Types of communication theories 911,organizational leadership rutgers,coaching academy usa - PDF Review

In a business context, all communication can be divided into two categories namely, External Communication and Internal Communication.
An organization, when it communicates with Governmental agencies, oth organizations, customers, clients and Public it is called external communication The media employed may be written media like letters, reports, proposals or visual media like posters, advertisements video tapes or electronic media like faxes, telegrams, e-mails, telexes.
External communication helps an organization to keep its outsourcing agencies like distributors, wholesalers, retailers and clientele well informed about the company’s products, services, progress and goals. Every organization has the necessity to maintain appropriate communication with its branches, staff and employees.
In the new millennium, particularly in the context of globalization, business has become highly competitive. Downward communication means the flow of communication from the top echelon (level or rank) of an organisation to the lower levels of employees. Communication maintained from lower level of employees to higher-ups is called upward communication. Every business organization adopts some formal channels of communication which may be upward, downward, or horizontal or all the three. Large organizations, where there are a large number of people working closely, generate certain informal or unofficial channels of communication. In yet another situation, one person communicates to a few chosen associates who in turn communicate the same to yet another group. Grapevine, is definitely dangerous to the health of an organization if allowed to grow without monitoring.
The Ambition Stairway is a useful tool for you to use when deciding what channels to use for your level of ambition. Communication is a process that involves an exchange of information, thoughts, ideas and emotions.
Electromagnetic waves are a form of energy waves that have both an electric and magnetic field. This site is a product of TSI (Technological Solutions, Inc.), Copyright 2016, All Rights Reserved. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
The communication might also be through teleconferences, face-to-face meetings, panel discussions or presentations, exhibitions and such events. Upward communication gives scope for the employees to offer their suggestions, opinions, make complaints and seek redressal of their grievances.
They are usually in the form of notices, announcements, reports, official or demi-official letters, advertisements, etc.
A transparent administration policy, employee-friendly attitude, fruitful peer group meetings, inter-action sessions, parties and outings where all those connected with the organisation participate are some of the strategies to monitor grapevine and use it to the advantage of the organization. The components of a communication process are: a sender who encodes and sends the message, the channel through which the message is sent, and the receiver who decodes the message, processes the information and sends an appropriate reply via the same channel back to the sender. The amount of feedback the post received, many people misunderstanding one of the key ideas and some reflection suggest a focused article is needed.One of the concepts underpinning the research for my doctoral thesis and the Stakeholder Circle® methodology is the concept that project success is determined by the attitudes of the key stakeholders around the project. Electromagnetic waves are different from mechanical waves in that they can transmit energy and travel through a vacuum.
We use microwaves to cook food, transmit information, and in radar that helps to predict the weather. This is the range of wavelengths from 390 to 700 nm which corresponds to the frequencies 430-790 THz. At this point in the electromagnetic spectrum, scientists begin to think of these rays more as particles than waves. All organizations have to maintain cordial relationships with government agencies, licensing authorities, suppliers of raw materials, ancillary industries and financial institutions. Internal communication is an essential feature of an organization’s administrative structure. The central organization or corporate office should keep its branches well informed of new policies and policy changes.
Downward communication has its own shortcomings, if it is not complemented by other directional communications. Upward communication helps an organization to receive and reset its objectives at realistic levels. Sales department, production department, quality control department and the stores department have to constantly interact and coordinate among themselves.
It gives mental satisfaction to the participants and gradually reduces emotional outbursts and reactions. Business houses and industries adopt one or several of these strategies to keep grapevine under reasonable control so that it does not degenerate into a rumour mill and promote unwanted gossip sessions among the employees. Delivering a project on time, on budget and to specification is not sufficient – if the project is not liked and the outputs are not used it is still a failure. Radio waves are often used to transmit data and have been used for all sorts of applications including radio, satellites, radar, and computer networks.



Microwaves are useful in communication because they can penetrate clouds, smoke, and light rain.
Gamma rays are sometimes used in treating cancer and in taking detailed images for diagnostic medicine.
