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DESCRIPTION: During the Middle Ages the Greek tradition of disinterested research was stifled in Western Europe by a theological dictatorship which bade fair, for a time, to destroy all hope of a genuine intellectual revival.
Most Arab cartographers also used Ptolemya€™s instructions in the construction of their own maps. Over the years, these enlightened Arabs injected new life and a storehouse of knowledge into the relatively backward science of Western Europe, and, for centuries, Arab culture actually dominated the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. In the year 1138, the royal palace at Palermo, Sicily was the scene of a long-awaited meeting between an unusual Christian king and a distinguished Muslim scholar. The monarch was Roger II, King of Sicily; his distinguished guest the Arab geographer Abu Abdullah Mohammed Ibn al-Sharif al-Idrisi [Edrisi]. Al-Idrisia€™s writings tell us less about his own character and personality than about those of the man who became his host and patron.
Sicily in particular was an ideal meeting ground for the two civilizations a€“ Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East. Early in the 11th century a band of Norman adventurers, the Hautevilles, had ridden into southern Italy to wrest it from the Byzantine Greeks and the Muslims, and in 1101 Count Roger da€™Hauteville capped his career by conquering Sicily.
Tall, dark-haired, bearded and corpulent, Roger, from a magnificent palace in Palermo, ruled his kingdom with a balanced mixture of diplomacy, ruthlessness, wisdom and skill that has led many historians to term his kingdom the best-governed European state of the Middle Ages.
Rogera€™s interest in geography was the expression of a scientific curiosity just awakening in Europe, but inevitably he turned to a Muslim for help.
A few practical maps did exista€”marinersa€™ charts showing coastlines, capes, bays, shallows, ports of call and watering and provisioning placesa€”but in a typical medieval divorce of science and technology, these remained in the hands of navigators. To carry out the project, Roger established an academy of geographers, with himself as director and al-Idrisi as permanent secretary, to gather and analyze information. The academy began by studying and comparing the works of previous geographersa€”principal among them 12 scholars, 10 of them from the Muslim world. Al-Idrisia€™s two geographers from the pre-Islamic era were Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard whose popular History, written in the fifth century, included a volume of descriptive geography; and Ptolemy, the greatest of the classical geographers, whose Geography, written in the second century, had been entirely lost to Europe, but preserved in the Muslim world in an Arabic translation. After examining at length the geographical works they had collected, the king and the geographer observed that they were full of discrepancies and omissions, and decided to embark on original research. During this research, al-Idrisi and Roger compared data, keeping the facts on which travelers agreed and eliminating conflicting information.
Finally, however, the long 15-year geographical study was finished and the task of map making began. Al-Idrisi explained that the disk merely symbolized the shape of the world: The earth is round like a sphere, and the waters adhere to it and are maintained on it through natural equilibrium which suffers no variation. By al-Idrisia€™s time, Muslim astronomers had made great strides in methods of reckoning latitude. Al-Idrisi himself gave three figures for the eartha€™s circumference, without deciding among them: Eratosthenesa€™ approximately correct estimate, a slightly smaller figure arrived at by Indian astronomers, and a still smaller numbera€”though larger than Ptolemya€™sa€”which was apparently agreed on by Sicilian scholars. On the disk, according to al-Idrisia€™s own account, were incised a€?by skillful workersa€? lines marking the limits of the seven climates of the habitable world, arbitrary divisions established by Ptolemy running east and west and bounded by parallels of latitude, from the Arctic to the Equator. The map, written in Arabic, shows the Eurasian continent in its entirety, but only shows the northern part of the African continent. The resulting book and associated maps which took 15 years to amass are, for this and the above reasons, unquestionably among the most interesting monuments of Arabian geography. Modern geographers have attempted to reconstruct the features of the silver planisphere by using a combination of the maps of Rogera€™s Book, which has survived in several texts, and its tables of longitudes and latitudes. Distortions, omissions, and misconceptions notwithstanding, the superiority of al-Idrisia€™s map over the world maps of medieval Europe is striking. The first division of the first climate commences to the west of the Western Sea, which Idrisi called the Sea of Darkness. Following the Nile, still eastward, we find the nomadic Berbers who pasture their flock on the borders of a river flowing from the east, debouching into the Nile stream. It is clear that the part of southern Africa which is extended far to the east is a legacy from Ptolemy, but Arabian seafarers had taught Idrisi that the sea was open in the east, and in his own commentaries he writes: a€?The Sea of Sin [China] is an arm of the ocean which is called the Dark Sea [the Atlantic]a€?.
To the south al-Idrisi pictured a great river, the Nile of the Negroes, a composite of the Senegal and the Niger Rivers that flowed from Central Africa west to the Atlantic.
Sicily, naturally, came in for special praise; it was a pearl of the age, and al-Idrisi told the story of the Norman conquest of the island by Roger da€™Hauteville, the greatest of Frankish princes, followed by the succession of the great king who bears the same name and who follows in his footsteps. Idrisi was not, however, able to put the countries around the Baltic into proper shape, even though his notes show him to have been familiar with a great many places there, as in the rest of Europe.
The impressive assemblage of facts from travelersa€™ accounts and geographical writings was interrupted now and then by fables, some taken directly from Ptolemy, some from popular folklore. Al-Idrisia€™s Rome had an oriental magnificence; ships with their freight sailed up the Tiber to be drawn thus loaded right up to the very shops of the merchants.
The Arabs knew these islands through Ptolemy, and called them Jazaa€™ir al-Khalidat [The Eternal Isles], presumably a version of the Greek name. After telling us that the Canaries had been visited by Alexander the Great and that the tomb of a pre-Islamic South Arabian king, made of marble and colored glass, can be seen on one of them, al-Idrisi gives the names of two of the islands. Even more interesting is al-Idrisia€™s account of an actual voyage of exploration into the western Atlantic, undertaken by 80 brave men from Lisbon whom he calls the mugharrirun, best rendered as a€?intrepid explorers.a€? The expedition must have taken place before 1147 - the date Lisbon fell to the Christians - but it is impossible to be more precise. It was from the city of Lisbon that the mugharrirun set out to sail the Sea of Darkness in order to discover what was in it and where it ended, as we have mentioned before. The inhabitants of the island of al-Sua€™ali are shaped like women and their canine teeth protrude. The island of Qalhan is inhabited by animal-headed people who swim in the sea to catch their food. Al-Ghawr makes sense; it means a depression surrounded by higher land, and occurs elsewhere in the Arab world as a place name. Al-Idrisi gives the names of 13 islands in the western Atlantic; a 14th, visited by the mugharrirun, is nameless. On his map, Idrisi shows a long string of islands in the Western Ocean reaching north from the equator to Brittany.
However, Arab geographers and astronomers were much too accurate in their latitude calculations to mistakenly spread the Canary Islands so widely over the ocean. The three intermediate islands in the chain may be the first cartographic representation of the Azores. Idrisia€™s description of other islands in the Atlantic appear to have more to do with fanciful legends than with reality. Some of these islands resemble the islands of Irish legend, and the Arabs may have incorporated parts of the Celtic tradition into their own legends. At the latitude of Tangier, in the Grand Sea, there are situated islands named a€?The Fortunate Islands.a€? These are spread in the sea, not far away from the west coast [of Africa], the Barbary Coast.
Al-Idrisi presented the planisphere, a silver celestial sphere and the book to his patron in 1154, just a few weeks before Roger died at 58, probably of a heart attack; he went on to compose another geographical work for William I, Rogera€™s successor. According to Arab sources, Idrisi composed yet another more detailed text and map in 1161 for Rogera€™s son William II. In 1160, however, Sicilian barons rose in rebellion against William and during the disorders looted the palace; in a great fire in the courtyard, they burned government records, books and documentsa€”including a new Latin edition of Rogera€™s Book which al-Idrisi had presented to William. Since the barons had attacked the Muslims of Sicily with particular ferocitya€”killing, among many others, a famous poet named Yahya ibn al-Tifashia€”al-Idrisi fled to North Africa where, six years later, he died.
As he had brought the Arabic text with him, however, his great work lived on, winning widespread fame, serving as a model for Muslim geographers and historians for centuries and providing the great Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, with practically all his geographical knowledge.
It is a curious thought that had Columbus been aware of the true distancea€”from al-Idrisia€™s estimatesa€”he might have hesitated to undertake his epoch-making voyage and might never have discovered that new world which came to light one morning on the far side of the Sea of Darkness.
Idrisia€™s works are of exceptional quality when considered in comparison with other geographical writings of their period, partly by reason of their richness of detail, but mainly because of the afore mentioned a€?scientific methoda€™ that was employed, a procedure which was indeed unlike that adopted by most Latin scholars of that era. There is, however, a markedly retrograde character to certain portions of his work, such as East Africa and South Asia; despite his narrative of the Lisbon Wanderers (see above and Beazely, vol.
