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This page is intended to provide coaches with a single point of access to a variety of information, templates and resources for different aspects of their coaching activity. BOF emergency response plan - this was originally created to support the overseas tours for Performance athletes but it is generally applicable and in particular the Pre-tour Check list (Appendix 4) is a useful aide memoire. New Zealand's Effective Coaching Philosophy - superb reading, very relevant to orienteering. Terrain running techniques video from Richard Lecky-Thompson, who was our guest speaker at February 2013 Coach CPD session;  Lecky also mentioned BK method, chirunning and pose running - Google them! Introductory sessions for ages 6-12, from Scandinavia, similar to our Teaching Orienteering and UKCC L1 materials, but a little more sophisticated!
Some excellent resources from Canada (scroll down to "Resources") - try some with your adults! Brilliant coaching ideas for advanced techniques in the O-Ringen Academy 2006 booklet - link will be restored when we find the material again! SportsCoachUK also has a large resource bank full of useful library of videos, guides, blogs and answers for coaches.
For the last five years, I've worked with clients 1:1 and in small groups to reunite passion with love, or in other words, to reconnect their heads to their hearts. Evan Everman is an experienced dating and sexuality coach who guides men to take control of their sex life and rediscover their masculine essence. Johnathan Hines desire to help individuals reach their maximum potential and families reconnect, could easily be credited to his upbringing. I am an energetic New York based life and relationship coach specializing in powerful goal achievement and creating awesome relationships. Scott Epp is a Certified Professional Coach, Motivational Speaker and owner of Abundance Coaching. Karla Moore is a professional matchmaker and dating coach who knows first hand the frustrations of contemporary dating. I am a Professional who offers a brilliant background with more than 20 years’ of diversified experience. Dr Sheila Hayford is an Author, Publisher, Inspirational and Motivational Speaker and a Life Coach. Spiritual DivorceOne way people can respond to this epidemic is to say that the moral fiber of our society is crumbling and crashing. From our vantage point we see the high rate of divorce as a symptom of a society that has become increasingly fragmented, isolated, fearful and expendable and sees relationships only as a means to a personal end. However, we also see divorce as an opportunity to specifically heal the emotional wounds that marital relationships represent to both parties.
The problem was never about the divorce or how your spouse never lived up to his or her side of the bargain to honor and obey, in sickness and in health, for richer or poorer. The real problem, which is always an opportunity for spiritual growth and healing, is that you bring to your relationships (marital and otherwise), your wounds from your past.
The spiritual side of divorce, is like any life challenge, a potential blessing in disguise. The spiritual side of divorce can open the door for you to finally grow-up and truly become the mature adult who can readily participate in healthy mature relationships. It is only when we begin to heal from within that the physical reality of our life and relationships permanently improve and change. Whether you are going through a divorce now, contemplating one, have experienced one, and are attempting to get your life back on track, know that now is the time to heal your wounded relationship. The spiritual side of divorce is a divine invitation from your soul to heal your emotional wounds from all of your current and past relationships.
If you are contemplating divorce, going through divorce or rebuilding your life after divorce, we can assist you! Now imagine that you are that horse (no insult intended) and the carrot represents love in all its various forms. Secrets to finding true loveThis belief, that another person can make us happy, is central to the mythology of romantic love. Experiencing stronger and truly loving relationships has one requirement: to love yourself. If you are you ready to improve all of your relationships including the one you have with yourself? When we do not have these emotional needs met we are typically faced with large amounts of internal strife.
As a result of attaching labels and conditions to our partners, we also simultaneously attach descriptive conditions to ourselves. Right now, in this very moment, if you can honestly recognize and assess the status of your most significant relationship, I applaud you!
These masks we wear are associated with the beliefs we have about ourselves, love, and whether or not you and I are deserving of receiving and giving love.
I have found with my own life journey and as a guide to hundreds of others over the years, that our relationships, like every other circumstance we experience, are reflections of how we see ourselves. Now, this idea has some staggering, perhaps life-altering implications if you even contemplate and consider that this may be true. I’d like to share with you some basic, yet mandatory requirements that will assist you to begin the process of moving out of hellish relationships toward ones that are more likely made in heaven. If you are willing to utilize my suggestions, you will gain clarity about yourself and your relationships.
