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One of the most important scientific breakthroughs of all times is Sir Isaac Newton's universal law of gravitation, all thanks to the falling apple. Gravity is the weakest of all and has an unlimited range, but in cases where matter is involved in massive quantities (for example: a black hole), it is the strongest and most dominant one. Ever since it was discovered, the working process of gravity has been explained by numerous theories, which have been explained below.Newton's Theory of Gravity Sir Isaac Newton studied the reason behind the falling apple, and defined it as the law of universal gravitation. The interactive forces occur in object pairs of the same type and magnitude, in opposite directions, and have different effects. Inertial Mass x Acceleration = Gravitational Field Intensity x Gravitational MassThis principle was demonstrated for the first time on the moon by astronaut David Scott of the Apollo 15 mission, when he dropped a hammer and a feather.

In recent times, attempts have been made to explain the phenomenon of gravitation by the combination several theories, mainly those of Einstein's theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Superfluid vacuum theory: The basic and fundamental entity of vacuum is regarded as a superfluid (Bose-Einstein condensate), which mediates the working of gravity through space. Gravity as an entropic force: This theory consists of an association between gravity and thermodynamics, and states that gravity is purely an entropic force, and does not exist due an interaction between a quantum field and the subatomic particles. Non-symmetric gravitational theory: It explains gravity on the basis of the flat rotational curves of galaxies, and consists of a symmetric part (gravity) and an antisymmetric part (electromagnetic field). Induced gravity: On a microscopic level, the Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitational forces are represented as a mean field approximation in association with fluid mechanics. Self-creation cosmology theory of gravity: This concept states that the Universe has been created from a self-established gravitational field in association with other scalar fields.

Brans-Dicke theory: The gravitational forces are coordinated by tensor and scalar fields of general relativity, and the gravitational constant 'G' is not constant. Aristotelian theory of gravity: This concept states that all the elements and entities of the Universe ultimately move towards the geocentric region of the Universe, and all the elements are present in their natural states, forming a shield around the others. NA¶rdstrom's theory of gravitation: Also known as the effective theory of gravitation, it states that the effects of gravity totally depend on the geometrical framework of the curved spacetime fabric. Whitehead's theory of gravitation: Along the geodesic lines, the gravitational waves travel along a flat background, and are controlled by the metric tensor of Minkowski spacetime, and hence, the gravitational potential can be represented by these tensors. The above-mentioned alternative theories do not have much experimental basis, and hence, are not considered extensively.

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The inverse square law proposed by Newton suggests that the force of gravity acting between any two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the object's centers. Furthermore, the factor by which the force of gravity is changed is the square of the factor by which the separation distance is changed. Answer: If the distance is increased by a factor of 2, then distance squared will increase by a factor of 4. Answer: The effect of greater mass of Jupiter is partly off set by its larger radius which is about 10 times the radius of the earth. Newton's law of gravitation was preceded by three important discoveries about planetary motion by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler. There is a popular misconception that the seasons on the Earth are caused by varying distances of the Earth from the Sun on its elliptical orbit. The primary cause of the seasons is the 23.5 degree of the Earth's rotation axis with respect to the plane of the ecliptic, as illustrated in the adjacent image .

Thus, we experience Summer in the Northern Hemisphere when the Earth is on that part of its orbit where the N.

As is clear from the preceding diagram, the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere are determined from the same reasoning, except that they are out of phase with the N.

In this situation, which is illustrated schematically in the adjacent figure, we say that differential forces act on the body (the Earth in this example).

We may illustrate the basic idea with a simple model of a planet completely covered by an ocean of uniform depth, with negligible friction between the ocean and the underlying planet, as illustrated in the adjacent figure. Without getting too much into the technical details, there are two bulges because of the differential gravitational forces.

Another complication of a realistic model is that not only the Moon, but other objects in the Solar System, influence the Earth's tides. For example, particularly large tides are experienced in the Earth's oceans when the Sun and the Moon are lined up with the Earth at new and full phases of the Moon. Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation Any two objects attract each other with a gravitational force, proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Note Newtons Law is universal, it acts between any two masses regardless of how large (planets, stars) or how small (particles, atoms, neutrons) they are. Change of Gravitational Force with Distance Law of universal gravitation is known as an inverse square law.

Example An object that of mass 5kg is located at a planet that has 3 times the mass of the earth and half its radius.