In view of its modernity and high intrinsic worth, it is difficult to understand why Idrisia€™s work, composed as it was at the chronological and geographical point of contact between the Islamic and Christian civilizations, remained so long un-utilized by Christian scholars in Sicily, Italy, or other Christian countries, until we remember that the primary - we might even say the sole - interest of the Latin West in Arabic literature centered on the preparation of calendars, star tables and horoscopes, and, to some extent, the recovery of ancient lore. Al-Idrisia€™s map places Gog and Magog in northern China, behind a great wall with a tower and a door; at the wall is an inscription, translated as a€?belongs to the Kufaya mountain range which encloses Gog and Magoga€?. The first translation known of Idrisia€™s work was published in Rome only in 1619, and then in a very much shortened form (the translator did not even know the authora€™s name). On the other hand, there is no question but that the Sicilo-Norman enthusiasm for geography exerted an indirect influence on the evolution of geographical knowledge, an influence that was to make itself felt more especially after the close of the Crusades period.
Detail of the a€?The large Idrisi Mapa€? showing Europe and North Africa,a€? re-oriented with North at the top. Reproduction and re-orientation of a map of the world adapted from the Muqaddimah [Introduction] to Ibn Khalduna€™s monumental work, The History of the World, 1381; derived from the 1154 al-Idrisi map. It’s the first of the year and that means it’s time for me to reflect back on what I did throughout the past 12 months.
The first big change was that I made a conscious decision to distance myself from the BMX industry and focus my career in the fitness industry. The next giant shift in my life was that I decided to stop traveling and concentrate on my new career path. With that said, there had been a void in my life for a while that couldn’t be filled with worldly adventures. My life may not be as exciting as it once was, but I still hope to inspire people simply by setting a good example of how I live—through my fitness, my vegan lifestyle, my career, and anything else that I can do to show people a positive message. I want to thank everyone for their support over the years and show my appreciation to those who have taken an interest in my life’s path. A few years ago I posted a gallery of photos of me standing and sitting on picturesque rocks around the world. It goes without saying that the Grand Canyon is absolutely breathtaking, mind-boggling, and awe-inspiring, so to be able to experience its vastness up close and personal was a real treat! Well, when it came time for Steph to start her new podcast Harder to Kill Radio, she returned the favor and interviewed me. I plan to release an new episode every week, so please subscribe and help spread the word by telling a friend or sharing a link on your social networks.
Most people know I’m an open book, and I’ve posted a ton of personal things on my social networks and here on the blog over the years, but this post is about to divulge the most intimate information I’ve ever shared. About three years ago I added another section underneath my goals that outlines what an ideal life looks like for me. For some practical tips on setting goals, Wikihow has a pretty good article you can check out. For several years now I’ve been keeping track of my trips and travels on Facebook by uploading on photo from each place I visit. Now it’s time to do a quick reflection here on my blog of the 110 days I spent away from home, starting with January in Central America in ending with Asia in December. About a week ago I started eating eggs again after being on a whole foods, plant-based diet for more than a year and a half. When I transitioned from a fully carnivorous diet to “being vegan” in January 2013 there were a lot of factors that came into play including health reasons and compassion for animals. When considering compassion for animals or “animal rights”, eating eggs has a little bit of grey area. Most of the eggs available for mass-consumption in the US come from factory farms, and even those labeled “organic” or “cage-free” come from places that I don’t think hatch, raise, and treat the birds ethically. When I got on a vegan diet I had my blood checked by my primary care physician to make sure my biomarkers were where they should be.
Shortly after I transitioned to the whole foods, plant-based diet I also began working out and doing CrossFit. After giving this a lot of thought over several months I found a small, local farm just four miles from my house that sells fresh eggs one day a week. For now I’ll continue to refer to myself and my diet as “vegan”, but again, that’s only out of convenience.
It’s that time again… The time when I start wrapping up things on the year and preparing to start the New Year with a clean slate. Since I’ve gotten so into CrossFit (and post about it all the time) a bunch of people have told me they are interested in trying it out. The idea behind CrossFit is to combine strength and cardio workouts that include functional movements that change all the time, and to do them at high intensity.
A good way to think about this is to picture bicep curls like you see people do in a traditional gym. This is probably the most important thing to keep in mind when you start out…finding the right gym for you can make you or break you! I can see where people may be intimidated to try out CrossFit for the first time, but if you know what you are getting into ahead of time and a little of what to expect at the gym it will help keep you calm. Everything in CrossFit is scaleable, and the coaches are there to make sure you are challenging yourself, getting a good workout, and most importantly, staying safe. One of the great things about CrossFit is that you have a coach leading the class every day, so not only do you have the gym programming your workouts for you, you have a trainer with you at all times to make sure you are getting the most out of your workout and staying safe. I’m a goal-oriented person who loves to see progress, and everything in CrossFit is measurable.
Also, being a competitive person by nature, I can compete against myself and other people in the gym every day. I’ve heard CrossFit referred to as a cult, and I’ve heard many people say that it is addictive.
Part of what makes me feel alive is traveling to new places and seeing what kind of incredible things can be found in nature.
After driving down the PCH for the third time recently I started to think about what I could consider to be the most breathtaking places I’ve ever been to, so I thought I’d break them down here.
While staying on Ton Sai Bay in Thailand I took a kayak out to explore some of the small island rock formations off the shoreline.
After riding bikes and hanging out with friends in Gold Coast, Australia for several weeks I decided to venture away from the BMX scene in search of some nature. I’m a sucker for coastlines, beaches, and tropical settings, and the drive up or down California’s PCH offers plenty of each of those.
If this list were in order, and if I had better photos of it, the Grand Canyon in Arizona would probably be at the number one spot. I feel the need to start this by stating the obvious…this is my personal health and fitness plan, and I’m not necessarily recommending it to anyone else. Over the past two years I traveled more than I was at home and never had any sort of structure to my life.
Since switching to a very clean and natural vegan diet in January 2013 I’ve also started a pretty solid workout routine that I truly feel is doing great things for my body and mind. This photo of me carving a fullpipe was taken in Gold Coast, Australia at the Elenora skatepark this January. I’ve never drank alcohol in my life, I never liked the taste of tea or coffee, I stopped drinking sodas and sugary drinks several years ago, and about two years ago I cut out milk and fruit juice from my diet. I have a few other posts on my blog explaining my vegan diet, but in a nutshell, I aim for an all-natural whole foods plant based diet. To stay consistent with my clean vegan diet, I use a hemp protein powder with no added ingredients. Cutting out sugar was the absolute hardest thing for me to change in my diet, and it is the most recent part of my current health plan that I’ve implemented. As always, the more reason you have for doing something, the easier it becomes to do, so here’s a video that really helped me to see just how bad sugar is for you. Taking Sundays off to rest, I work out on my own during the other days when I don’t go to crossfit. Be sure to follow me on Instagram and Twitter for recipes and ideas for good vegan meals and snacks! Since transitioning to a vegan diet a few months ago I’ve gotten really into trying new foods, especially ones that I make myself.
As much as I love these, I would definitely encourage everyone to experiment and change up the ingredients to suit your own tastes. Here’s a quick video with some behind the scenes footage and photos from Erawan Falls, Thailand where I shot one of my favorite photos of all time.
I got a great response from a previous blog post I made about switching to a vegan diet a few months ago.
Most people go vegan because of health reasons or animal rights reasons, and my decision was based on both split right down the middle. There were several things in the films that really stuck out to me and helped me make the mental shift needed to change my lifestyle. Then came the health issues… When watching “Forks Over Knives” the studies that showed the direct correlation between fatal diseases and eating animal-based foods was so overwhelming that I couldn’t believe it. In a nutshell, the information I learned from those two videos was compelling enough for me to completely change the way I felt about eating meat and dairy, causing me to almost immediately change from a traditional western diet to an all vegan diet. The two toughest mental struggles at first were the though of going out with friends and the though of going to Louisiana to visit my family. However, as with a lot of things in life (like moving or traveling, for example), I found that it’s much easier to actually do something than to think about doing it. With that said, I was on a six week international trip when I made the switch and it took a few weeks to really know what to eat in certain scenarios. I actually learned a lot about reading nutrition labels a while back when researching health and fitness. I look at the label of everything I buy, and the more you look at them, the more you’ll understand them. I’ve been slowly teaching myself how to cook different things since I moved out of my mom’s house after I graduated high school. I also have a handful of what I would consider to be my personal staples for meals and snacks…things that I pretty much have in my fridge or cupboard at all times. I still haven’t been to see my family in Louisiana since making the switch, but they were all supportive over the phone, and I know that be the time I go there in a few months I’ll be so set in my new vegan ways that finding the right foods won’t be hard. Probably the easiest, and my favorite option when eating out is Thai or Indian restaurants.
I was pretty healthy and in shape before going vegan, so there wasn’t anything drastic that happened to my body, but the first week or two after making the switch I did notice some unusual things. DESCRIPTION: The world maps made by the European Church Fathers were a legacy taken over from the ancient world, and they were gradually expanded and adapted in accordance with the texts which they accompanied. Maps gradually came to stand on their own as independent works, instead of mere supplements to texts.
