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Basil Bernstein Investigating the language gap between different social classes WORKING for many years at the Institute of Education at London University, Basil Bernstein was one of the most imaginative sociologists of his generation.
Investigating the language gap between different social classes WORKING for many years at the Institute of Education at London University, Basil Bernstein was one of the most imaginative sociologists of his generation.
I saw Lois Morton play a Northeast Regional Folk Alliance (NERFA) showcase, then reviewed her debut CD, As I See It, for our December 2011 NERFA wrapup issue. I listened to a€?Side Effectsa€? about those TV ads for drugs and learned how perfectly Lois could encapsulate their lunacy. The wonder of all of this was that I was listening to a grandmother who had, for a number of decades, been a teacher of English as a Second Language (ESL), an administrator and a therapist. She was a little prodigy, always performing for the family and picking out songs on the piano. Lois was a voice major at the Music and Art High School (There were two coexisting schools, Performing Arts High School and Music and Art High School on West 46th Street. At age 16 or 17, she could perceive how high the level of talent was at the school a€” television and stage actress and singer Diahann Carroll (Carol Diahann Johnson then) was in her senior chorus. She had taken piano lessons for two years in junior high school, but had such a good ear that shea€™d fake it a lot of the time and didna€™t practice.
Lois played basic guitar and sang in a program called The Musicians Emergency Fund, which sent performers into hospitals to play for patients. After he died, Lois began to explore other avenues of coping and expression, entering several programs. Lois described how the song gained exposure: a€?I was involved in a community theater group and we were doing a show at that time. In a€?The Cell Phone Song,a€? another of my favorites, written about two months after the Clutterholic song, she skewers egocentric, obsessive cellphone users perfectly with: It doesna€™t seem to matter, youa€™re assailed with noisy chatter when you only want a quiet, peaceful walka€¦ Pretty much everything I despise about those people is in that song a€” but humorous.
Lois began playing open mics on Long Island and found that she could cross over into the folk arena. A big component in driving Lois to embark on a new career was having a source of purpose and income taken away from her. As she perused her earlier resume as a teacher, therapist and author, she looked at what she was doing as a performer and thought, a€?Who is this woman?a€? At first glance, nothing seemed relevant. His descriptions of the role of communication in teaching and learning, which tended to see the schooling process as a form of social control, greatly influenced thinking about education and class and about how the social world is implanted in the individual's mind.
His descriptions of the role of communication in teaching and learning, which tended to see the schooling process as a form of social control, greatly influenced thinking about education and class and about how the social world is implanted in the individual's mind. Both times I was confronted with a sly, satiric commentary on the idiocies of human nature. She had as keen a mind in viewing modern foibles as anybody Ia€™d ever heard and had only been pursuing this avenue of performance for a couple of years. Her father died when she was an infant, so her mother moved to The Bronx to live with her parents. She decided to go into education, something a€?with a greater chance of successa€? than she foresaw in performing. She also advertised as an international songstress, doing a few shows she called a€?Around the World in Song.a€? Lois was in a Broadside concert during that time. After teaching school in Manhattan full time for five years, Lois took a maternity leave and she and her husband, son and daughter moved to Long Island. The following year, 2007, she attended a conference of organizers in Minneapolis and got a standing ovation from 900 professional organizers a€” a€?Me, the client!a€? she exclaimed. She got her biggest response when she played the open mic at the Mansion at Acoustic Long Island in St. Shea€™s been using French in her songs for some time including the conclusion of a€?The Last Goodbye.a€? In 2009, an audience member, hearing her sing in French, asked her if she could do an Edith Piaf show, Lois asked, a€?How much time would I have to prepare?a€? The woman said shea€™d need it the following year.
Therea€™s a new CD coming (one of her new songs deals with GPS users a€” whata€™s she going to say about that GPS womana€™s voice?) and a new concept show in the works a€” a show in Yiddish using a Jewish theme. She decidedA  to go into education, something a€?with a greater chance of successa€? than she foresaw in performing.
It began with a€?Confessions Of a Clutterholic,a€? rising from her experience working with a professional organizer.
By means of therapeutic music, we can assist these children to come to maturity in many ways. As I See It is categorized by iTunes as a€?Easy Listening.a€? This is true only if youa€™re not paying attention. As I See It went on to lampoon a range of topics such as rude cellphone use, pack rat clutter, the weirdness of digital communication and kooky dieting. Her grandfather, a€?a little Jewish tailor from Russiaa€? had a voice like operatic tenor Jan Peerce. In junior high, a€?The Ballad of Rodger Young,a€? a song about a martyred World War II infantry hero, was one of her strongest pieces. In 2009, she did another cabaret show in Manhattan and included the a€?Dieta€? and a€?20th Century Girla€? songs. New York state licensing laws changed in 2006 and, uninformed about required paperwork, she was left unable to practice professionally. The torrent of descriptive terms dealing with the less attractive activities of homo sapiens demands complete concentration.