In the end, I guarantee you that the emotional payoff far outweighs the risk you take to create heaven on earth through your relationships!
Are you ready to improve all of your relationships including the one you have with yourself?
The International Christian Coaching Association (ICCA) is designed to give you the tools you need to achieve greater success as a Christian Life Coach.
Members at this level include students and retired persons, and those who have a beginning level interest in Christian coaching. These members can include religious leaders including pastors, youth leaders, missionaries, Christian counselors, pastoral counselors, Christian educators, and full-time life coaches.
Members at this level automatically become part of the IBCC referral network and receive benefits from ICCA. This Webinar will fill up fast, so be part of the first 1,000 to reserve your space now, while you still can!
This entry was posted in Coaching Tools, Webinar and tagged building a relationship coaching business, Christian Coach, Christian Coaching, coaching, Coaching techniques, coaching tools, ICCA, Les Parrott, Leslie Parrott, Member Benefits, relationship coach, relationship coaching, training, webinar. Marita, is co-owner and CEO of CRR Global and mentor to an ever-growing community of practitioners in the field of Relationship Systems work. She came to this work from an extensive background of Clinical Social Work, Community Development, Process Work, Family Systems Therapy, Business Consulting and Alternative Dispute Resolution. She has an international mentor coaching practice of individuals, partnerships and teams. This study is the first attempt at developing an instrument measuring coaches’ attitudes toward sport psychology modified from Martin, Kellmann, Lavallee, and Page’s (2002) Sport Psychology Attitudes-Revised (SPA-R) form. Setting HUGE impossible goals, can and will ruin your want or need for goals, that maybe important during your life. Similarly, setting goals that are easily achievable and do not make stretch, are also detrimental and may adversely effect your career growth!!! 1980 my mother had a vision for a better life and took the risk to get our family out of that constricting system. Or that commitment to long-term relationships and the stability they are intended to provide for each of us is rapidly becoming an out-dated institution? A deficiency of unworthiness that causes us to fear intimacy, openness, giving and receiving, sharing and love. A maturity that has less to do with who you are and what you do and more about your willingness to heal where you are emotionally wounded.
Responsibility for your life situations, experiences and relationships as well as the state of your emotions. An opening where perhaps just a sliver of light is shining on a situation that looks very dark. Be open to looking within and discover why your life is not the romance novel you hoped it could have been. Become more open to changing by developing a more positive, optimistic attitude and notice how you are attracting more positive, optimistic people in to your life.
This modern notion of true love is a result of us being conditioned to find true love to be happy.
Love cannot be measured, although most people spend a lifetime in pursuit of it with a measuring stick. To this we respond: you can experience true love for yourself and everyone else in your life when you are open and willing to release and remove all the emotional blocks and barriers to love (which are all fears). This pain body also requires other people to fulfill its’ insatiable needs- especially those of the emotional kind. If we do not feel good about ourselves, our self-talk can easily convince us either consciously or unconsciously that somehow we may deserve this current relationship. This unworthy feeling stems from the belief that we are not deserving to be truly loved for who we are. These applications can be applied to all of your relationship, however, I am particularly focused here on your most intimate and significant ones at this time. However, consider the alternative represented by a lifetime of unhealthy, unpredictable, dysfunctional relationships.
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She designs curriculum and operates training programs in Relationship Systems Work for coaches, executives and teams.
Her primary focus in coaching is on systemic change, leveraging diversity, creative communication, deep democracy in conflict management and the development of Learning Organizations.
The Sport Psychology Attitude-Revised Coaches (SPA-RC) form was developed and examined through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) procedures. Although athletes are primary consumers, coaches often employ a sport psychology consultant (SPC) and decide if work is initiated, continued or terminated (Partington & Orlick, 1987; Voight & Callaghan, 2001). Based on Kelley et al.’s (1983) definition of interpersonal relationships, the coach-athlete relationship can be viewed as a situation in which two peoples’ behaviors, emotions, and thoughts are interrelated.