Among the first maps in Christian Europe to reveal a new character are those by Pietro Vesconte (fl. These maps of Italy use the coastal outline from portolan charts as the basis for a general map of the area, showing mountains, rivers and inland towns. The world map included in this volume was made by Vesconte who used his knowledge of sea charts in the crafting of this work. Pietro Vesconte, in his mappamundi drawn for Marino Sanudoa€™s Secreta fidelium crucis, tried to combine the two types into one image. The Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts, with (in the east) the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, are no longer an unrecognizable pattern of shapes that can be identified only by names attached to them; instead they are drawn just as in a normal portolan chart. The map however cannot be considered as a T-O type but akin to the Ptolemaic model of the world, having been rotated 90 degrees.
Northern Europe is show as a densely populated area with many legends of towns and provinces.
The flat-bottomed circular sea enveloped by mountains is named Mare Caspiu [the Caspian Sea]. The unnamed mountain range running between the Black Sea and the arrow-like Caspian Sea can only be the Caucasus Mountain range. To the left of the red inscription Asia there is a vertically standing rectangle resting on the mountain range, bearing the label Archa Noe [Noaha€™s Ark]. To the west of Armenia, south of the Black Sea the region is divided into various strips of land starting at the top with Persida, Asia Minor and followed by Bitia [Bithynia]. Africa occupies most of the southern hemisphere and does bear the basic geographical features such as the Gulf of Guinea and the Cape despite its inaccurate shape. From Rouben Galichiana€™s Countries South of the Caucasus in Medieval Maps: Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan the text surrounding the map provides explanatory comments about various provinces and their features. The map sees the first mention of the name Georgia, though there is a reference to Colchis (or Abkhazia), indicating that the latter may not yet have been entirely annexed with the kingdom of Georgia. The chronicle compiled by the Minorite friar Paulinus dates from about the same time (ca.1320). Besides his world map, the most interesting of the medieval maps of Palestine was also drawn by Vesconte in about 1320. Fine example of this rare portolan map of the World, the earliest surviving printed evidence of Pietro Vescontea€™s world map created circa 1311, generally considered to be one of the earliest surviving examples of a modern map of the world. This mappamundi is, in essence, a portolano of the Mediterranean world combined with work of pre-portolan type in remoter regions. Its basic form also conforms to fundamental medieval conceptions of geography, in that it is oriented with East at the top and shows Jerusalem at the center of the World. The present printed version of the map shown above appeared in Germany in the early 17th century. Vescontea€™s portolan of the eastern Mediterranean (1311), is the oldest known signed and dated map.
Twenty-three surviving examples of Sanudoa€™s manuscript work are known to exist, all of which date from the 14th Century.
Vescontea€™s most important sea chart atlases were produced in 1313, 1318, 1321 and 1322 and are kept in Bibliotheque National de France, Rel. Brincken, Anna-Dorothee van den, a€?Das geographische Weltbild um 1300,a€? in Peter Moraw (ed.), Das geographische Weltbild um 1300.
Vesconte world map, 1320, 35 cm diameter, oriented with East at the topa€?British Library, Additional MS.
This world map is painted using colors fairly typical of the medieval period.A  The oceans, seas and rivers are in green, the saw-tooth mountains in brown, the major cities represented by crowns and castles are in red, and the landmasses are in white. Vesconte world map, 1320, 35 cm diameter, oriented with East at the topBritish Library, Additional MS. With this basis the Muslims combined the accumulated knowledge gained through exploration and travel. As his visitor entered the hall, the king rose, took his hand and led him across the carpeted marble to a place of honor beside the throne. Born in Ceuta, Morocco, across the strait from Spain, al-Idrisi was then in his late 30a€™s.
Roger II, son of a Norman-French soldier of fortune who had conquered Sicily at the beginning of the 12th century, was an anomaly among Christian monarchs of his time. Captured by the Arabs in 831, the island had remained in Muslim control until the end of the 11th century. Four years later, he passed the territory on to his son, Roger, who in 1130 was crowned king as Roger II. His energy was a legenda€”one commentator remarked that Roger accomplished more asleep than other sovereigns did awakea€”and his court boasted a collection of philosophers, mathematicians, doctors, geographers and poets who had no superior in Europea€”and in whose company he spent much of his time. Christian Europea€™s approach to map-making was still symbolic and fanciful, based on tradition and myth rather than scientific investigation, and used to illustrate books of pilgrimage, Biblical exegesis and other works.
He wanted to know the precise conditions of every area under his rule, and of the world outsidea€”its boundaries, climate, roads, the rivers that watered its lands, and the seas that bathed its coasts. Sicilya€™s busy and cosmopolitan ports provided an ideal place for such an inquiry, and for years hardly a ship docked at Palermo, Messina, Catania or Syracuse without its crew and passengers being interrogated about the places they had visited.
This process of collecting and assessing material took 15 years, during which, according to al-Idrisi, hardly a day passed when the king did not confer personally with the geographers, studying accounts that disagreed, examining astronomical coordinates, tables and itineraries, poring over books and weighing divergent opinions. First, under al-Idrisia€™s direction, a working copy was produced on a drawing board, with places sited on the map with compasses, following the tables that had already been prepared.
Although Ptolemy had discussed several kinds of projection (Book I, #119), the problem of flattening out the surface of a sphere so that it could be represented on a flat map would not be solved until the 16th and 17th centuriesa€”the Age of Explorationa€”and none too satisfactorily even then.
Zach states in 1806 that a€?the oldest terrestrial globe that is known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in the 12th century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 pounds of silver.
Below the Equator, an unexplored southern temperate zone was thought to be separated from the familiar northern one by an impassable area of deadly heat. Two are in the BibliothA?que Nationale de France, including the oldest, dated to about 1300 (MS Arabe 2221). From this reconstruction it is evident that, like Ptolemy, al-Idrisi pictured the habitable world as occupying 180 of the 360 degrees of the worlda€™s longitude, from the Atlantic in the West to China in the East, and 64 degrees of its latitude, from the Arctic Ocean to the Equator. Contrasted with the quaint and picturesque, but almost totally uninformative maps of the Christian scholars, the features of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East are easily recognizable in al-Idrisia€™s representationa€”Britain, Ireland, Spain, Italy, the Red Sea and the Nile. He had no doubt met travelers and merchants from Scandinavia at the court of King Roger and received important information from them, but we know that the Arabs too had connections with the Baltic peoples and also those in Russia at that time.
In Russia, winter daylight periods were so short that there was hardly time for Muslim travelers to perform all five obligatory daily prayers. Paris (Abariz) earned a condescending reference as a town of mediocre size, surrounded by vineyards and forests, situated on an island in the Seine, which surrounds it on all sides; however, it is extremely agreeable, strong, and susceptible of defense.
The Strait of Gibraltar, according to Rogera€™s Book, did not exist when Alexander the Greata€”as medieval legend had ita€”invaded Spain. Discovered by Hanno in the fifth century BC, they were explored and colonized in 25 BC by Juba II, erudite king of Mauretania and husband of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. Some sources speak of these islands as if they were legendary, telling us for example that on each of the six islands - there are in fact seven - there was a bronze statue, like the one in CA?diz, warning voyagers to turn back. The mugharrirun were so famous for their exploit that a street in Lisbon was named after them.



A street in Lisbon, near the hot springs, is still known as a€?The Street of the Intrepid Explorersa€?; it is named after them. It is hard to escape the impression that we owe the preservation of this account largely to the folk etymology in the last line. The Azores are named after a kind of goshawk - in Portuguese, aA§or - prevalent there at the time of discovery.
The inhabitants threw stones at the travelers and hurt several of Alexandera€™s companions.
A small fresh-water river runs down from the foot of the mountain, where the inhabitants live. Al-Mustashkin is probably a corruption of al-mushtakin, meaning a€?the complainersa€? - appropriate enough for a population in thrall to a dragon. The Two Brothers could be the two small islands off Lanzarote in the Canaries, Alegranza and Graciosa, or indeed, any two prominent rocks off their coasts. This unnamed island, together with Masfahan, Laghus, The Two Brothers and possibly Sawa, are almost certainly islands in the Canary group. After describing the Canary Islands, Idrisi refers to an island in the Western Sea named Raqa, which is the Isle of the Birds, Djaziratoa€™t-Toyour.
Distinct from the Canary Islands were the Isle of Female Devils, the Isle of Illusion, the Island of Two Sorcerers, and the Isle of Lamentation [Gazirat al-Mustashkin], which was inhabited and fertile, with tilled fields, but controlled by a terrible dragon.
An exchange of ideas and reciprocal influences between the two cultures certainly took place. This work is said to have been even more extensive than his earlier one, but only a few extracts have survived. At the same time, the silver planisphere and celestial sphere disappeared, apparently cut up and melted down. Although the Arabic text of Rogera€™s Book was published in Rome by the Medici press in 1592, it was not again available to Europeans in Latin until the 17th century. Certainly the influence of Idrisia€™s Geography could not have been great in the world of letters or else traces of it would more easily be detected in Western literature.
