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By its very design, this means our 300-cubic-inch engine takes in 300 cubic inches of air every two revolutions of the crankshaft. When the throttle is closed, very little air mass flows into the engine, so that small amount has to expand to fill our 300 cubic inches. Let's think of charge density as the amount of oxygen available to support the combustion of the fuel. Besides throttle position, many things effect airflow, such as restrictions in either the intake or exhaust paths (which can become de facto throttles in themselves), or the design of the camshaft to control valve openings and closings (see Fig.2).
Going back to our opening description of a four-cycle engine, it should be noted that only one of the four cycles produces power. A great deal of attention is often given to throttle response of turbocharged engines, which refers to the time between when the throttle is depressed and the engine responds.
As mentioned above, controlling peak induction system pressure and induction temperature is key to preventing detonation.
All of the above is a simplified overview of engine science as it relates to gasoline engines.
Whatever power enhancement products you consider, use the engine science presented here to evaluate how those products affect the basics of engine operation and how they achieve their gains.
The more oxygen (air) that flows into the engine, the more fuel that can be burned, and the more power the engine can make. Even the temperature of the incoming air will affect its density (see "Cool Air Equals Power" elsewhere on this site). Frequently small, highly-responsive turbines are mated with larger compressors to quicken throttle response, but such small turbines quickly become restrictions in the exhaust system and build excessive turbine inlet pressure, creating the backflow condition commonly called "turbine choke". 6 — On a turbocharged engine, when the exhaust backpressure between the turbine and the cylinder rises above the "boost" pressure on the intake side, exhaust can flow back into the cylinder and the intake passage during the overlap period between the exhaust and intake cycles. 7 — On a properly designed turbocharger system, boost pressure exceeds exhaust pressure, helping force exhaust gases out, cooling the valves, and more completely filling the cylinder with a fresh fuel and air charge.
Diesel engine applications are similar in many ways, although diesels have no air throttle to vary charge density.
As the throttle opens, more air mass can flow in to fill the engine, and the density will increase.

To say it another way, assuming you mix the correct amount of fuel with the air, how much power an engine can make is dependent on airflow. But most of all, the biggest factor is the pressure of the air available to flow into the engine on its intake stroke.
Anything that increases the induction pressure of an engine reduces the pumping losses for that engine on the intake stroke (see Fig.5).
Every fuel has detonation limits associated with pressure and temperature where the fuel self-ignites and burns uncontrollably.
This dilutes and heats the incoming fuel and air charge and can promote damaging uncontrolled combustion in the cylinder. Such a device is often called a "pop off" or "blow off" valve that simply opens at a pre-set level.
Instead, diesels are throttled by regulating the amount of fuel injected into the cylinders at precise times. The answer is that the parasitic losses of the engine, such as friction and pump drives, remains relatively constant, as does relative heat loss to the surrounding air and coolant, so additional power provided by increased charge density is almost totally available to do work. Thus, the maximum amount of power any spark-ignition engine can make is limited by the detonation resistance of the fuel, which is expressed as the fuel's octane number. A properly designed turbocharger system only relies on detonation sensors as a failsafe for occasional bad fuel or a momentary overboost condition in normal operation.
And since heat is an undesirable that promotes detonation, cooling the compressed air is desirable, even though such cooling will lower the induction pressure.
If we use some sort of compressor to increase the pressure above atmospheric pressure, that's called "supercharging" the engine. Such a device is referred to as a "wastegate" (see "How a Turbo Wastegate Works" elsewhere on this site). And finally, precise controls need to be put in place to optimize related systems, such as ignition (for gasoline engines), turbocharger boost, etc. Two revolutions of the crankshaft, four distinct cycles - it's the basic Otto-cycle piston engine. And while it is true that more air mass flows into the engine when the throttle opens, the engine's size, or displacement, never changes, so the only actual difference is the density of the air that fills that displacement.

If that compressor is driven by a mechanical linkage to the engine, such as a belt drive or gear drive, the compressor is simply called a supercharger. And in the case of turbocharged engines, the turbine and compressor should be sized and matched to assure that exhaust pressure between the turbine and the cylinder, which is called "turbine inlet pressure", doesn't exceed the induction system pressure, which is usually called "boost" (see Fig.7). The device used to cool the induction charge is properly called a "charge air cooler", although many people refer to it as an intercooler.
When done correctly as a system, not only is power increased, drivability, reliability, and economies are also enhanced. In the case of a turbocharger, the turbine creates a restriction in the exhaust path, thus building exhaust backpressure between the cylinder and the turbine, increasing pumping losses on the exhaust cycle. In fact, optimizing boost pressure over turbine inlet pressure is rarely discussed, yet it is one of the key elements to a successful and reliable turbocharged application, especially for racing. Charge air coolers are heat exchangers that can utilize an air-to-air configuration, or they can be of the air-to-liquid variety.
The third way is to properly match the turbine and compressor sizes to the application and to each other. Supercharging and turbocharging do increase charge density and the total power output for diesels, just as it does for gasoline engines, and the same temperature and pressure controls apply to prevent detonation. Done incorrectly, the results can be destructive to the engine, pushing it beyond the factory-specified safe operating limits. Both are effective, although the air-to-liquid variety then requires yet another liquid-to-air heat exchanger to cool the liquid. When this is done correctly, which is called a "floating match", inherent flow restrictions keep everything balanced.

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