From these results, it appears that the primary determinant of public perception is based on the term “psychology” which is often associated with examining vulnerabilities and weaknesses (Ravizza, 1988). Martin and colleagues (1997) examined the counseling psychology literature and perception research in sport in order to develop a theoretically driven assessment of athletes’ attitudes toward SP consultation. Research with coaches has been limited and has primarily involved qualitative approaches in terms of gauging coaches’ perceptions and attitudes toward SP services. The primary means for coaches to gain exposure and knowledge in SP may include attending organized clinics, academic courses, presentations or reading textbooks. Similarly, Rice (1996) found that 65% of coaches surveyed had previous exposure (attending workshops, clinics, and courses) to SP and 93% of coaches indicated an interest and willingness to use SPCs. Gould, Petlichkoff, Hodge and Simons (1990) found that a psychological skills workshop immediately enhanced interest and intended use of mental skills by athletes. If athletes and coaches enter the consultation with different expectations of the process than the consultant, conflict and termination can occur (Martin et al., 2001).
The first purpose was to examine the appropriateness of modifying an existing instrument used to assess athletes’ attitudes toward SP consultation (SPA-R) to measure coaches’ attitudes.
Approximately 370 track coaches signed up with the US Track Coaches Association at the national convention and 272 participated in the study, representing a 74% response rate.
Ages spread across the following categories; 21-29 (n = 65), 30-39 (n = 95), 40-49 (n = 95), and 50+ years (n = 107).
The instrument used to assess coaches’ attitudes was modified from Martin and colleagues’ (2002) Sport Psychology Attitude-Revised Form (SPA-R) questionnaire, which has established reliability and validity. Three experts used for this study had obtained a doctorate level degree, had been teaching in the field of sport psychology, and were AAASP certified consultants. Gilljam and Granberg have found that the “don’t know” category includes responses by individuals who really have attitudes regarding the item but avoid expressing them. This instrument was designed by the authors to measure the perceptions of coaches’ expectations regarding the process of SP consultation.
Items used to measure coaches’ previous exposure and intentions to use SP services were modified from previous research regarding psychological skills training and consultation with athletes (Zizzi & Perna, 2002). Track Coaches Association for the primary investigator to recruit coaches for participation in the study.
Furthermore, this is the first attempt at developing an instrument measuring coaches’ attitudes toward SP. Factor 1 corresponded to items of stigma tolerance in the SPA-R, factor 2 represented confidence in SP consultation, and Factors 3 and 4 represented personal openness items.
In sum, validity and reliability estimates demonstrated initial support for the SPA-RC with the exception of less than desirable internal consistency in the personal openness subscale.



Due to the “macho” dimension of sport participation, men may form negative perceptions of SP consultation because they may view self-disclosure as a sign of weakness, jeopardizing their masculine image (Good & Wood, 1995; Yambor & Connelly).
Although the magnitude of the effect was low, Martin (2005) found that athletes participating in physical contact sports were more likely to stigmatize sport psychology consulting compared to participants in non-contact sports. Specifically, confidence in SP consultation, stigma tolerance, and expectations of the process of SP consultation were found to be significant predictors of coaches’ intentions to use SP services.
The data suggest that confidence controls substantially more variance in predicting intentions to use SP services (34%) when compared to stigma tolerance (3%).
The effects were small, indicating that attitude differences between men and women coaches may not be strong enough to influence their intentions to use SP services.
The current study found coaches’ expectations of the process of consultation to be the third predictor of intentions to use SP services, with intentions slightly increasing as their expectations of the consultation process became more realistic. The present study did not find previous exposure to be a significant predictor of coaches’ intentions to use SP consultation.
Swimming and track share many similarities; they include both individual and team events as well as men and women. Anecdotes of professional athletes’ or high profile coaches’ use of SP may prove beneficial during educational programs with coaches. Partington and Orlick’s (1987) interviews with coaches found that one coach remarked, in hindsight, that it would have been beneficial to meet and plan out a strategy with the SPC in order to know how to use the services. Researchers are encouraged to expand upon the current findings and continue to develop research regarding coaches’ and SP services. Thirty eight percent of the total variance in coaches’ intentions was accounted for by confidence in SP consultation, stigma tolerance, and expectations of the consultation process; therefore, there must be additional variables contributing to coaches’ intentions. The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) is a process with predictable stages; precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. In order to continue developing a model of service use, interviews with coaches would provide valuable information regarding factors that influence coaches’ decisions to use SP services. Overall, the present study generally concludes that coaches’ attitudes are complex when in comes to making decisions regarding SP service use, and therefore a multi-dimensional, theoretical approach should be taken when examining variables that contribute to the use of SP services. He has guided and led corporate organizations and schools to realize expectations never imagined.