An explicit reference to Dul-Karnaia€™in (an Arabic name for Alexander, among others) by the gate, leaves no doubt as to Idrisia€™s source. Displays a Ptolemaic construction with an arrangement of horizontal divisions into seven parallel climate zones, originally oriented with South at the top. 2015 was a really interesting year for me… While I didn’t achieve all of the goals I set for myself in January, I had a great year and made some monumental changes to my lifestyle design that will help shape the rest of my life. BMX has been my livelihood since I graduated college 10 years ago, so to change directions now was a really big deal for me.
In 2007 I went on my first international trip, and since then I’ve been trying to travel as much as possible. I needed more personal connections and sincere human interactions, and I needed to be in a relationship with someone I loved.
Well, after spending a few days at the Grand Canyon with my dad last week I came home with a grip of new photos with the same theme so I figured I’d make another gallery. After many months of thinking, learning, planning, and executing, I have launched a podcast that is available on iTunes and Stitcher. The first is a simple introduction, and the others are interviews and conversations with professional BMX riders, a coach, business owners and entrepreneurs, an artist, and an author. However, if I can help inspire or motivate other people to improve their lives in some way, then I’m all for it, so for the first time ever I’m posting my annual goals document. I took out specific dollar amounts because even though I’m trying to be as transparent as possible, the subject of money and personal finance is still  pretty taboo and I don’t want my numbers to be the subject of conversation. It saves my page from getting flooded with pointless galleries, and it serves as an easy reminder of the places I’ve gone throughout the year.
The eggs you buy at the grocery store were never fertile and would never produce baby chicks, so it’s not like you are aborting an unborn chicken. There are many issues that go into this such as cutting off the beaks of baby chicks along with housing and transporting the chickens, but another huge issue with egg-laying hens is their male counterparts. Since beginning my fitness journey I’ve gotten to the point where I work out five to six times per week, and sometimes multiple times per day. To help keep track of what I’ve done throughout the year I always do a little “by the numbers” style year in review, so here’s a bit of what went down in 2013!
After telling people the same thing again and again I decided to write out some basic stuff that I tell everyone before they try CrossFit for the first time. The longer you do CrossFit, the more you’ll understand what you like and don’t like based on your goals and personality, but in the beginning you are looking for a gym that you feel comfortable at and somewhere that makes you feel confident the coaches will help you safely reach your goals. I didn’t know what I was doing and wasn’t strong enough to do what they were trying to get me to do, but I didn’t know any better. Whether it’s learning a new skill like rope climbs or kipping pull ups, adding five or 10 pounds to a specific lift, improving my time on a repeated workout, or just learning how to pace myself better, I can always set small goals and track my progress in the gym.
If there isn’t anyone around my skill level in the class I’m working out with to compare myself to, then I set goals for myself for that day and compete against myself. There’s a good chance you’ll meet new friends by going to CrossFit, but even if you never hang out with anyone outside of the gym, at least you’ll always have supportive, like-minded people working out with you. Sandra Bullock and Keanu Reeves shared an intense experience together that gave them a strong bond. I can appreciate old architecture and ruins, and I have a love for great art, but what really makes me tick is looking at and exploring the things that man could never create. With just a short drive and a quick hike I found myself looking across a valley at one of the most impressive waterfalls I had ever seen. There are countless views along the drive that are each just as spectacular as the last, but the fact that you can drive for hours on end and those views just keep coming is what really makes the drive so special.
However, when I visited Mathers Campground in the summer of 2005 I didn’t have a proper camera with me, so all I have to show from my trip there are a few low-quality scans of photos that were printed at Walmart. So now, besides my after-workout protein drink (I’ll get to that later), I drink 100% water.
I try my best to stay away from anything artificial and from preservatives, and I steer clear of processed substitute foods like mock meat and soy cheese. I only use this after workouts when my body is clearly craving protein for muscle recovery. I haven’t nixed sugar completely, but I’ve probably cut down my intake of added sugars down by about 95%.
It’s a long video, and a lot of what is discussed is very hard to follow, but the point gets across loud and clear.
However, crossfit seemed like something I could really get into, and I was absolutely right. My typical routine includes an hour-long yoga class in the morning and a session at a BMX racetrack in the evening on Tuesdays, some kind of running on Thursdays, and road biking on Saturdays. Most of that will come from clean eating, some of it will come from crossfit and the other cardio workouts I do, and some of it will come from specifically working out my abs. Things I do on a regular basis to keep me active include: riding BMX, snorkeling, various types of hiking, and anything else that comes my way. I really liked a recipe I found online for raw vegan granola bars, but through several attempts I’ve altered the recipe and found a perfect mix that is high in protein, doesn’t contain any added sugar, and taste amazing! There’s a lot more to the story than I was able to cram into a three-minute video, but I’ll spare you the details about breaking into a dormitory to find a bed for the night and missing the bus back into town and get right to the point! Without even setting an intention to do so, I began to educate myself by watching two documentaries that friends recommended—“The Greatest Speech You’ll Ever Hear”, and “Forks Over Knives”. The first was an argument about evolution and how by design humans were never intended to be carnivores. Heart attack, diabetes, and cancer were all directly linked to eating meat and dairy in a number of studies across the world. I was worried that I may miss out on valuable social interactions with my friends when they went out for meals. What I mean by that is when you actually start doing something instead of thinking about it, it all starts to come together and you figure out ways to deal with things—and most of the time it’s much easier than you thought it would be. I had stopped drinking cow’s milk and significantly cut down on eating cheese a while back, but I didn’t try going vegetarian first before committing to going full-on vegan. After I made the conscious decision to make the change, over the next three to four weeks there were a handful of times that I ate pastas, breads, and other random things that were made with milk, eggs, or cheese. I found a great free Web site where a quirky guy named Scooby breaks things down so it’s really easy to understand.
Once you know some basics and are comfortable with experimenting in the kitchen, cutting out meat and dairy isn’t hard at all.
I bought two cookbooks that a friend recommended, but I’ve actually used online recipes more than the cookbooks so far, mainly because the cookbooks don’t have as many photos.
However, I have cooked dishes similar to what I used to make with meat and simply replaced the meat with vegetables.
Once you find a healthy, balanced base of what you like for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, you can stick to those things for a while as you learn, grow, and experiment more. Of course one of the more common reactions is, “I could never do that,” but lots of people have been really encouraging, intrigued, and supportive. It’s not quite as convenient or readily available as it used to be, there’s no question about that, but at least when I do go out to eat, I know the stuff I’m putting in my body is good for me. They both have a lot of great vegetable curry dishes that are amazingly tasty and super filling. When you switch to a plant-based diet you find a new love for food, and since making the switch, I find it really fun to find new vegan-friendly restaurants where I can try new things. When traveling, you can Google vegan restaurants in the area, and more often than not, something will come up.
A lot more often…and a lot of times they stink worse than before, but that’s a small price to pay in my opinion. The commentaries and learned notes (scholia) added to the texts formed the basis of further alterations to the maps.
They became an essential part of the collections in monastic libraries, in whose catalogues we commonly find, from the ninth century onward, at least one such independent map. A A copy was also offered to the King of France, to whom Sanuto desired to commit the military and political leadership of the new crusade. On this copy he even drew rosettes, which are standard feature in the portolan sea charts but are scarcely used outside the sea chart tradition. The maps were in fact long thought to be the work of Marino Sanuto [also spelled a€?Sanudoa€?] himself.
Notwithstanding its raison da€™etre (urging the European rulers to organize a new crusade) it stands bereft of any religious content.
Norwegia is a peninsula and Anglia, Scotia and Hybernia are shown as islands in the North Sea. Situated between this and the Black Sea [Mare Pontos] there is another arrow-like lake, which bears the legend a€?marea€? only. At its intersection with the second mountain range the vignette of a large gate reads Porte Forree [Iron Gates, the name given to the Caspian Gates by the Persians, Turks, Armenians and others]. The eastern end of this mountain range is called Montes Caspii [Caspian Mountains] while towards its western extremity it is identified as Taurisius or Taurus mountain range.
Calcedonia, Licaonia, Galatia, Lidia and Frigia minor [Phrygia], Cilicia lies to the south of this region, over the mountains and between the two vignettes of castles.
The Nile River has its source in unspecified mountains and flows northwards to the Mediterranean flowing through Egyprus, past numerous castellated towns located on its shores. At the top right of the map, lines two to five and twelve to fourteen from the top describe the peoples, features and location of Armenia.
It too contains a world map and a map of Palestine, which closely resemble the work of Pietro Vesconte.
Vescontea€™s map, in its earliest form, survives in a 14th century manuscript work by Marino Sanudo, which was reproduced for the first time in print in Johann Bongarsa€™ Orientalium expeditionum historia. A The ocean surrounds the known landmasses of the world, while the outer parts are largely conjectural.
A Notably, this map, along with Vescontea€™s other work, features the first broadly accurate conceptions of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. A It was produced as part of the greater intellectual movement that flourished in Europe, and in Germany in particular, roughly from 1450 to 1650, during which scholars, heavily influenced by the enlightened ethic of Humanism, sought to acquire, preserve and learn from the most progressive elements of Classical and Medieval thought.
