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The learning units in this topic are all intended to help you to decide upon the focus of your research.
Monitoring your use of time and reviewing how you are progressing against your plans are vital elements of effective time management. You will need to decide for yourself the best way of monitoring and reviewing your progress, but here are some tips to help you get started. Make monitoring and review one of your research objectives rather than something you bolt onto your research activities. See time management as a cyclical activity rather than as something you do only once at the beginning of your studies. Note: All comments are subject to moderation and will be displayed once approved by the site administrator. If you want to complete your project in a timely manner, make sure you understand this area well. To determine the sequence of activities, you will need to understand the relationships between them.
Now that the details about the project activities have been worked out, it's time to develop the project schedule.
Variance analysis and performance reviews will help you determine if the project is progressing as planned.
Download the transcript of the video or download the exercises in pdf format or as a Word document.
To view the individual chapters of the above video, you can either click the 'PLAYLIST' menu item in the above YouTube video and select the chapter from there, or, you can click one of the pictures below and view the individual video on YouTube. Writing a good essay can be compared to baking a cake—if you do not mix the right ingredients in the right quantities or order, and do not follow the required processes, then the end result will not be what you hoped for!There is no set model for an essay, but the English for Uni website presents one popular way to do it. It is important for you to analyse your topic and title very carefully in order to understand the specific aim of the question. In example B, answering the question fully involves looking closely at the directive word Discuss and analysing its exact meaning. There are a number of directive words, or instructional words as they are sometimes called, which  tell you what to do in your essay. Give reasons for why you agree or disagree with something and show that you understand different points of view. Help your reader to understand more about something and provide your own perspective if necessary. Note that the central focus (the essay question) has several boxes linked to it which represent the writer’s first ideas.
The first two articles have been cited 90 times and 103 times respectively, suggesting that they might be good sources for your essay. Read the abstract and ask yourself if the content of the article is likely to be relevant to your essay. When you have found what you think might be useful, make a note in your plan at the appropriate place. Remember that during your research you might discover new issues and perspectives that you hadn’t considered before, so your original plan might be quite different from the final one!
Once you have brainstormed your ideas and done some initial research, start putting them into a logical order as part of the essay planning process. Main body Paragraph 1 with possible sources Ways in which chocolate can impact positively on mood. Conclusion Summary of four arguments presented Chocolate is not a healthy food, but it is enjoyable nevertheless. It might seem strange to think about writing your conclusion before you write the body of your essay, but unless you know where you are going you can easily lose direction. The Topic Sentence should unambiguously express the topic of the  paragraph and be linked with the overall thesis of the essay.
Elaboration of the main point should add more detailed information in relation to the topic sentence.
Examples and Evidence should support your main point using paraphrases, summaries or direct quotations, all of which need to be appropriately referenced. The Concluding Sentence should echo the main point of the paragraph and function as a bridge to the next paragraph. It has been claimed that chocolate is a healthy food, but in fact it contains a lot of sugar, which can be unhealthy.
Once you have drafted your main body paragraphs and your conclusion, it is time to draft your introduction. Writing your introduction last means you are more likely to have a tighter fit between the introduction, main body and conclusion because you already know what your essay will be about. The thesis and scope are sometimes combined to form one or more sentences known as a thesis statement.
Sometimes, particularly in very short essays, the essay will begin with an issue rather than a background statement. Essays also sometimes begin with an issue, outline the scope and then move on to end the introduction with the thesis statement.
When you are writing an essay you will need to include references to external academic sources. Normally, when writing an essay at university you will be expected to use only academic sources. When you are writing an essay and including external sources, more often than not you want the reader to focus on what is said rather than who is saying it. In the APA style of referencing, the reference list has certain conventions that you must also follow. An excellent website to help with your APA referencing is the APA Interactive tool at Massey University. Always save each draft as a separate file; then you can see how your essay develops and improves. Since Spanish explorers brought back chocolate from the new world, chocolate consumption has become a worldwide phenomenon.

You might wonder how you can include your own voice and still sound academic when you are writing about a subject area in which you have little (or no) knowledge. Let’s look at one of the paragraphs from the chocolate essay to see how the text is an interplay of the internal voice of the writer and the external voices of other authors.