Over the last 3 years, the demographics of clients in our relationship coaching practice represented a divorce rate of over 80%.
As relationship coaches, we have found this to be the case with many of our clients who are facing rocky marriages and divorce. Playing the victim role always attracts a cast of characters who are more than willing to perpetrate emotional pain on to a willing victim. Until you take full and complete responsibility for your life and the role you play in it, you will suffer at the emotional mercy of other people. If you don’t love and respect yourself, how can you expect anyone else to love and respect you?
The balance of it tends to be made up of neediness: the need to be wanted, accepted and appreciated. However, this idea about romantic love is flawed simply because most of us do not understand what true love is all about. We are talking about treating yourself in the only way you were intended to be treated: divinely, without conditions, rules or regulations.
We may also believe, on some deeper level, that love is not really meant to feel good, so consequently, we push away goodness from our lives. Is it a heavenly co-existence, a hellish on-going battle like the ‘hundred years war,’ or somewhere in-between? Is intimate conversation and communication absent or a painful process that seems to be avoided at all cost? When you begin to accept that who you attract in to your life is a reflection of who you believe you are, you can begin to take responsibility for all aspects of your life, including your relationships. Knowing that you are responsible for the status of all your relationships, you can now begin to positively affect their status. By accepting that only you can change your relationships, you are on the road to becoming and doing whatever it takes to make your relationships work. On the other hand, some relationships may change course or even dissolve, yet they will do so in a more loving way. This coming Valentine’s Day, take your coaching to the next level with ICCA’s next Coaches’ Edge Webinar coming up on February 19, 2013!
In addition, an exploratory model of service use was fashioned through regression analyses to help understand coaches’ intended use of sport psychology services. Coaches hold a central and critical position within the athletic environment and SPCs cannot ignore how the coach-athlete relationship may influence athletes’ goals, beliefs, values, and expectations. The interpersonal relationship formed between a coach and athlete is one of the most significant relationships within sport and an important factor in athlete development (Jowett, 2003; Jowett & Cockerill, 2003). Important constructs of attitudes toward help seeking behavior were developed and operationally defined: stigmatization, recognition of need, confidence of sport psychology, social desirability, and interpersonal openness. Partington and Orlick (1987) interviewed Canadian Olympic coaches and found that one challenge to the profession is the negative connotations that coaches may associate with SP.
Recognizing the potential gender differences in attitudes, Martin and colleagues (2002) examined if the factor structure of the SPA-R was applicable with men and women by conducting multiple group measurement invariance tests.
Although the vast majority of coaches were interested in working with a SPC, only 21% of coaches reported using SP services, which suggests that various barriers may be inhibiting service use among coaches. Although previous exposure seemed to have an influence on athletes’ interest and intended use, this intention decreased over time.
In addition to coaches’ preferences, elite athletes have suggested that an effective mental skills training program should begin two to three years prior to the Olympics to ensure optimal preparation (Orlick & Partington). Although athletes are consumers of sport psychology services, coaches are often in the position of hiring a sport psychology consultant. It was hypothesized that the factor structure of the modified instrument would demonstrate the same four factors as the SPA-R.
However, due to incomplete data, two participants were eliminated resulting in a subsample of 270 track coaches. The other two experts were doctoral level students who were familiar with research related to perceptions and attitude, had been teaching in sport psychology, and working toward AAASP certification. The instrument consists of 17 items, of which four items were modified from the Expectations About Sport Psychology Consulting (EASPC) questionnaire (Martin et al., 2001).
Previous exposure to sport psychology was assessed with a series of four questions relating to coaches’ level of training, personal experience, and use of sport psychology. A brief explanation of the study and instructions regarding the consent form and questionnaire were presented to coaches at the registration table. Principle axis factoring with promax rotation was performed with the original 25 items of the SPA-RC to identify item clusters corresponding to specific attitudes of coaches toward SP consultation. Based on the criteria employed for EFA and because Factors 3 and 4 represented all personal openness items, these two factors were combined.
Table 2 represents the factor structure of the SPA-RC, including eigenvalues, percentage of variance for each factor, and factor reliability. Perhaps cultural preference is not as strong of a factor in the perceptions of coaches toward SP.