Continual and updated information without any communication gap is essential for business houses. In modern times, the Human Resource Department plays an important role in maintaining internal communication. The growth in business, the future projections for business, increased specializations make a great demand on the central office to maintain an uninterrupted flow of internal communication.
The shortcomings will be pronounced if an organization adopts only unidirectional communication namely downward communication. Horizontal communication leads to a better understanding among individuals and departments, cooperation and coordination.
It promotes understanding, motivates employees and gives a sense of belonging and involvement to all people at all levels. In some other situation, an individual passes an information without any restriction to all those with whom he comes into contact. Contrast the difference between the very low level of patronage for the Melbourne Star and the success of the London Eye.Certainly some projects are easier to attract support to than others but even intrinsically unpopular projects to implement a business change, upgrade systems and reduce head count need the support of the people involved in the change if the project’s intended benefits are to be fully realised. The universe is filled with cosmic microwave background radiation that scientists believe are clues to the origin of the universe they call the Big Bang. They can penetrate soft tissue like skin and muscle and are used to take X-ray pictures of bones in medicine. Employees need to be motivated and exposed to the business objectives and ethical ideas of a company so that they get an involvement in the work they do.
Business and industry continued the age old tradition of the feudal system even after the industrial revolution. But such communication should not be allowed to degenerate to a meaningless criss-cross communication which will lead to chaos and confusion. Grapevine communication is an informal, unofficial, horizontal channel of communication because generally peer groups participate in it. It can either be face-to-face or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet.
And whilst change management and project management are distinctly different functions, in many respects project stakeholder management and change management are similar and both facets of an organisational change need to be working constructively together to achieve success (see more on Organisational Change Management).Even where no internal change is needed each project needs the support of key elements of its stakeholder community to achieve a successful outcome in the most efficient way.  And given the only ethical way to influence stakeholder attitudes is through effective communication, this means every project needs to communicate effectively to achieve optimum success!However, reporting is not enough!
Ultraviolet light is used by powerful telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope to see far away stars.
Employees on production line should be aware of the targets so that they overcome obstacles. But soon areas of conflict got promoted by sectarian interests (of homogenous groups) within an organization.
Moreover, it may get delayed or distorted as it goes down through the various levels of the hierarchical set up as all decisions are taken without any proper feedback. But on the whole, modern management recognises the need for healthy upward communication to make the organization responsive to suggestions and ideas.
Even the shifting of the canteen and a re-adjustment of the lunch-breaks and tea-breaks have to be informed well in advance to the employees.
But it helps in creating an awareness among employees of the objectives, targets and goals.
The whole point here is to be able to not only hear the messages but also to see the body language and feel the climate in the room. Jon Whitty has described reports and bar charts as essential ‘clothing’ for a project manager (and as Mark Twain said “Clothes make the man.
In turn, employees should be able to tell people at higher levels their grievances, expectations and difficulties.
It has been discovered that a multidirectional communication system demolishes the barriers and removes friction.
The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal CommunicationNon-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and the overall body movements. Effective internal communication forges a strong bond between the employees and management, promotes co-operation among different sections in an establishment.
Business depends on such anew communication paradigm (pattern or model) to ensure the success of business and the realization of even difficult objectives.
At ordinary times, they exist for their own sake without any objective, as a formality and routine. It remove’s misunderstanding and aids the growth of the organization at a desirable and optimum level. Internal communication in short, ensures involvement of all the people without alienating any section. Also, gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions and do not need to be accompanied by words.


This channel works very well when you need to get across strategic and important messages to a large group of people at the same time, creating a wide attention, get engagement or communicate a sense of belonging.
Large meetings are excellent when you want to present a new vision or strategy, inform about a reorganisation or share new values. This form of communication is used in business, corporate communication, official conferences, meetings, written memos, and corporate letters. The project team members and their personal networks are one of your greatest assets – make them proud to ‘show off’ the project (this helps with team building too).Developing an effective PR campaign is a skilled communications process designed to build buy-in and enthusiasm for the project and the deliverables. The opportunity for dialogue is limited at large meeting, of course but you can create smaller groups where dialogue can be performed. Weekly departmental meetings In the weekly meetings you and your group communicate daily operative issues, gives status reports and solves problems.