As evident on the present map, Vesconte was the first mapmaker to accurately maps the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and his depiction of Great Britain was a marked improvement over his predecessors.
Almost at once the two men began to discuss the project for which the scholar had been asked to come from North Africa: the creation of the first accuratea€”and scientifica€”map of the entire known world.
After studying in Cordoba, in Muslim Spain, he had spent some years in travel, covering the length of the Mediterranean, from Lisbon to Damascus.
His co-religionists, commenting on his oriental life-style, complete with harem and eunuchs, disparagingly referred to him as the a€?half-heathen kinga€? and a€?the baptized Sultan of Sicily.a€? Educated by Greek and Arab tutors, he was an intellectual with a taste for scientific inquiry, and relished the company of Muslim scholars, of whom al-Idrisi was one of the most celebrated.
Like Muslim Spain, it was a beacon of prosperity to a Europe caught in the economic slow-down we call the Dark Ages.
In mathematics, as in the political sphere, al-Idrisi wrote of his patron, the extent of his learning cannot be described. Picturesque and colorful, European maps showed a circular earth composed of three continents equal in sizea€”Asia, Africa and Europea€”separated by narrow bands of water.
While medieval Europe had become fragmented and parochial, both politically and commercially, the Muslim world was unified by a flourishing long-distance commerce as well as by religion and culture. The commissiona€™s agents haunted the ports, and if they discovered a traveler who had visited any particularly exotic region, he was conducted to the palace at Palermo to be questioned by al-Idrisi or even by Roger. Then a great disk almost 80 inches in diameter and weighing over 300 pounds was fabricated out of silver, chosen for its malleability and permanence. The great geographer Gerardus Mercator commented, If you wish to sail from one port to another, here is a chart .
A knowledge of this globe would not have come down to our day had not Idrisi, a famous geographer of that time, given an especial description of the same, under the title Nothatol mostak [Pleasure of the Soul].a€? According to other scholars it is more probable that the reference here is to a circular disc or planisphere made by Idrisi, or an armillary sphere, but not to a terrestrial globe.
Following the rough sketch prepared by al-Idrisi, the silversmiths transferred the outlines of countries, oceans, rivers, gulfs, peninsulas and islands to the planisphere. The planisphere showed the sources of the Nilea€”not explored by Europeans until the 19th century, but evidently known to 12th century Muslim travelersa€”and the cities of central Sudan.
Al-Idrisi described the lost city of Ghana (near Timbuktu, on the Niger) as the most considerable, the most densely peopled, and the largest trading center of the Negro countries.
Few cities are comparable in the solidity and height of buildings, the beauty of the surrounding country, and the fertility of the lands watered by the Tagus. The Norwegians had to harvest their grain when it was still green and dry it at their hearths since the sun shines very rarely upon them.
Because the inhabitants of Africa and Europe waged continual warfare, Alexander decided to separate them by a canal, which he cut between Tangier and al-Andalus (southern Spain).
A passionate art collector, Juba was also interested in science and technology, inventing a new method of making purple dye from the orchil plant - and the export of orchil from the Atlantic islands was of economic importance until early this century. But al-Idrisi tells of an attempted expedition to the Canaries in the late 12th century, during the reign of the Almoravid amir Yusuf ibn Tashafin. This is probably Tenerife, and the round mountain would be the 3,600-meter-high (12,000-foot) volcano called Pico de Teide. Eighty men, all ordinary people, got together and built a large ship and stocked it with enough food and water for several months.
The sheep are a problem, for the Azores were uninhabited when settled in the 15th century, and even if we slightly stretch the meaning of the word ghanam, which can also mean a€?goats,a€? we are still left with the problem of the origin of the creatures.
There are many rivers and pools, and thickets where donkeys and long-horned cattle take refuge. There used to be a dragon in the area, and the people were forced to feed it with bulls, donkeys or even humans, according to the legend; when Alexander arrived, the people complained to him of the dragona€™s depredations. Al-Sa€™ali is a word that refers to a kind of female demon or vampire; judging by al-Idrisia€™s description of the female inhabitants of the island, it is apt.
This story of Alexander and the dragon echoes the Eleventh Labor of Hercules, the Golden Apples of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon. It could be argued that the first six islands, spread over three entire climate zones between the equator and the Strait of Gibraltar, represent the six known Canary Islands, forced into this north-south alignment by the physical constraints of the circular map with its narrow band of the Surrounding Ocean.
The first two islands are the Canary Islands, properly shown in the first climate zone and carried forward from Ptolemya€™s map as the Fortunate Islands or Islands of the Blest. This story may be a borrowing from Greek mythology, where a dragon guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides.
In the 1400a€™s, therefore, Christopher Columbus had to rely on other sources of information.
Unlike a multitude of Arabic writings of far less intrinsic value, the Rogerian Description found no Gerard of Cremona (translator of Ptolemy into Latin) to put it into Latin, and the authoritative geographical knowledge of the Western world was destined to develop unenriched by the treasures which Roger and Idrisi together had amassed. Gog and Magog appeared on Arabian maps as Yajoj wa Majoj from the 10th century; they appear on Al-Idrisia€™s map of 1154 under the same names. The climate numbers are given along the vertical axis, and the ten longitudinal divisions are given across the top. The text was accompanied by 71 part maps, a world map and 70 sectional itinerary maps, representing the seven climates each divided longitudinally into 10 sections. In that time I’ve been to 35 countries and have thousands of incredible memories, experiences, and adventures..
I stared by getting a dog…I figured that was easier and cheaper than finding a girlfriend, so in January I got an incredible Yorkie named Hercules.
I’ve also gone from working more than 320 days a year at a full time job to to working only 120 days a year for myself while doubling my income. I believe that if you want a certain type of life you can write it out, set goals, and ultimately build that life for yourself. I really identified with the film’s approach to eating, and I like the fact that they refer to a “whole foods, plant-based diet” as opposed to throwing around the term “vegan” everywhere. When factory farms hatch baby chickens, if the chicks are male (meaning they won’t produce eggs for the farm), they often get thrown into grinders and are killed just after hatching.
However, my HDL (the “good cholesterol”) was low, which I later found out runs in my family as my father also has low HDL. I have personal goals with my strength and fitness that have been proving difficult to reach on a strictly plant-based diet, mainly when it comes to putting on healthy weight from lean muscle mass.
After my visit to the farm I was convinced as much as I could be that the eggs were as ethical as I could possibly get, so I decided to buy some (For $8 a dozen—eating healthy and ethically is expensive!).
The important thing to me is that I’m doing everything I can to ensure my body is healthy, my personal goals are being met, and my mind is at ease knowing that I’m doing what I feel is morally right when it comes to the food I put into my body. I know you can Google stuff about CrossFit, but I think it helps people to hear things from someone they know. On the flip side, in a CrossFit gym you’ll do a barbell lift called a thruster where you squat, pick up a barbell, raise it to your chest, then thrust it over your head. If I had never gone to another gym, I would have signed up for a membership at that place and would have probably gotten hurt or burnt out pretty quickly and never went back. Everyone starts off with their own strengths and weaknesses, and there are people of all ages, shapes, and sizes at every CrossFit gym. I used to mix in running and road bike riding with my CrossFit workouts, but now even those activities seem boring to me because CrossFit is so exciting and stimulating.
I’ve been training for about nine months now, and I hit a new milestone almost every time I walk into the gym. All CrossFit workouts are ranked, timed, or scored in some way or another, so every day is like a friendly mini competition that keeps things exciting and fun. However, once you got close to them, their majestic qualities revealed themselves and the formations came to life.
Purlingbrook Falls is some 350ft tall, and due to the recent heavy rainfall it had a pretty powerful flow when I was there. Nonetheless, the Grand Canyon still remains one of the most incredible and mind-boggling things I’ve ever laid eyes on. This is not meant to be a guide of how I think you should structure you own personal fitness plans. The idea of a schedule and a fitness plan always sounded like something I would like, but just wasn’t possible with the amount of time and energy I was putting into my travels.
For my shakes I blend together 8oz of water, ? cup hemp protein, a large spoonful of peanut butter (with no added sugar or oil), and a frozen banana. I joined a gym near my house called Crossfit Long Beach that I go to three times a week (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, unless traveling conflicts). Since I started crossfit, it’s become boring for me to simply run four to six miles like I used to for my cardio. Once or twice a week I use an insanely difficult P90X YouTube video called “Ab Ripper X” to help guide me through an abdominal workout from hell.
When I see a big pile of boulders or a giant rock with a picturesque background my natural instinct is to climb and jump around like a mountain goat.
Tag me in your photos on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook so I can check out what you came up with!
Again, I’ve opted for dried fruit without any added ingredients such as sweeteners or preservatives. This will not only help explain my personal choices, but more importantly it will help educate, motivate, and inspire others so they can make their own choices too.
The second was some behind the scenes footage of the meat and dairy industry that showed cows being punched in the face and poked with pitchforks.
On the other hand, the studies based on plant-based diets all showed the exact opposite—people got healthier, and lived longer.