She was supposed to teach drama to 6-year-olds, but the music counselor turned out to only play the tuba, a€?and he hadna€™t even brought it!a€? she said.
Pete wrote back and encouraged her to keep writing and told her to send her songs to Sis Cunningham at Broadside Magazine. She decided not to do that after conferring with her husband, telling me cautiously, a€?It was not something that would have worked out. To date, shea€™s done about 25 Piaf shows, accompanied on a number of songs by Larry Moser on accordion. Although she might have chosen to give herself another title in order to practice, Lois had already made a conscious decision to commit to a career path as a performer. A genre that I had not written in before came popping up, that was very Gilbert and Sullivan with some Tom Lehrer thrown in.a€? Because she and her husband never threw anything away, after he died, she began the process of letting go of clutter. In later life he said little about those two periods, but was more positive about his experience as a social worker, when after the war he worked for three years in the East End at the Bernhard Baron Settlement and learnt about the cultural divide between working-class boys and middle-class social workers.
Granted, there are some ballads that mean only to entertain, but theya€™re outweighed by tongue-twisting rhymes laced with brilliant sarcasm.
She had an aunt with a a€?wonderful singing voicea€? and an uncle who played a€?at least six instruments.a€? Like Lois, many in the family a€” her aunt and her cousins a€” thought easily in rhyme. The camp administration a€?put him in a canoe,a€? she said, a€?and I became the music counselor.a€? She played the morning sing-alongs. One of the places was Queens College, where her husband was chairman of the Political Science Department.



In early 2010, Lois screwed up her courage and asked Dave Dircks, the director, for a slot in the regular performance schedule. She got involved with making a CD and putting together promotional materials and getting them sent out. It has been used with persons, of all ages from preschool to late adulthood and with many types of disabilities whether congenital or adventitious. Later in 2010, she made her first trip to the Northeast Regional Folk Alliance (NERFA) conference, staying briefly, since she had Piaf shows scheduled that weekend.
She had to develop a mindset in which she did not fret about every cent it was costing her. In 2011, she was sponsored for a DJ showcase at NERFA by Barbara and Graham Dean of radio station WBCR-lp in Great Barrington, Mass. Often at odds with his teachers, he took only a lower second, and decided to earn a living as a teacher. Because music is reinforcing, it can be used to motivate movements or structure exercises which are prescribed in physical rehabilitation.
As Lois described it, theya€™d role-play and her opening words to the person playing the patient were: a€?Hello!
She characterized this opening phase as a€?a different path on the mountain.a€? She wondered if she could write more like these. So, in May 2012, Lois did her own show and considers it her first successful gig in a folk venue The huge following she already had from the Mansion open mic was there for her. I worked with the organizer for about a year and a half, not so much in throwing things out, but in organizing it.a€? While they organized, she wrote a song about it. During six years at the City Day College of Further Education he learnt more about working-class ways, and published some research in the British Journal of Sociology.
In grade school she was, as she put it, a€?a big fish in a small pond.a€? This changed when she got to high school. A Music therapy sessions Music therapy sessions incorporate the use of different musical media to achieve individualized treatment goals.
Through movement to music and dance routines, movements may become more controlled, fluid and purposeful. These days when she plays for Alzheimera€™s patients or older ailing people, without using sheet music, she just asks what their favorite songs are and she always knows them.
Bernstein pointed out that communication between people who know each other well (in families, working groups or military units, say) tends to consist of short sentences and predictable utterances on a limited range of topics. Live music offers increased flexibility and adaptability to match and guide physical movements elicited by the client.
Musical instruments may be used to work on range of motion, handgrasp strength, and non-verbal self-expression. But people also use a second linguistic form, with more complex sentences, the elaborated code, which has a wider range of uses and can encompass more abstract ideas. These instruments are often adapted to fit the specific physical capabilities of each client. The use of computer-aided and electronic musical equipment also allows severely physically disabled clients to reach their fullest creative potential. The act of singing may assist in the maintenance and improvement of oral motor skills and pulmonary functioning. Then, responding to one of the most difficult educational questions of the 1950s and 1960s, Bernstein went further, saying that working-class children tended to be limited to a restricted code, whereas middle-class children typically had access to both codes. Singing provides opportunities to improve breath-control, rate of speech,A articulation and pronunciation skills. And this, he claimed, explained the relative under-achievement of working-class children in school. Discussion of lyrics and songwriting may provide opportunities to discuss and share personal thoughts and experiences.