It is possible that a larger effect size may have been found if the sample was more balanced between men and women. In the present study, this “macho” dimension was not supported since both men and women coaches’ mean scores for stigma tolerance and personal openness were below the midpoint, indicating that the overall sample had a relatively favorable view of SP consultation. Football and wrestling were found to have the greatest stigma toward sport psychology consulting. Although personal openness, previous exposure, and gender did not emerge within the model as significant predictors of coaches’ intentions to use SP services, these factors may indirectly impact intentions and should be considered in future studies with coaches.
In addition, the main differences were found with stigma tolerance, which contributed a small amount to predicting coaches’ intentions, and personal openness, which did not significantly predict coaches’ intentions.
In the current study, previous exposure to SP and realistic expectations were poorly correlated (r = .20), suggesting that professionals should not assume that previous exposure to SP means that coaches clearly understand the consultation process. Interestingly, past literature has suggested a relationship between previous exposure and attitude. In addition, findings may not generalize to other swimming and track coaches not present at the conference and there may be a difference between coaches who chose to complete the questionnaire and those who did not. Although this is helpful and may increase awareness of SP, providing information regarding the content of SP may not provide coaches with enough knowledge to feel comfortable utilizing SP services. The current study provides initial support for a measure of coaches’ attitudes toward SP consultation. Funding and accessibility has been identified as the most common reason for not using SP services (Pain & Harwood, 2004; Voight & Callaghan, 2001). Additionally, future researchers are encouraged to explore the relationships between variables as well as what variables directly impact service use through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM). The sport psychology consultant: Analysis of critical components as viewed by Canadian Olympic athletes.
Establishing a hierarchy of psychological skills: Coaches, athletic trainers, and psychologists’ uses and perceptions of psychological skills training. So what’s going on in our world where relationships have become as disposable as plastic water bottles? If you believe that a big, fat alimony check is going to make everything all better, think again!
We believe that the emotional void will disappear and be filled by a proclamation of love from someone else. They occur in no particular order, and in fact are more likely to occur simultaneously and ongoing as you begin to unveil the secret to experiencing strong and loving relationships.
It’s the only way to truly experience loving relationships, because after all, there is only one real relationship.
I always sit there with a grin as they each proceed to enlighten me on what their partner is or isn’t doing and saying or not saying, causing a breakdown and ultimate failure of the relationship. Does it seem to switch without warning from blissful and loving to rage-filled and chaotic? This serves 2 purposes: first, it allows you to get in-touch with your true feelings toward the other person and yourself. Coaches (n = 374) were surveyed regarding attitude, previous exposure, expectations of the consultation process, and intentions to use sport psychology services.
Confidence in SP consulting, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms were found to be independent predictors and accounted for nearly 40% of the variance in athletes’ intentions.
Specifically, some coaches may view SPCs as professionals working with “head cases” or “problem athletes” (Ravizza, 1988).
The researchers concluded that the SPA-R was consistent and stable across groups; however, gender differences in attitudes were not specifically reported. Within these findings, coaches and athletes have identified key factors involved in the process of SP consultation including the onset and timeframe for the consultation, the roles of the consultant, and the communication patterns of the consultant, coach, and athlete. Gender was explored as a factor possibly influencing coaches’ attitudes toward SP services, with women hypothesized to have a more positive attitude toward SP consultation than men.
The sample included Division I (n = 142), Division II (n = 44), and Division III (n = 75) level coaches. Experts were given operational definitions of the four subscales and instructed to categorize each item, presented in random order, with the appropriate subscale.
Coaches were informed that participation was voluntary and there was no penalty for not participating in the study. In addition, factors 3 and 4 were linked conceptually and internal consistency measures revealed that the combined factor produced the strongest reliability estimates. Based on these results, gender was included as a possible predictor of coaches’ intentions. The small number of women (n = 74), compared to men (n = 278), that were sampled may have impacted the current results. Perhaps the types of sport athletes are socialized in influence gender roles and attitudes. Interested SP professionals may want to invest effort in exploring factors that could positively impact coaches’ belief in the effectiveness of SP consultation. Gender differences have not been previously explored in relation to coaches’ use of SP services.
At the onset of consultations, addressing areas such as confidentiality, communication patterns, and the roles of the consultant may be beneficial to help educate coaches on the consultation process.