I was also concerned that it may be difficult to find suitable foods when I went to Louisiana and ate with my family. When you think about something or try to plan ahead for it, you often stress about it and make it out to be worse than it actually is.
Sometimes I knew they were and ate them anyway, and other times I just assumed they were, but didn’t really know for sure. Since going vegan I have gained an appreciation for learning to cook new things, and I find that taking time to prepare meals is fun and relaxing. There were a couple dishes I ate at restaurants that I Googled and learned to make on my own, and there were a couple more things that I saw people post on Instagram, so I looked those up online and found a recipe too. And what really surprised me is that once I started telling people, it seemed that a lot more people than I realized were either vegetarian or vegan, or were considering moving to one or the other. This is common for anyone under certain conditions when blood flow is limited to an area, but it happened to me nearly every time I stood up from any position.
He was a Genoese cartographer and one of the earliest creators of portolan [nautical] charts. This is large propaganda volume, was written on vellum and includes many miniatures and vignettes of the Crusaders and their battles with the Saracens. The region of the Mediterranean, whose accurate portolan charts already existed, is depicted in true detail but the rest of the world is shown in very approximate form and shape. Later, however, a copy of the Liber secretorum was discovered with the signature of Pietro Vesconte and the date 1320, and he is now considered the author of the maps in place of Sanuto, who was not known as a cartographer. While much of his production is conventional, his world map for Sanudoa€™s crusader manuscript departs dramatically from earlier examples, seeking to combine the mathematical system and new land-shapes of the portolan charts with the contained, circular, Jerusalem-centered format of most mappaemundi. On this map we do not see mythical and Biblical creatures or other Christian features such as the Earthly Paradise or the rivers of Paradise and here, for the first time in medieval world maps the Red Sea is not colored red and does not standout. This should in fact be the Caspian Sea, since to its south the legends read Caspia and Yrcania, two provinces located south of the Caspian Sea.
For the first time in medieval western maps this passage, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been shown in as correct position, namely on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Two lines further down there is a description regarding Georgia beginning with: Kingdom of Georgia has a large white mountain at its east, and to its south lies Armenia. Some differences in detail occur; for example, though both the Vatican copy and the Paris copy have two Caspian Seas, in the Vatican copy they are the same shape, while in the Paris copy the western Caspian corresponds to the later form of the Catalan maps. 1450): it illustrated a book by Marino Sanuto that urged a new crusade to re-conquer the Holy Land, now entirely lost to the Christians.
A True to the medieval conception of the world, the landmasses are about equally balanced between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
A These scholars sought to go ad fontes, or a€?to the original sourcea€™ of the knowledge, or as close to it as possible. Vescontea€?s world maps were circular in format and oriented with East to the top, although most of the fabulous elements so common to early world maps have been omitted, Prester John, the mythical Christian king occasionally located in Ethiopia, does manage to appear on Vescontea€™s map and has been a€?re-locateda€? to India.
As a young man with poetic pretensions he had written student verse celebrating wine and good company, but in the course of his journeys he had discovered his real passion: geography.
The occupying Arabs had built dams, irrigation systems, reservoirs and water towers, introduced new cropsa€”oranges and lemons, cotton, date palms, ricea€”and exploited the islanda€™s mines and fishing grounds. Nor is there any limit to his knowledge of the sciences, so deeply and wisely has he studied them in every particular. The Garden of Eden and Paradise were at the top and Jerusalem at the center, while fabulous monsters occupied the unexplored regionsa€”Sirens, dragons, men with dogsa€™ heads, men with feet shaped like umbrellas with which they protected themselves from the sun while lying down (see #205, #207, #224, #226).
The mission he entrusted to al-Idrisi was intellectually Herculean: to collect and evaluate all available geographical knowledgea€”from books and from on-the-spot observersa€”and to organize it into an accurate and meaningful representation of the world. Muslim merchants, pilgrims and officials used so-called a€?road booksa€?, itineraries that described routes, traveling conditions and cities along the way. What was the climate of the country, its rivers and lakes, mountains, coastal configurations and soil?


All creatures are stable on the surface of the earth, the air attracting what is light, the earth what is heavy, as the magnet attracts iron. The mathematician al-Khwarizmi reduced Ptolemya€™s estimate of the length of the Mediterranean Sea from 62 to 52 degrees; the Spanish Muslim astronomer al-Zarqali further adjusted the figure to the correct 42 degrees. Roger II of Sicily had his world map drawn on a six-foot diameter circle of silver weighing about 450 pounds. The Baltic area and Poland were represented much more precisely than on Ptolemya€™s maps, showing the fruit of the geographersa€™ investigations. In the fourth section of the first climate, al-Idrisi located the sources of the Nile in their approximately correct position, though he pictured the Nile of the Negroes as joining the Egyptian Nile at that point. The gardens of Toledo are laced with canals on which are erected water wheels used in irrigating the orchards, which produce in prodigious quantity fruits of inexpressible beauty and quality. Juba populated the Canaries with Berber-speaking colonists, perhaps the ancestors of the Guanches. The admiral in charge of the expedition died just as it was about to set out, so the venture came to nothing. Then they set sail with the first gentle easterly and sailed for about eleven daya€™s, until they came to a sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light. The a€?sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little lighta€? can probably be ignored, for the passage is influenced by the a€?land of darknessa€? thought to exist in the farthest West, and the reefs may echo a passage in Platoa€™s Timeus which speaks of the shallows in the Atlantic marking the site where Atlantis sank. No large mammals are indigenous to the Azores, and sheep or goats could only have been brought to the island by previous mariners.
In the Arabic-speaking world, popular legend transferred a number of the heroic deeds of Hercules to Alexander - including the building of a land bridge across the Pillars of Hercules. The wood is deep black, and merchants come to the island to harvest it and then sell it to the kings of the farthest West.
The same linear arrangement of islands appears on 14th century maps such as the 1351Laurentian portolano (Book III, #233), and, a full century later, on the Bartolomeo Pareto map (1455), since it was still impossible to determine longitude. The sixth island, shown opposite the entrance to the Mediterranean, would be al-Ghanam [Island of Sheep], Madeira.
I think that Babcock comes close, but, rather than the cormorant, the bird referred to is the goshawk [Afar], a species of hawk that closely resembles an eagle and abounds in the Azores, and from which the entire archipelago gets its name. On the Island of Two Heathen Brothers, two pirates lived until they were turned into rocks, and the inhabitants of the Island of Kalhan had the bodies of men and the heads of animals.
Using a globe prepared by a German cartographer named Martin Behaim (Book III, #258), based on Ptolemya€™s miscalculations, Columbus also added in Marco Poloa€™s equally misleading estimates of distances and concluded, incorrectly, that by sailing west from Spain he could reach Japan or India after no more than a 4,000 mile voyage. The consecutive numbers sometimes used to refer to the sectional maps are shown in the upper right corner of each section.
I’ve done a lot, and to honest I just decided that I had done enough for now and I was ready for a change.
Luckily for me it wasn’t too long after that when I found the woman of my dreams and the void was filled. It’s also a way for me to do something fun and creative while delivering free content to the world that will hopefully help to motivate and inspire other people.
If I am faced with a difficult decision I can look at this outline and see if my actions will help move me closer to my ideal life.
Also, I’ve taken out the specifics about a business I’m going to start because…well, business is business, haha!
Also, if you think I’m missing something or leaving anything out, I’d want to hear that too! With this said, I do typically refer to myself as “vegan”, but only because makes it a lot easier and quicker to explain my lifestyle to other people. I’m currently eating two to four eggs per day (strictly those eggs I personally get from my local farm) and will monitor how things go, then in a few months I will go back to the doctor to get my levels checked again to see if the eggs have affected my cholesterol in any way, and of course I’ll be paying close attention to my muscle and weight gain during this time.
I’m not a coach or trainer, and I’m not even that good at CrossFit, but this is my personal experience and advice after doing CrossFit for about nine months and traveling to a dozen or so different gyms all around the world. This is the same kind of movement you’d do if you were lifting a heavy box and putting it on a high shelf, or putting your suitcase into the overhead compartment on an airplane. For example, you might do a few sets of squats with a barbell on your back and a few sets of bench presses after your warm up. If a workout calls for a bunch of pull ups and you can’t do a single one, then there are rubber bands you can use to help you do pull ups.
Even small advances are enough to keep me excited and motivated, and once I reach a goal it opens the doors for more. Once you’ve done an intense WOD with a group of people, it somehow manages to bring you all together in a weird way, and it’s a really cool experience. I’ve also heard people say that CrossFit is one of the fastest ways to reach a “runner’s high”. Sitting in the small watercraft, I felt so tiny and insignificant, making the experience really humbling. Seeing it from across the valley was great, but the real stand out moment came when I got to see the falls from right on top of them at a viewing platform, then again when I hopped a few guardrails and walked through the stream and stood at the edge while looking out over the valley. However, instead of infinite waves in the ocean, the lake is calm and flat with beautiful mountains surrounding it on all sides.