Music therapy can increase an individual's level of independence, and enhance feelings of self-confidence, self-worth and self-esteem. Facilitate relaxationRelaxation is an important component in achieving increased range of motion and flexibility. It would perhaps have been easier to declare that there was indeed a deficit, and that he was trying to remove it.
Instead, by insisting that working-class culture was not inferior but merely different, his work began to suffer from cultural relativism. Music experiences that can promote relaxation include listening to carefully chosen music, instrumental improvisation and music-assisted relaxation exercises.
Although most people may find sedative music effective in achieving a relaxed state, this may not be true in all cases. Goldman-Eisler showed that pausing in speech was related to thinking time or the verbal planning of more complex speech forms; Bernstein was able to demonstrate a relationship with social class. The music therapist is able to recognize and monitor the effects of the presented music on the individual. The obvious conclusion was that working-class speech must therefore be inferior in quality to middle-class speech.
Increase motor coordinationMotor coordination can be improved through many musical experiences.
The use of selected instruments can improve range of motion as well as fine and gross motor skills through strategically, placing instruments around the individual or using instruments that require the use of specific muscle groups or, body parts. Eye hand coordination can also be improved through the use of instruments that require increased precision in physical motion. The use of rhythmic auditory stimuli has been shown to increase independent, even control of ambulation in individuals with uneven or arrhythmic gait patterns and to facilate temporal and quantitative muscular control in children with gross motor dysfunction.3.
He produced a series of books under the title Primary Socialisation, Language and Education, which were published by Routledge. Reinforce and provide motivation for physical exerciseThe use of music in therapy provides a positive and enjoyable atmosphere for persons with physical disabilities to experience success. Through providing live background music, adaptability and flexibility is maintained so that the music therapist can more easily match the individual's motions in tempo, style and rhythm. Music can help provide distraction and diversion from exercises that may be difficult for the individual, provide motivation to maintain participation and make a regular exercise routine seem less tedious.4. He not only enriched the sociology of education, but encouraged research throughout the institute. Foster independence, self-confidence- and self-esteemAs physical abilities improve, and persons have increased opportunities to practice and acquire new skills and abilities, independence can be fostered and self-confidence and self-esteem enhanced. From the 1970s he was an international figure in the world of sociology and education, receiving many prizes and honorary degrees. A positive self-image and self-concept can be developed through music therapy interventions and music therapy activities can be adapted according to the individual's needs and capabilities.


Develop functional speech and communication abilitiesSinging and speech have many commonalities.
The use of vocal exercises used in singing can enhance oral motor skills such as articulation, breath control, and vocal intensity.
Through manipulating tempo and rhythm, clarity of speech can be enhanced and the rate of speech can be modified to provide increased communication abilities for the individual.
Melodic intonation therapy involves the sung intonation of propositional sentences in such a way that the intoned pattern is similar to the natural prosodic pattern of a sentence when it is spoken. This technique has been shown to be effective in improving word-morpheme performance levels, sentence lengths, articulation skills and intelligibility for language delayed apraxic children and has been an effective treatment for some persons with severe aphasia . Music has also been effective as a stimulus to promote spontaneous speech with physically challenged children and to promote non-verbal communication through bliss symbols or sign language.6.
Motivate interaction with othersPersons with physical disabilities may encounter decreased opportunities and motivation for social interaction.
Music therapy can provide opportunities to interact with peers through a shared experience. Group ensembles provide opportunities to develop peer relationships, develop social interaction skills and provide opportunities for cooperation and working together as a group toward a common goal. Group music therapy sessions can also provide opportunities to share personal experiences with others and provide a means and an outlet for appropriate self-expression.A Music therapy and children with autism Music Therapy is particularly useful with autistic children owing in part to the nonverbal, non threatening nature of the medium. Parallel music activities are designed to support the objectives of the child as observed by the therapist or as indicated by a parent, teacher or other professional. A music therapist might observe, for instance, the child's need to socially interact with others. Musical games like passing a ball back and forth to music or playing sticks and cymbals with another person might be used to foster this interaction. Eye contact might be encouraged with imitative clapping games near the eyes or with activities which focus attention on an instrument played near the face.