Partington and Orlick (1987) found that the two coaches who felt most negative toward SP services also had no prior exposure or experience. Because this study was conducted with swimming and track coaches, it is unclear if the model would hold across different sports or levels of coaching.
Educational programs may need to go beyond providing content to including areas to build confidence in SP consultation as well as address the stigma associated with SP and what to expect within the consultation process. Additionally, coaches may gain a better understanding of SP if some time was spent removing negative connotations of SP and addressing important aspects regarding the consultation process. However, it would only be appropriate to conduct further analysis on the SPA-RC, including split sample exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, to determine if the factor structure could be replicated with a different sample of coaches across various sports and competitive levels. Other barriers that may impact SP service use include time constraints, SPC’s knowledge of the sport, and SPC’s ability to blend in with the environment (Pain & Harwood, 2004). A little pain never hurt anyone: Athletic career socialization and the normalization of sport injury.
Motivational determinants of a sport specific behavior: The effects of attitudes and expectations upon the intentions of sport competitors to practice sport psychology skills.


Although you can always retrace your steps, you might not have the time, opportunity, energy or resources you once had when you could have made your goals happen one by one. It also provides you with greater insight to how you are in some way attracting unloving and unwanted relationships in to your life. EFA with the SPA-RC revealed a 3-factor solution (stigma tolerance, confidence in sport psychology consultation, and personal openness) accounting for 45% of the total variance.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis procedures with over 1500 athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany revealed a four factor solution of athletes’ attitudes toward seeking sport psychology consultation (Martin et al., 2002). These results support Martin and colleagues (2002) suggestion that measuring athletes’ attitudes can provide useful information regarding intentions to use SP services. Furthermore, some coaches may not be open to working with a SPC, perceiving the interaction between an athlete and consultant as undermining their authority (LaRose, 1988; Silva, 1984).
In a follow up study, Martin (2005) examined gender differences using the SPA-R with high school male and female athletes. These findings suggest that educational programs regarding the content of SP may serve to increase awareness and interest; however, it may, or may not, translate to actual service use by coaches. Literature appears to support the notion that some coaches have accurate knowledge about certain aspects of the consultation process.
Results suggested that athletes and non-athletes may not have realistic expectancies toward the process of SP consultation. Therefore, it is important to understand coaches’ attitudes’ toward sport psychology services. Ninety-nine coaches specified other (junior college, NAIA, NJCAA, NSCAA, high school, club, and Olympic) levels of coaching.
Possible items of concern include “at times I have felt lost and would have welcomed professional advice for a personal problem,” and “there is something respectable in the attitude of athletes who are willing to cope with their conflicts and fears without resorting to professional help.” For the first question, all five experts identified the item to be placed in another subscale other than confidence in the SPC, and for the later, three out of the five experts identified the item to be placed in another subscale other than personal openness. Higher scores on the subscales indicate a more negative attitude toward seeking consultation (stigma tolerance), a stronger belief that mental training is useful (confidence), an unwillingness to be involved in SP consultation and mental training (personal openness), and a stronger identity to the respondent’s own nationality, ethnicity, culture, or race (cultural preference). In addition to the length of the questionnaire (66 items), there was concern about low internal reliability estimates (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). Scores are added to obtain an overall score, with higher scores reflecting more exposure to sport psychology. Coaches who agreed to participate signed the consent form and completed the questionnaire packet at tables located near the registration table or returned them later in the conference. These criteria are based on suggestions provided by Bryant and Yarnold (1995) and Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, and Strahan (1999). Of the 21 items retained, 7 items were assigned to the stigma tolerance subscale, 8 were assigned to confidence in SP consultation, and 6 were assigned to personal openness (4 items from factor 3 and 2 items from factor 4). If this is true, measuring a coaches’ cultural preference may not be necessary as one of the primary aspects of assessing attitude toward working with a SPC. Therefore, further research with a more balanced sample is needed before a definite conclusion can be made regarding gender differences in attitude and its impact on service use.