When I was standing at the edge of the South Rim I remember feeling like even though I was there, and even though I was seeing it with my own eyes, I could never comprehend what I was looking at. However, I recently found myself a little burnt out on traveling and I’m staying at home a lot more often, so I’ve been able to shift my focus towards my health and fitness…and I love it! The alcohol and sodas are pretty self-explanatory, but some people get curious when they hear that I don’t drink any kind of milk or juice. The shakes are very easy to make, taste great, and are exactly what I need to help recover from a workout. Crossfit is an extremely intense muscle and cardio workout that changes every day, so it never gets boring. Even though I never get through the entire routine, the parts that I do complete are well worth the effort.
I can appreciate lazy days at home, and I love a good afternoon nap, but most of the time I’m on the go and doing something active. After traveling to Australia and New Zealand last month I realized that over the years I’ve accumulated quite a few photos from around the world of me standing on rocks, so I pulled together my favorite 14 and put them in this gallery! These two things hooked me enough to make me really start paying attention and thinking about veganism more seriously. Also, seafood is such an important part of the Louisiana culture that I almost felt a little sad thinking that I’d never eat crawfish, crabs, and shrimp again. So even though I was nervous and worried about a few things when I decided to go vegan, after only two months in, those things are no longer an issue. Then there were a few separate occasions when I caved in and bought sweets—ice cream, chocolate pie, and a cookie.
If you can’t enjoy the act of preparing food, then I would imagine you’d have a pretty hard time going vegan.
When you want to know something, including how to cook a good vegan meal, Google is your best friend!
Also, the more educated you are, and the stronger your reasons are for being vegan, the more you can explain it to people and help them see your point of view.
Also, there’s a Web site and an iPhone app called Happy Cow that is pretty helpful as well.
He operated primarily out of Venice, and greatly influenced Italian and Catalan mapmaking throughout the 14th and 15th centuries. One of the paintings on folio 7r is that of the Crusader forces meeting King Leo of Armenia (Cilician Armenia) and the prisoners of the Armenian king. As mentioned above, Sanutoa€™s work was written to induce the kings of Europe to undertake another crusade against the Turks, and so the following maps accompanied it: a world map, maps of the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, the western coast of Europe and Palestine, plans of Jerusalem, and Ptolemais [Acre and Antioch]. In this map, the influence of the portolan charts can be seen at a glance: in contrast with the amorphous forms of Asia and southern Africa (familiar in many other medieval mappaemundi), the Mediterranean world is instantly recognizable and proportionate, clearly copied directly from the outlines of a portolan chart. In fact the map has rather more Islamic religious content, such as in Arabia, the Islamic religious centers of Mecca [Mecha] and Baghdad [Baldac], all shown red.
The river Tanay [Tanais = Don] is shown flowing from a northern mountain range into the Sea of Azov. It follows that the true identity of the flat-bottomed sea above should have been the Sea of Aral, situated in western central Asia, with Bactria shown on its shores. In southwest Asia the following toponyms stand out Arabia (red), Mecha [Mecca red], Baldac [Baghdad. Cartographically, however, it was far more sophisticated than Hardinga€™s map, though more than a century older. A The Arabian peninsula, Black Sea and Caspian Sea are in a recognizable form, and the name Georgia appears above the Caucus Mountains. A As is the case with the antecedent of the present map, most of these sources existed only in manuscript form, available in a single or with very few examples. He is responsible for singular innovations and for marvelous inventions, such as no prince has ever before realized. His purpose was partly practical, but mostly scientific: to produce a work that would sum up all the contemporary knowledge of the physical world. Other Muslim scholars, like the Iraqi astronomer al-Battani and the Persian al-Biruni (#214.3), composed tables giving the latitudes of leading cities. The works of Al-Idrisi include Nozhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq - a compendium of the geographic and sociological knowledge of his time as well as descriptions of his own travels illustrated with over seventy maps; Kharitat al-`alam al-ma`mour min al-ard [Map of the inhabited regions of the earth] wherein he divided the world into seven regions, the first extending from the equator to 23 degrees latitude, and the seventh being from 54 to 63 degrees followed by a region uninhabitable due to cold and snow. The British Isles also were treated with a surprising insight, probably due to contacts between Norman England and Norman Sicily.
It is a considerable island, whose shape is that of the head of an ostrich, and where there are flourishing towns, high mountains, great rivers and plains. Gradually, knowledge of the location of the Canaries was lost, even though Lanzarote, the island nearest the North African coast, lies less than 100 kilometers [60 miles] west of the mainland. Al-ldrisi says the admirala€™s curiosity was aroused by smoke rising from the sea in the west, probably the result of volcanic activity.
Neither name is Arabic, nor do they appear to be transcriptions of Greek, Latin or Romance - but the fact that these two islands had names at all means mariners must have visited them, and the names are either native designations or hark back to some lost, perhaps oral, source. They were sure they were about to perish, so they changed course to the south and sailed for twelve days, until they came to Sheep Island, There were so many sheep it was impossible to count them, and they ranged freely, with no one to watch them.
The Azores lie almost 1,300 kilometers (about 800 miles) west of the coast of Portugal - one-third of the way to America.
Some Greek mythographers thought the Islands of the Hesperides lay off the coast of North Africa, and we have already seen how al-Idrisi associates Alexander with two of the Atlantic islands. The island is said to have been inhabited in the past, but it fell to ruin and serpents infested the land. Al-Sua€™ali and al-Mustashkin both sound completely legendary, but there is nothing legendary about Hasran and Qalhan, which sound as if they might belong together.
During the period of rediscovery of the Azores under Prince Henry the Navigator, these birds were supposedly responsible for guiding the sailors to these distant islands. According to one historian, friendly relations were established between the Sultan of Spain and the invaders. My life feels so different in so many ways than it did a year ago and I can’t wait to see what the future holds for us. Perhaps most importantly though, in those seven years I’ve learned a ton about myself and have grown tremendously, becoming a better version of myself every year. I don’t think I have all the right answers, so if anyone reading this can help me improve myself, I’m all ears.
Both times my doctor recommended I eat eggs or other animal products to help raise my cholesterol. If that’s still too difficult for you, then no worries, you can do something called ring rows. As an adult who is self-employed, going to a CrossFit gym is a key component to my social life, which I think is an important part of an overall healthy lifestyle.
The contrast of the beautiful, calm, and vast water against the lively rock caves, shelves, and stalactites will forever be burned into my memory as one of the best things my eyes have ever seen. Along the drive you can stop at lookout overview points high above the lake, then minutes later you can stop again at sea level and walk right up the rocky beach to the glass-like shoreline. Well, milk and juice have calories and sugar and I’d simply rather eat those calories and sugar instead of drinking them. I could (and often would) eat sugary foods all day and all night, and pounding down six Krisy Kreme doughnuts in a single sitting was not uncommon. By going to a gym and having a coach lead each class I learn something new every day, and I always have someone helping to make sure I’m doing things correctly.
There were also two times that I ate meat because my friends wanted me to try their local Australian specialties—meat pies and kangaroo. I’ve already helped several people see the benefits of a plant-based diet, and have seen them make changes in their diets and lives.
Some consider him as the first professional cartographer to sign and date his works regularly. The king himself is shown surrounded by symbols of various rulers neighboring Cilicia, namely the Lion in the north (Mongols), the Wolf in the west (the Turks), the Serpent in the south and the Leopard in the east. Even more striking is the network of lines that are drawn in a sixteen-point wind-rose that encircles the whole earth. For the first time in western medieval cartography, the region of Georgia appears entitled as such. These differences of detail between the maps in contemporaneous manuscripts of Marino Sanuto and Paulinus can only be explained by assuming that two scribes copied Vescontea€™s map, adding to it from different sources. The ocean surrounds the whole of the known world, the outer parts of which are represented by conjecture.
A SomeA idea is also shown of the great continental rivers of the north, such as the Don, Volga, Vistula, Oxus and Syr Daria. A The great achievement of this period was to preserve and liberate this knowledge through the printing press. Others belonged to a later tradition of systematic geography, like the 10th century scholars Ibn Hawqal (#213) and al-Masa€™udi (#212), who produced books intended as something more than practical guides for the tax collector or the postman: as additions to the fund of human knowledge. An element of subjectivity entered into the fact that southern Italy was represented as larger than the north, and that Sicily occupied a substantial part of the Western Mediterranean, in contrast to Sardinia and Corsica, which shrank in scale.
This country is most fertile; its inhabitants are brave, active and enterprising, but all is in the grip of perpetual winter.
The Greeks called the Canary Islands TA?n MakarA?n NA“soi [The Islands of the Blessed], and they were regarded as the furthest known land to the west.
In another passage al-Idrisi gives more details of this island - incidentally showing that a longer account of the voyage of the mugharrirun must have existed. In the 19th century, Carthaginian coins were found on the most westerly of the islands, Corvo - 31A° west longitude - and although the find has been questioned, the origin of the coins has never been satisfactorily explained. But if the word is Arabic, one would expect it to be preceded by the definite article a€?ala€?. Since the only inhabited islands in the western Atlantic just before the coming of the Europeans were the Canaries, Hasran may belong to that groupa€”unless, of course, it is to be sought in the Caribbean! If the isle of Raqa is indeed one of the Azores, then the discovery of these islands occurred as early as the 10th century.