The Gravitational Force Inside the Earth Varies linearly with the distance from the center of the Earth. Explain why the Earth precesses and the consequences Explain why the Earth has seasons Explain the phases of Moon and how they differ from a lunar eclipse. WEIGHT The weight of a body is the Weight (a quantity) is different from mass (a quantity). System consisting of three stars: Alpha Centauri A, Alpha Centauri B, and Proxima Centauri Alpha Centauri A and B (depicted at left) form a binary star.

The law of gravitation By the end of this topic you should be able to: appreciate that there is an attractive force between any two point masses that is. Gravity Newton’s Law of Gravitation Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields. TOC 1 Physics 212 Electric Force Dependence on Amount of Charge Dependence on Distance Magnitude of the Coulomb Force Direction of the Coulomb Force Coulomb. 5-6 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation If the force of gravity is being exerted on objects on Earth, what is the origin of that force? Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Nicolaus Copernicus- Polish astronomer who said that the Earth revolves around the sun, not the other way around!

Gravitation Newton’s Law of Gravitation Superposition Gravitation Near the Surface of Earth Gravitation Inside the Earth Gravitational Potential Energy. Motion of an object travelling at constant speed in a circle Lets explore the kinematics of circular motion. Essential idea: The Newtonian idea of gravitational force acting between two spherical bodies and the laws of mechanics create a model that can be used.

Gravity Probe B, a satellite, was launched in 2004 to measure the curvature or warping of space around our planet. Gravity is the reason everything gets attracted towards the Earth's surface, and also for the formation and movement of all the planets and other heavenly bodies. Due to the absence of air resistance in the Moon's atmosphere, both objects reached the surface at the same time.Einstein's General Theory of RelativityThis theory was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. Also, as several aspects are still on a theoretical level, this concept is right only if gravity is understood on a subatomic scale.A German physicist called Max Planck originated the quantum theory, in 1900, while studying the phenomenon of black body radiation.

On a subatomic scale, gravitons are spin-2 interactive particles, which do not have any mass.

This fluid is composed of fermion and anti-fermion pairs, which impart a wave function to the medium for the propagation of gravitational waves.

This concept states that all the materialistic objects are hit by tiny microscopic particles (ultra-mundane corpuscles) from all directions. Altering the separation distance (r) results in an alteration in the force of gravity acting between the objects.

So if the separation distance is doubled (increased by a factor of 2), then the force of gravity is decreased by a factor of four (2 raised to the second power). If you wanted to make a profit in buying gold by weight at one altitude and selling it at another altitude for the same price per weight, should you buy or sell at the higher altitude location? The planet Jupiter is more than 300 times as massive as Earth, so it might seem that a body on the surface of Jupiter would weigh 300 times as much as on Earth. Inverse of the distance brings a factor of 100 to the denominator and as a result, the force increases by a factor of 300 due to the mass, but decreases by a factor of 100 due to the distance squared. The Sun is not at the center of the ellipse, but is instead at one focus (generally there is nothing at the other focus of the ellipse).

The line joining the Sun and planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times, so the planet moves faster when it is nearer the Sun. Kepler's Third Law implies that the period for a planet to orbit the Sun increases rapidly with the radius of its orbit. Hemisphere is oriented more toward the Sun and therefore the Sun rises higher in the sky and is above the horizon longer, and the rays of the Sun strike the ground more directly.

Hemisphere Winter than in the Summer (as usual, we greatly exaggerate the eccentricity of the elliptical orbit in this diagram). Since the Moon passes overhead about an hour later each day, it was long suspected that the Moon was associated with tides. It is attracted gravitationally by the Earth, but it also experiences a much smaller gravitational attraction from the Moon (much smaller because the Moon is much further away and much less massive than the Earth).

The gravitational attraction of the Moon produces two tidal bulges on opposite sides of the Earth.

The liquid at point A is closer to the Moon and experiences a larger gravitational force than the Earth at point B or the ocean at point C. For most their tidal forces are negligible on Earth, but the differential gravitational force of the Sun does influence our tides to some degree (the effect of the Sun on Earth tides is less than half that of the Moon).

Newtons law of gravitation Besides the three laws of motion, Newton also discovered the universal law of gravitation. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) did research on optics (the properties of light) invented calculus discovered the three laws. The fundamental forces of the universe include the electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and gravitational forces. He explained that gravity is a property of spacetime itself, and it is a force that results from the geometry of spacetime and interaction of matter with space, and vice versa. He also presented the idea that energy is composed in the form of small packets called quanta.