The current sample included coaches from non-contact sports who also coach both men and women athletes. This process could involve directly linking mental skills to positive performance outcomes, using real world examples from elite athlete’s use of mental skills, or having other coaches recount their positive experiences with SP consulting. While gender differences may exist, it is beneficial to know if these differences impact SP service use. With competent consultants addressing the process of consultation, coaches’ expectations may be more realistic, which can decrease frustration, and improve trust, rapport, and service use. More recently, Martin (2005) found that athletes who had previous experience with sport psychology consulting were more likely to be confident about seeking services and had less stigma toward sport psychology consulting compared to athletes without previous experience (Martin, 2005). Approaching coaches in the initial meeting with “menus” of various topics does not provide them with any information regarding how you are going to work with their athletes.
Further modifications may also include adding more items to the personal openness and cultural preference factors to improve internal consistency and content validity in these areas.
Although the TTM was explored with athletes, it would be beneficial to explore how coaches’ readiness impacts subsequent SP service use. The role of ethnicity, cultural knowledge, and conventional techniques in counseling and psychotherapy. Male gender role conflict, depression, and help seeking: Do college men face double jeopardy? Development and psychometric evaluation of the sport psychology attitudes- Revised form: A multiple group investigation.
This is acknowledging once and for all that the only person you can effectively change is you! Results also showed initial support for the exploratory model, accounting for 38% of the total variance, with confidence (34%) as the most significant predictor of coaches’ intentions, followed by stigma tolerance (3%), and expectations of the process (1%).
Given the significant role that coaches hold within the athletic environment and the continued growth of applied SP, it is important to gain an understanding of the potential variables influencing coaches’ use of SP services.
Conversely, some coaches have been open to working with a SPC and indicate that SP could assist in the development of athletic potential (Silva). Results were consistent with previous literature in which male athletes stigmatized sport psychology consultants more than female athletes.
The relatively low use of SP services, as reported by Rice (1996), suggests that there may be important information that coaches are not receiving.
However, because the interviews were conducted with elite coaches who have already worked with a SPC, it is unclear what coaches’ knew or expected prior to their experience. For instance, it appears that respondents may expect the consulting process to be directive and quick at solving problems. Quantitative research regarding coaches’ attitudes has been limited within sport psychology; therefore, it is further important to develop a standard means of assessing coaches’ attitudes. Multiple variables are hypothesized to predict coaches’ intentions to use SP consultation including attitudes, previous exposure, and expectations of the process of SP consultation. Some coaches did not specify gender, age, ethnicity, or level of coaching, resulting in some missing data regarding the demographic variables.
However, after reviewing the questions and subscale definitions, all experts agreed with the placement of items in each subscale. Coaches’ intentions were assessed by summing four questions with responses ranging from 1 (not at all likely) to 6 (very likely), with higher scores reflecting higher intentions to utilize SP services. Item means, the degree of overlap among the scales, and internal consistency of each scale were also considered. Seventy-four percent of the track and swimming coaches surveyed work with both men and women athletes; perhaps surveying coaches that do not have as much exposure to both genders, as well as those from various types of sports, would reveal stronger gaps in attitude. Although intentions were not translated to actual behavior, intentions may lead to behavior and reflect a willingness to enact a given behavior (Greaser, 1992).
Coaches often talk among themselves about their athletes’ problems (Speed, Andersen, & Simons, 2005); therefore, within the athletic culture, confidentiality may be an area that is more difficult to understand.
As opposed to simply doing a needs assessment or reviewing what interventions are available, the current study provides additional support for spending some time talking with coaches on how to use SP services most effectively and what to expect within the consultation process. Student-athlete preferences in seeking help when confronted with sport performance problems.
NCAA Division I athletes’ attitudes toward seeking sport psychology consultation: The development of an objective instrument. We often have to correct our course but at the same time keep a focus on our vision or dream.
If we can finally understand and dispel this myth, we would all begin to experience stronger, more loving relationships.
Internal consistency (Chronbach’s ?) and test-retest reliability estimates were found to be adequate to good.
For instance, Sullivan and Hodge (1991) found that out of 46 coaches surveyed, 94.9% felt that athletes would perform better if SPCs conducted a mental training program with their athletes. Anderson and colleagues (2004) also used the SPA-R to assess gender differences in attitudes.
