the total harvested weight of aquacultured salmon, total net revenue, and net present value over a time period of interest. Outputs can be linked with other InVEST models to evaluate how changes in water quality would impact other ecosystem services related to fisheries, aquaculture, habitat quality, and recreation.

The transect is used to estimate the total water level and shoreline erosion in the presence and absence of nearshore marine habitats This analysis informs land management decisions by highlighting the relative contributions of different coastal habitats in reducing erosion and attenuating nearshore wave heights and energy levels. Spatially explicit outputs equip users to evaluate siting wave energy facilities to optimize energy production and value in conjunction with other ocean uses. In the absence of empirical data on visitation, we parameterize the model using a proxy for visitation: geotagged photographs posted to the website flickr.
It calculates the relative contribution of each land parcel to annual average water yield and production of hydropower, values this contribution in terms of energy production, and calculates the net present value of hydropower production over the life of the reservoir. The model can also value the landscape in terms of water quality maintenance or avoided reservoir sedimentation, and determines how land use changes may impact the cost of sediment removal. Model outputs can inform conservation efforts by targeting areas of soil and vegetation that most effectively clean water supply for people and aquatic life. Spatially explicit outputs equip users to evaluate tradeoffs when siting wave energy facilities to optimize energy production and value throughout their lifespans. It can be used to create alternate futures, the likely outcomes of which can be compared using InVEST.
The output maps help visualize hotspots of land or ocean use, and areas where the compatibility of various activities should be investigated when drafting new zoning or permitting schemes. Try our dashboards for three InVEST models: coastal vulnerability, recreation, and habitat risk assessment (HRA).
In this paper we present a camera-based methodology for the alignment and synchronization of multiple projectors.
Thus, the margin of acceptable performance can be dynamically managed by the needs of the application utilizing the hardware unit at that instant in time.
Unfortunately, battery technology is lagging behind in capacity, limiting the amount of time users can spend watching videos over their phones or tablets. These techniques tradeoff_ reliability versus power savings as a function of the time varying quality of the incoming data, as long as the signal to noise ratio at the decision device is maintained at a desirable level.
With human-well being and green solutions as guiding principles, NatCap is developing views and tools that are shaping the future of conservation science and practice.
If the user provides a future LULC map, the carbon sequestration component of the model estimates expected change in carbon stocks over time.
The model outputs the volume and economic value of harvest within the area(s) designated by the user. Using photographs, the model predicts how future changes to natural features will alter visitation rates and outputs maps showing current and future patterns of recreational use. Spatially-explicit outputs of relative water yields can identify areas contributing the most to hydropower value and inform how changes in the landscape will alter that contribution.
If you have a research question about where to site a feature that impacts scenic quality, the tool can pull in information about where people are on a landscape to assess what they can see across the landscape to determine the optimal siting location.
It is downloaded within InVEST, but can be used to generate potential future landscapes without running any additional InVEST models. Just as satellite navigation has taken the place of the sextant and the compass in mapping progress, we’ve moved beyond the old world "hit-and-miss" approach to risk management and planning. The approach does not require any complicated ad hoc network setup among the mobile devices.
Specifically, in the case of wireless systems, we exploit the slack in the received signal to noise ratio (SNR) to accordingly change the hardware noise at run time through aggressive voltage scaling.
The power consumption of these devices can be reduced by voltage scaling, but up to a limit.
Moreover, we address the notion of error-awareness across different abstraction layers physical, application, network, and technology for the next generation SoCs. This portion of the model values the amount of carbon sequestered as an environmental service using additional data on the market value or social cost of carbon, its annual rate of change, and a discount rate. The Blue Carbon model can also be used to value avoided emissions and identify where on the land or seascape there are net gains or losses in carbon over time. This open source tool was designed to be flexible but powerful to answer a wide array of questions for any landscape. Our sophisticated risk management tools and innovative solutions provide a greater degree of confidence to ensure you reach your destination.     ClarifyWe spend time ensuring we understand your business and help clarify your goals. Depending on the scenario at hand, this approach leads to reducing power consumption by 20-40%, while maintaining the required quality of service (QoS).
We show that utilizing proposed techniques on embedded memories (mainly through aggressive voltage scaling) will result in a)appreciable power reduction in wireless systems depending on the application, b) savings in cost and area by reducing or eliminating the need for circuit redundancy, and c) achieving a higher effective yield” by tolerating errors at the system or architecture level level while keeping other parameters constant.
With optional inputs on probability distributions of carbon amount in different pools, the model can perform uncertainty analysis providing standard deviations for carbon estimates and a map showing where sequestration or emissions will occur with confidence. A library of four sample models is provided, which the user can adapt to their own species or region, or the user can choose to build a model from scratch.
We establish where are you now compared to where you would like to be, both short-term and long-term.    AnalyseWe analyse the dynamics of your industry, and your positioning in relation to those dynamics. The proposed approach enables designers to abstract the concepts of power efficiency and error awareness for memory dominated devices early in the design cycle, with significant implications on the cost, performance and reliability attributes of the overall structure. The carbon model can also optionally perform scenario analysis according to the Reducing Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) and REDD+ frameworks. How much downside risk would you be prepared to take in order to maximise opportunities? PlanWhat opportunities does the analysis create? We work with you to develop a plan based on a cost-benefit analysis, so that you obtain the optimal value for each $ invested.  ImplementWe help you to implement the plan. Implementation is a project just as much as the building of a Tanker, or the development of an LNG terminal. Working to embed the plan within your organisation, we ensure that the benefits of the process are realised.  MonitorWe work with you to put in place a system of monitoring, ensuring that implementation of the plan remains live and flexible, able to respond to changes in industry dynamics, or changes to your goals and objectives.

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