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Pauli and scientists such as Ben Zuckerberg, also of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, are members of a new breed of researchers called winter ecologists. With a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF)'s MacroSystems Biology Program, Pauli and Zuckerberg conduct research on what's called the subnivium, a seasonal and sensitive refuge beneath the snow's surface that's insulated and maintains a constant temperature. The willow ptarmigan is a common resident of the subnivium; it uses snow as an insulating blanket.
Pauli and colleagues believe warming winters caused by climate change reduce the subnivium's duration, depth and insulation. As a result of these altered conditions, they report in the journals Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment and PLOS One, the subnivium is showing more temperature variability and decreaseda€”not increaseda€”temperatures. Perhaps you're reading this article nestled by a roaring fire, protected from the elements in a warm den or living room.
Gazelles in the Gobi Desert in northern China and southern Mongolia rely on "snow mines," oases of water from melting snows buried beneath the sand. Since plants and animals depend on snow cover in winter, what lies ahead when the global climate's increased warmth has reduced snow levels?
He, Zuckerberg, Warren Porter of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Brian McMahon of Operation Fresh Start are working to assess climate change effects on the sensitive subnivian habitat. Using micro-greenhouses placed at sites in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan, the ecologists mimic climate conditions predicted for the Great Lakes region by 2050.
The research reveals how future subnivium conditions will affect the physiology, survival and distribution of species dependent on this realm-beneath-the-snow.
To date, micro-greenhouse experiments show that although ambient temperature within a micro-greenhouse is set at 5 degrees Celsius warmer than the temperature outside the greenhouse, "the natural daily minimum subnivium temperature drops significantly lower inside," Pauli says.
Without snow cover and its insulation, the greenhouse interiora€”and its subnivian inhabitants such as hibernating amphibiansa€”are exposed to the winter cold. The future for plants and animals, including us, say Pauli and Zuckerberg, looks brightest as a white, not green, winter.

The Bosnian capital and its surroundings were covered by snow on Monday, the first time in half a century snow has settled in Sarajevo at this time of year, as temperatures plunged to just above freezing.
A potent weather system with origins in Manitoba, Canada moved south across the Great Lakes on Halloween and blew all the way to Florida, bringing snow and hard frost to regions that do not see either in some winters. Norwegian mammals and birds have many different methods of surviving long, intense winter nights.
Snowpack can be difficult to measure in the rugged, varied terrain of northern Arizona's forests, and warming winters only complicate the picture.
Scientists studying deltas show how they may be able to predict where destructive changes in a river's course may occur.
Temperatures have soared to a scorching 51 degrees Celsius in one Indian city, meteorologists said Friday, with the ferocious heat setting a new national record. Emissions from farms outweigh all other human sources of fine-particulate air pollution in much of the United States, Europe, Russia and China, according to new research. As climatologists closely monitor the impact of human activity on the world's oceans, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have found yet another worrying trend impacting the health of the Pacific Ocean. Three female ISIS defectors told NBC News of a female police unit in Raqqa, the Islamic State's de-facto capital in Syria, that is responsible for oppressing other women. The most popular Nightly News health, consumer news, aviation, lifestyle and human interest stories. Inspirational stories profiling people making a positive impact on communities around the country and world.
Watch our intimate, first-person documentary shorts about people, places and stories you may not have otherwise discovered. There are several locations in The Secret World where modern music can be heard, such as shops, bars, diners and nightclubs etc.
And, as scientists are discovering, snow is critical to animals and plants that live in northern latitudes, as well as those in far southern latitudes like Patagonia at the tip of South America.

The field, which focuses on relationships among animals, plants and their snow-covered environments, is relatively new. And, as northern peoples like the Inuit of Alaska know, nor are there two snows, nor snowfalls, exactly alike.
Fungi increase their metabolism as winter progresses, releasing nutrients from their by-products as snow melts in spring.
The micro-greenhouses automatically open when it snows, allowing a subnivium to form inside. A biologist from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) University Museum reveals their secrets for survival.
Members of the community are encouraged to submit their own music creations for consideration, and the winners will get to have their contributions shared in-game with thousands and thousands of other players. Gangly moose use snow as a footstools, to better reach tender shoots at the ends of branches. You know his work from The Secret World Soundtrack or his editing and mastering of the music in videos such as the launch trailer. The golden-crowned kinglet, for example, a tiny songbird of northern forests, survives winter's frigid nights because it can huddle under qali on conifer branches.Trees whose branches are iced-over are said to be covered with kanik, and snow that swirls in whorls is siqoq.
And some of the tiniest forms of lifea€”fungi and other microorganisms that live in and under the snowa€”remain active throughout the winter. In siqoqtoaq, microbes called snow algae, dormant during early winter months, bloom bright red and green.

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