For instance, coaches may be receiving information about the content of sport psychology; however, they may not know how SP works, how to gain access to SP services, and they may not be receiving information regarding how to use a SPC most effectively. Although not explored in their initial study, Martin and colleagues (2001) suggested that expectations can influence willingness to seek SP consultation. Second, through qualitative means, other variables have been hypothesized to influence service use, such as previous exposure and expectations of SP consultation. Assuming the same four factors of the SPA-R represented coaches’ attitudes in the modified instrument, it was hypothesized that confidence, stigma tolerance, and personal openness would predict intentions to use SP consultation, with confidence as the strongest predictor.
However, it is also possible that the current instrument did not tap into coaches’ cultural preference effectively or that there is a difference when measuring cultural preference of track and swimming coaches in comparison to coaches from other sports. Although the mean score is slightly above the midpoint, this suggests areas for improvement in the education of coaches. Rice (1996) found similar results where 65% of coaches surveyed had previous exposure with SP and 21% indicated using SP services. Additionally, Leffingwell, Rider, and Williams (2001) found that athletes’ readiness to engage in SP consultation was linked to subsequent participation in psychological skills training. Educational programs with coaches may benefit from explaining what the consultation process is about as well as why confidentiality is so important in gaining trust and working more effectively with the athletes.
Although further psychometric evidence is needed, using the SPA-RC may provide SPCs with a useful tool to help understand additional areas to target at the onset of consultations.
Researchers are encouraged to continue developing a robust measure of coaches’ attitude toward SP services. NCAA division II college football players’ perceptions of an athlete who consults a sport psychologist. The SPA-R appears to be a robust and stable measure of athletes’ attitudes toward seeking SP consultation.
Although qualitative research with coaches is useful, it would be beneficial to develop an instrument that taps into coaches’ attitudes towards sport psychology consultation. Female athletes were found to be more open to utilizing SP and more confident in SP consultation than male athletes. With coaches in the position of hiring a SPC and their influence over athletes’ expectations, it would be important to measure coaches’ expectations about SP consultation and how this may impact service use. In order to gain a clear picture of coaches and sport psychology, it is important to understand coaches from a variety of angles: attitudes, previous exposure, and expectations of SP consultation. Several experts in SP were asked to review the items in order to establish content validity. The four cultural preference items of the SPA-R were removed due to not meeting selection criteria.
Further research is needed in this area to explore if cultural preference impacts coaches’ attitudes toward SP consultation. Some coaches indicated that they did not utilize SP services because a qualified SPC was not available. Finally, confidence in SP consultation, stigma tolerance, and expectations of the consultation process accounted for 38% of the total variance in coaches’ intentions. It only makes sense that tapping into coaches’ attitudes toward sport psychology would be developed from a similar theoretical framework as athletes’ attitudes.
Since previous literature has suggested a gender effect, researchers may consider exploring and comparing attitudes between men and women in the coaching profession. Third, research is limited regarding the impact that previous exposure and attitude has on SP service use and expectations has only been theorized to impact SP service use. Additionally, moderate internal reliability was found within the expectation items, revealing a coefficient ? of .77. As a potentially important factor in coaches’ intended use of SP services, and as a new area of study within the realm of SP consultation, further attention is needed regarding the role of coaches’ expectations.
With about 1 in 5 coaches utilizing SPCs, it appears that the first step for professionals in SP involves directing attention toward increasing coaches’ access to competent consultants. Although this may be viewed as adequate, we are left to question what accounts for the other 62% of service use. Therefore, modifying an existing instrument, the SPA-R, for coaches could reveal useful information regarding attitudes and possibly link coaches’ attitudes with SP service use. It is important for attitudes, previous exposure, and expectations to be directly assessed and linked to use of SP services. Due to brevity and adequate reliability, this version of coaches’ expectations has potential to contribute to future research. Currently, the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP) is the only North American organization that certifies SPCs.
That is why everyone must develop the habit of the daily motivational in as many forms as being effective to stay focused. Because assessing actual behavior may not be feasible for many researchers, studying intentions may provide a means of understanding the antecedent of overt behavior (Greaser, 1992). As a growing field, it is important for professionals in SP to become certified to increase the pool of competent service providers, although becoming certified does not guarantee competence. Lastly, previous literature has primarily used a one-dimensional, atheoretical approach, studying concepts in isolation from each other, thus preventing the development of a model for predicting service use. Increased access and exposure to competent professionals has the potential to increase the pool of people who can positively influence coaches’ attitudes and increase their intentions to use SP services.



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