Weekly meetings are also used to follow up on information from large meetings, management team meetings etc from a a€?whata€™s-in-it-for-us-perspectivea€?. It is far easier to create a good first impression than to try to change an already formed bad impression among your stakeholders, and is particularly important if your project is going to change how people do their jobs – your project will experience far lower levels of opposition and the change manager will thank you.Purposeful communication is hard work and needs to be focused on the important stakeholders (both positive and negative) with whom you need to cause a specific effect.
It requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. This includes providing direction to your team members and suppliers and influencing the attitude or expectations of other key stakeholders.Purposeful communication needs to be planned, which means you need to know precisely what effect you are seeking and then work out how to achieve the effect. This channel is often the most important channel you have as a manager, because thata€™s where you have the opportunity to build the big picture, you can prepare for change, you can create ownership of important strategies and goals etc. This is a favourite among the types of communication medium. Up close and personal This is a form of meetings where, often, a senior manager meets with a a€?randoma€? selection of employees to discuss and answer questions. The conversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chats with our loved ones can simply go on and on.Even though the whole process of communication may seem so simple, the effectiveness of each type depends to a great extent on certain internal and external environmental factors and also the communicator's ability to send, receive, decode and send a response. This is why the field of communication has been and continues to be widely studied and is given a place of importance in any walk of life.
This means leaning how the person operates and what is normal for them – you need to communicate within their paradigm.Building this type of communication environment designed to support project success requires a strategic approach, the pay-back is less time spent fire fighting and dealing with ad hoc enquiries. She was the first student to gain a Doctorate in Project Management from the RMIT University and has extensive experience as a Senior Project Manager and Project Director specialising in delivery of IT and other business-related projects within the telecomms sector. These channels can be used as archives for messages or for giving the big picture and a deeper knowledge.
Typically though, because it is written, it is always interpret by the reader based on his or her mental condition. It is suitable mainly for up-to-date and a€?simplea€? messages and where there is no risk of misunderstanding, E-mail is an important supplement to weekly meetings and the Intranet. Post a link or direct to the source instead. Weekly letters Managers that have large groups of employees and who has difficulties in meeting all of them often choose to publish a personally weekly letter.
Many employees often appreciate it because it has the potential to give the a€?whata€™s-in-it-for-usa€? angle. They can also contain summaries and status in tasks, projects or issues a€“ yesterday, today and tomorrow. Personal letters At special occasions it can be justified to send a personal letter to employees in order to get attention to a specific issue. Or it can be a letter with your personal commentary on an ongoing reorganisation that affects many employees.
One other example is a letter that summarizes the past year and wishes all the best for the holidays. Billboard One of the most forgotten types of communication medium is clearly the billboard. Weekly meeting or your weekly letter can be a suitable channel to discuss or inform of information found on the Intranet. Employee magazine A Magazine offers the opportunity to deepen a specific issue, explain context, describing consequences or tell a story. If you want to create a broad internal understanding of strategic messages the magazine can be a good vehicle to use e.g. As were the case with the Intranet you also have to a€?translatea€? the information in the magazine to your employees. How shall I best communicate it to the employees? Sms Or text messaging to the mobile phone is one of the new types of communication medium and not a very widely used channel but where it is used it is proven very effective.
Social media supports the human need for social interaction, using Internet- and web-based technologies to transform broadcast media monologues (one to many) into social media dialogues (many to many).
It supports the democratization of knowledge and information, transforming people from content consumers into content producers. Businesses also refer to social media as user-generated content (UGC) or consumer-generated media (CGM).a€? More and more companies are using social media in their external marketing, setting up twitter and Facebook accounts etc. But these channels are also used internal where managers become a€?friendsa€? on Facebook with their employees or where managers use blog and twitter targeting their employees. Increased knowledge, better understanding more motivation or involvement, or do you want it to lead to some sort of action or changed behaviour?



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