When you get more confident in using external sources, you will gradually expand the language of your critical internal voice.
Editing focuses on the big picture elements such as overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and whether the question has been answered. Proofreading has a micro-focus on the details of your essay, such as formatting, grammar and punctuation.
Students regularly underestimate the time it takes to write an essay, in particular the planning and researching stages.
Before you begin your essay, have a look at the Massey University assignment planning calculator. As you can see from the assignment planning calculator, if you only start your essay a few days before the due date, you will have to do things too quickly. The biological makeup of chocolate is also relevant in determining whether chocolate is better viewed as a food or a drug, but the boundaries between indulgence and addictive behaviour are unclear.
A final point to consider in relation to chocolate is the perception that chocolate is linked to obesity. Plagiarism means using someone else’s words, ideas or diagrams without acknowledgement.
Include a reference in the text, where the words or ideas appear, and in a reference list at the end of the essay.
All the references in the text must appear in the reference list, and all the references in the list must also appear in the text. Collusion means that you work with someone else and submit the same or very similar assignments without your lecturer’s permission. For example, if you and a friend work together on an essay and then submit identical or very similar versions of the essay, one under your name and one under your friend’s name, that is collusion. People make genuine mistakes, so lecturers are usually very happy to advise you if you ask them. When checked, Shutterstock's safe search screens restricted content and excludes it from your search results. In many ways this can be the most difficult part of the research process, as we often start with a vague idea of the issues in which we are interested.
Like all time management activities, they can easily be overlooked and be difficult to fit into your busy schedules. The more you carry out the cycle shown in the diagram above, the better you will get at managing your time.
If some things are taking longer than you estimated at first, recognise it and adapt your time management plans accordingly.
A discussion is usually longer than an explanation, as you need to present evidence and state which argument is more persuasive.
A good way to expand your vocabulary is to look at the Academic Word List (developed by Averil Coxhead at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand). You can use a dictionary definition if it’s helpful, but remember that the word might be used in a particular way in the subject you are studying. The best place to start (assuming you haven’t already been given a prescribed reading list!) is by using an academic database. For the chocolate essay, one of the first associations we thought of was chocolate and mood. The links to the right indicate that you can access the articles through your university website.
This will take you to the full article which you can then skim read quickly to decide if it is relevant.
Also, the conclusion is the last thing the reader actually reads, so it needs to be memorable. The introduction includes the background to the essay, the important issues and a thesis statement. One way to check if you have done this is to write keywords in the margin for each sentence. The thesis statement often comes at the end of the introduction, although it can be written earlier.
The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to determine whether an external source is academic or not.
You are the principal storyteller, the internal voice of the writer, leading the reader through to your conclusion. These are the external voices (citations) that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for what you are saying and sometimes even giving an alternative perspective. The writer sets the scene at the beginning of the topic sentence and also links together all of the sentences, using their own voice to lead into content which is provided by the external voices. The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides examples of some more expressions to use when assessing external sources. You need to focus on the types of errors you commonly make by looking at the marker’s comments on your previous work.
At first, chocolate, a derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form. Moreover, Scholey and Owen (2013) in a systematic review of the literature in the field point to several studies, such as Macht and Dettmer (2006) and Macht and Mueller (2007), which appear to confirm this effect. Yet, in this essay, many chocolate focused arguments have been presented, including the transient effect of chocolate on mood and the fact that it is as likely to create feelings of guilt as of well-being. This is very important in academic writing in western countries, and if you do not do this you might be accused of plagiarism, which is a serious offence at university. However, if you are doing a group work assignment and your lecturer has asked you to work together and submit the assignment jointly, that is not collusion. This is perfectly normal and very common, and actually forms a positive opportunity to be creative.

You will find that you develop an increased awareness of how you use your time and that you will get better at making workable plans. The uefap website also has very useful lists of words found in particular subjects, such as mathematics, business and health science. If you are not sure how to use a database, then book an appointment with your subject librarian at your institution. Make sure you are logged in to the library at your educational institution, so that you can use the full database capacities linked to Google Scholar. Chocolate contains some biologically active ingredients, but in small amounts (Bruinsma & Taren, 1999). Note the findings show that there is no clear relationship between chocolate and obesity – an issue flagged in the introduction.