While some of the CrossFit workouts will be repeated every so often, this is only to track and measure your progress.
Don’t let your own preconceived notions of what your skill level is get in the way of trying CrossFit. This is one place I’m really looking forward to going back to and photographing some day…Anyone up for camping? Partly because I just love to eat so much, but also in part because eating 100 calories of fruit is healthier than drinking 100 calories of fruit juice (dietary fiber and nutrients are stripped away when you only drink the juice of the fruit). I slowly but surely began to work on my self-control issues when it came to sweets and even did research on things I could do to help curb my urges.
When I’m traveling, I do my best to stay motivated and make time for a run or a crossfit workout I can do in the hotel room. I think this was more or less my body’s way of cleaning itself and readjusting to the new diet. He uses an exact copy of one of the rhumb-line networks that covered half of a portolan chart to grid the space of the entire world, rather than just one part as in the portolan charts. The region of Albania, which should have been near Georgia, is shifted to the upper left corner of the map, near the surrounding ocean, which is outside the area cowered by the detail map.
The rivers and mountains were drawn in with less precision and they differ somewhat in the seven surviving copies of the book.
The authorship of Marino Sanudo is not definitively established and the original manuscript map has also been attributed to Pietro Vesconte.
A The portolan tradition was perhaps the most technically advanced element of medieval geography, and early modern scholars held it in high esteem. In addition, scientific expeditions were dispatched to areas on which information was lacking. Contrary to a still popular misconception that up to the time of Columbus everyone believed the world was flat, many scholars and astronomers since at least the fifth century B.C.
Not surprisingly, the best part of both map and text, accurate and detailed, dealt with Sicily itself. It forms an island 300 miles long by 150 miles wide: this is surrounded by the Nile on all sides and at all seasons .
Al-Idrisi gave the names of many English towns, principally ports, with the distances between them. They caught some of the sheep and slaughtered them, but the flesh was so bitter they could not eat it. He says Sheep Island is large, shrouded in shadows, and filled with small sheep whose flesh is bitter and inedible. Corvo is marked on the Canterino map of 1351, where the name occurs as Corvini - considerably before its official discovery. All I know is that I really love CrossFit and think it’s doing great things for my body and mind.
Also, drinking water is important in any diet for digestion, hydration, and burning fat, so drinking only water means that I always get plenty of it throughout the day.
Nowadays I allow myself to splurge on one or two small things every week like a small cup of vegan sorbet, but sometimes I go two weeks without any splurges.
The grid, however, no longer holds any indexical significance outside of the small corner of the map that has been drawn from the portolan charts. This may seem to us an entirely normal and rational way to set out a map, but in the 14th century it represented an enormous conceptual leap, and confirms that Vesconte was a man of skill and imagination. Draftsmen and cartographers accompanied these expeditions so that a visual record of the country could be made. The greater part of the country is only habitable on the borders of the Nile for the rest of the country . Hastings was a considerable town, densely populated, with many buildings, markets, much industry and commerce; Dover, to the east, was an equally important town not far from the mouth of the river of London, the broad and swiftly flowing Thames.
In 1402 the Normans partially conquered them, meeting stiff resistance from the indigenous Guanches.
They took some sheepskins and sailed on to the south for another twelve days until they sighted an island. Nearby is another island, called Raqa, which is the home of a red bird the size of an eagle, which catches fish in its claws and never flies far from the island.
Certain adventures of Sinbad the Sailor, from Tales of the Arabian Nights, are almost identical to those of Saint Brendan.
The high intensity part is pretty-self explanatory, but keep in mind that you regulate yourself, so it’ll only be as intense as you make it.
The coaches will go over the workouts and explain everything to show you exactly how it is done so you can do it safely.
Refined sugars like high fructose corn syrup are on the far end of the spectrum of what I stay away from, so when I do eat sweets I try to make sure they are made with pure sweeteners like raw cane sugar.
His work falls within the period 1310-30; the name a€?Perrino Vescontea€™, which appears on one atlas and one chart, may be his own, using a diminutive form, or that of another member of his family.
The rest is a strange hybrid that would have provided little navigational assistance to any traveler.
Where he (or Sanuto) got the necessary information, the list locating the towns, we do not know; both this and the grid may derive from Arab sources, and a more remote connection with grid-based maps in China is not impossible. A While the present printed edition of the map is uncommon, it is nevertheless responsible for creating and maintaining the scholarly awareness of this important map throughout Europe and beyond. You may get there sooner or you may not get there as soon as you expected, but you will certainly get there. In the mid-15th century, the Spanish took control of the Canaries and continued the conquest.
The settlers quickly burned down all the forests, so it is now hard to know for certain, but some sort of scented wood may have once grown there.
But whether the Irish borrowed these myths from the Arabs, or vice versa, or if they both obtained them from an earlier common source is a matter of conjecture.
If something is too difficult for you, there will always be a way to scale it back so you can still do the workout.
Vesconte was one of the few people in Europe before 1400 to see the potential of cartography and to apply its techniques with imagination. The rhumb lines claim for this new map a kind of symbolic empirical authority, when in actuality the points on the rhumb-circle do little more than indicate the positions of the winds (much like the circular wind-faces depicted along the edges of the world in a work like the Psalter map, #223 Book II).
Al-Idrisia€™s silver disk, or planisphere, was a form of projection considerably in advance of others of its time. Fighting was still going on when Columbus used the islands as the first stop on all four of his voyages to the Caribbean.
They headed toward it in order to explore and when they were not far offshore, they suddenly found themselves surrounded by boats, which forced their ship to land beside a city on the shore.
A king of the Franks heard of this, al-Idrisi adds, and sent a ship to the island to bring him that fruit and some of the birds, but the ship was lost and never returned. Unsweetened, unsulfated dried figs, apricots, and mangos are my saviors when it comes to helping me stay away from sweets. As can be seen in the world maps he drew around 1320 he introduced a heretofore unseen accuracy in the outline of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean and Black Sea, probably because they were taken from the portolan [nautical] charts.
What the map actually shows varies little from a traditional mappamundi; what has changed is its implied claim to be modern and accurate in a different sense. The Guanches were not finally subdued until the end of the 16th century, when they and their language virtually disappeared. They saw the men who lived there; they were light-complexioned, with very little facial hair. My homemade vegan granola bars and raw energy balls are also high on my list of sweets replacements. We may suspect that his influence lay behind the maps of Italy in the Great Chronology by Paolino Veneto during the years of 1306 to 1321 that was copied at Naples not long after, for other maps in the same manuscript are related to maps from Vescontea€™s workshop that illustrate Marino Sanudoa€™s book calling for a new crusade.
Vescontea€™s map offers a glimpse of the currency that empirical geometry carried at this transitional moment. And in the ninth century, 70 Muslim scholars, working under the patronage of Caliph al-Maa€™mun, gathered in the Syrian Desert to determine the length of a degree of latitude. There are arid wastes where one must walk two, four, five, or twelve days before finding water . From the few words of Guanche preserved in the Spanish chronicles, we know they spoke a form of Berber, and were therefore probably descended from Jubaa€™s colonists. Vesconte clearly saw in the geometry of the portolan charts an iconic, modern power that could be combined with the forms of a traditional world map to create a new kind of picture.
Rather than rely on travelersa€™ guesses of distance, as previous astronomers had done, they used wooden rods to measure the road they traveled until they saw a change of one degree in the elevation of the polestar. Yet when Europeans encountered them, they had no memory of the mainland; having no boats, they were unaware that the other islands in the group were inhabited. Their calculation resulted in a figure for the eartha€™s circumference equivalent to 22,422 miles, an error of 3.6 percent, almost as accurate as Eratosthenesa€™ estimate and a considerable improvement over Ptolemya€™s. A He is best known for his lifelong attempts to revive the crusading spirit and movement.A  He wrote his great work is entitled Liber secretorem fidelum Crucis, sive de Recuperatio Terrae Sancta [Secret book of the loyalty to the Cross or the Recapture of the Holy Lands], also called Historia Hierosolymitana, Liber de expeditione Terrae Sanctae, and Opus Terrae Sanctae, the last being perhaps the proper title of the whole treatise as completed in three parts or a€?booksa€?.
On the fourth day a man who spoke Arabic entered and asked them who they were and where they were going and what was the name of their country. They told him everything and he said not to worry, and that he was the kinga€™s interpreter. The next day they were taken into the kinga€™s presence and he asked the same questions they had been asked by the interpreter. They told him what they had told the interpreter the day before, of how they had embarked upon the ocean in order to find out about it and see the wonders it contained, and how they had come to this place. When dawn broke and the sun rose, we found we were in great pain because we had been so tightly bound. One of them asked us: a€?Do you know how far you are from your country?a€™ a€?No,a€™ we answered.



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