Preferred music may be used contingently for a wide variety of cooperative social behaviors like sitting in a chair or staying with a group of other children in a circle.A Music Therapy is particularly effective in the development and remediation of speech.
The severe deficit in communication observed among autistic children includes expressive speech which may be nonexistent or impersonal. Speech can range from complete mutism to grunts, cries, explosive shrieks, guttural sounds, and humming.
There may be musically intoned vocalizations with some consonant-vowel combinations, a sophisticated babbling interspersed with vaguely recognizable word-like sounds, or a seemingly foreign sounding jargon. Higher level autistic speech may involve echolalia, delayed echolalia or pronominal reversal, while some children may progress to appropriate phrases, sentences, and longer sentences with non expressive or monotonic speech. Since autistic children are often mainstreamed into music classes in the public schools, a music teacher may experience the rewards of having an autistic child involved in music activities while assisting with language.It has been often noted that autistic children evidence unusual sensitivities to music.
Some have perfect pitch, while many have been noted to play instruments with exceptional musicality. Music therapists traditionally work with autistic children because of this unusual responsiveness which is adaptable to non-music goals Some children have unusual sensitivities only to certain sounds.
One boy, after playing a xylophone bar, would spontaneously sing up the harmonic series from the fundamental pitch. Through careful structuring, syllable sounds were paired with his singing of the harmonics and the boy began incorporating consonant-vowel sounds into his vocal play. Soon simple 2-3 note tunes were played on the xylophone by the therapist who modeled more complex verbalizations, and the child gradually began imitating them.Since autistic children sometimes sing when they may not speak, music therapists and music educators can work systematically on speech through vocal music activities.
In the music classroom, songs with simple words, repetitive phrases, and even repetitive nonsense syllables can assist the autistic child's language. Meaningful word phrases and songs presented with visual and tactile cues can facilitate this process even further. Parents and teachers alike can assist the child in remembering these prosodic features of speech by prompting the child with the song.While composing specialized songs is time consuming for the teacher with a classroom full of other children, it should be remembered that the repertoire of elementary songs are generally repetitive in nature. Even in higher level elementary vocal method books, repetition of simple phrases is common. While the words in such books may not seem critical for the autistic child's survival at the moment, simply increasing the capacity to put words together is a vitally important beginning for these children.For those teachers whose time is limited to large groups, almost all singing experiences are invaluable to the autistic child when songs are presented slowly, clearly, and with careful focusing of the child's attention to the ongoing activity.
To hear an autistic child leave a class quietly singing a song with all the words is a pleasant occurrence.
To hear the same child attempt to use these words in conversation outside of the music class is to have made a very special contribution to the language potential of this child.
Music is effective because it is a nonverbal form of communication, it is a natural reinforcer, it is immediate in time, provides motivation for practicing nonmusical skills, and is successful because almost everyone responds positively to at least some kind of music.A Music therapists work in a variety of settings, including medicine, rehabilitation, psychiatric care, special education, correctional facilities, state schools, community-based health care, and private practice. For example, the therapist and client might compose songs for the purpose of expression of feelings; one client might learn to play the piano for the purpose of improving fine motor skills, while another client might use instruments to improvise unspoken emotions. Following coursework, students complete a six-month full time clinical internship and a written board certification exam. Music therapy can increase an individual's level of independence, and enhance feelings of self-confidence, self-worth and self-esteem.
Through providing live background music, adaptability and flexibility is maintained so that the music therapist can more easily match the individual's motions in tempo, style and rhythm. A positive self-image and self-concept can be developed through music therapy interventions and music therapy activities can be adapted according to the individual's needs and capabilities. A music therapist might observe, for instance, the child's need to socially interact with others. In the music classroom, songs with simple words, repetitive phrases, and even repetitive nonsense syllables can assist the autistic child's language. Music therapy with young children is the functional use of musical interactions to enhance and develop socialisation, communication, self-expression, and sensory-motor skills.Who is a registered music therapist (RMT)?Registered Music Therapists (RMTs) are skilled and qualified musicians and therapists who assess, design and implement programs to meet the needs of young children.
When applied therapeutically by a RMT, music becomes a pleasurable therapeutic medium that facilitates advancement toward articulated and often multi-purpose goals and objectives. Music therapy can address several needs simultaneously and is highly transferable to the home environment.
Furthermore, as young children with delay in development are not necessarily delayed in their music skills, music therapy allows them to experience a sense of success and fun whilepursuing other non-musical goals.
The Music Therapy Process Specific music therapy goals are determined by the RMT through initial music therapy assessment and ongoing review of the child.



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