However, chocolate’s inherent popularity does not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested by the title.
The external voices can be divided into two categories in your essay: the direct external voice of an author (through a direct quote) and the indirect external voice of an author (through a paraphrase). The literature on chocolate and obesity has clearly demonstrated that there are no specific correlations between the two variables (Beckett, 2008; Lambert, 2009). Another possible positive dimension to chocolate is a correlation with cardiovascular health. When you are studying the learning units in this topic, you need to consider several questions, including: How long have I got to do this work? Either click on the links to other related articles or go back to Google Scholar and then choose another article to skim read.
Brainstorming, researching and planning are cyclical, which means that each process helps the other processes and you might want to do each process more than once. Note the change of focus from the original idea (correlation between chocolate consumption and cardiovascular health) due to the lack of research data available. The conclusion reminds your reader of the main points made in your essay and leaves your reader with a final impression and ideas to think about later.
The realities of chocolate are more down to earth; a number of these realities will be addressed in this essay. The key to maximising the benefits of flavanols in chocolate appears to lie in the level of fats present. However, as Bruinsma and Taren (1999) note, eating chocolate can represent a sensory reward based, luxurious indulgence, based around texture, aroma and flavour anticipation, rather than a neurochemically induced craving. This is typified by the findings of Mellor (2013), who found that, over a period of eight weeks of eating 45 grams of chocolate per day, a group of adults demonstrated no significant weight increase. The effects of polyphenol rich chocolate on cardiovascular risk and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Doctoral dissertation, University of Hull, UK).
Lambert (2009) exemplified that chocolate consumption alone unlikely to precipitate obesity. The literature outlines the chemical properties of chocolate which could help explain some addictive type behaviour, particularly in regards to nervous tension in women, but also there is a strong research focus on chocolate as a sensory-based indulgence.
The amount of sugar contained in chocolate means, therefore, that chocolate, particularly milk and white chocolate, may not be healthy.
Chocolate has chemical properties that can influence mood and there is possible evidence for some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. In addition, mood is something that is difficult to isolate and quantify, and aside from the study by Macht and Dettmer (2006) there appears to be little research on any longer term mood affecting influences of chocolate.
Cocoa, which is simply chocolate minus the fat, is the most obvious candidate for maximising heart health, but as Hannum, Schmitz and Keen (2002) note, most cocoa products are made through an alkali process which destroys many flavanols. Yet, it has been argued that chocolate is sometimes used as a form of self-medication, particularly in relation to magnesium deficiency. As Lambert (2009) notes, chocolate consumption alone is not likely to cause obesity, unless large amounts of other calorie dense foods are consumed and this calorie dense intake is greater than needed for bodily function, bearing in mind levels of activity. Used in relation to magnesium deficiency in women (Pennington, 2000 in Steinberg et al., 2003).
Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat by the argument that, in some instances, chocolate can be viewed as a drug rather than a food. Optimal maximisation of the flavanols involves such compounds being present in cocoa and chocolate products at levels where they are biologically active (Ariefdjohan & Savaiano, 2005). A study by Pennington (2000 in Steinberg, Bearden, & Keen 2003) noted that women do not generally meet US guidelines for trace elements, including magnesium. The literature outlines the chemical properties of chocolate which could help explain some addictive type behaviour, particularly in regards to nervous tension in women, but there is also a strong research focus on chocolate as a sensory-based indulgence. Moreover, there is the possibility of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity. This correlates with earlier studies by Abraham and Lubran (1981), who found a high correlation between magnesium deficiency and nervous tension in women. It can therefore be said that chocolate is not a healthy food, but can be enjoyed as part of a healthy and balanced diet and lifestyle. Thus, it will be argued that despite chocolate’s positive effect in some cases on mood and the cardiovascular system it has also been linked to addiction and obesity. Thus, tension-related chocolate cravings could be a biological entity fuelled by magnesium deficiency.
Overall, however, it would appear that the proportion of people using chocolate as a drug rather than a food based sensory indulgence is small, though further research might prove enlightening. Chocolate procyanidins decrease the leukotriene-prostacyclin ratio in humans and human aortic endothelial cells.

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