These bosons form the crux of this theory and are responsible for imparting the force of gravity to any mass-based object.

If any two objects cover each other from these particles, a net imbalance results due to their pressure exerted during impact, and both the bodies are attracted towards each other.

Provided below is a bit of extra information about the working mechanism of gravity with regard to plants.Effect of Gravity on PlantsIn 1806, a British physiologist called A. Since the two quantities are inversely proportional, an increase in one quantity results in a decrease in the value of the other quantity. And if the separation distance (r) is tripled (increased by a factor of 3), then the force of gravity is decreased by a factor of nine (3 raised to the second power).

If the distance between the two objects is doubled, what is the new force of attraction between the two objects?

The planet then follows the ellipse in its orbit, which means that the Earth-Sun distance is constantly changing as the planet earth goes around its orbit. Thus, a planet executes elliptical motion with constantly changing angular speed as it moves about its orbit. Thus, we find that Mercury, the innermost planet, takes only 88 days to orbit the Sun but the outermost planet (Pluto) requires 248 years to do the same. One way to see that this reasoning may be in error is to note that the seasons are out of phase in the Northern and Southern hemispheres: when it is Summer in the North it is Winter in the South. The Earth is at its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) on about January 4 of each year, which is the dead of the N. But this gravitational attraction of the Moon is not limited to the water molecules; in fact, the Moon exerts a gravitational force on every object on and in the Earth. Because it experiences a larger attraction, it is pulled away from the Earth, toward the Moon, thus producing the bulge on the right side. The amount of enhancement in Earth's tides is about the same whether the Sun and Moon are lined up on opposite sides of the Earth (full Lunar phase) or on the same side (new Lunar phase).

This Week Newton’s law of Gravity Gravitational Potential Energy Satellites Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion. For example, all objects will fall in the same manner and will hit a surface, when the air resistance (or friction of the medium) is negligible or absent.In other words, if two objects of different masses and compositions are dropped at the same time, they will be attracted by gravity towards the ground at the same rate, regardless of their differing characteristics. He developed this theory through a hypothetical experiment that involved the effect of gravity on a free-falling elevator, and then predicted warping and the subsequent attraction of objects with different masses, which was later confirmed experimentally.The concept of relativity solved several of Newton's theoretical flaws and became more applicable for modern research. It explains the working process of gravity on a dominantly microscopic scale, as compared to the theory of relativity. The source of gravitons is called stress-energy tensors, which induce them to form the force of gravity. Knight demonstrated through an experiment, the control of gravity on the direction of a plant's root growth. That is, an increase in the separation distance causes a decrease in the force of gravity and a decrease in the separation distance causes an increase in the force of gravity. Thinking of the force-distance relationship in this way involves using a mathematical relationship as a guide to thinking about how an alteration in one variable effects the other variable. For purpose of illustration we have shown the orbit as rather eccentric; remember that the actual orbits are much less eccentric than this.

The point of nearest approach of the planet to the Sun is termed perihelion; the point of greatest separation is termed aphelion.

Tides occur because the Earth is a body of finite extent and these forces are not uniform: some parts of the Earth are closer to the Moon than other parts, and since the gravitational force drops off as the inverse square distance, those parts experience a larger gravitational tug from the Moon than parts that are further away.

Loosely, we may think of the bulge on the left side as arising because the Earth is pulled away from the water on that side because the gravitational force exerted by the Moon at point B is larger than that exerted at point C. Conversely, when the Moon is at first quarter or last quarter phase (meaning that it is located at right angles to the Earth-Sun line), the Sun and Moon interfere with each other in producing tidal bulges and tides are generally weaker; these are called neap tides. The slight discrepancy in Mercury's orbit, the apparent bending of light rays due to gravity, several calculations involving astronomical values, etc., are some of the flaws or problems, which can be explained with the help of the general theory of relativity. Two major theories that work on similar lines of the unifying quantum field theory (standard model) with gravity are string theory and loop quantum gravity. As this particle type has still not been discovered, this theory lacks in importance regarding gravity, as much as the previous two theories.Developed in the 1960s, string theory is a concept that substitutes the subatomic particles by 1D objects called strings, and various quantum states of these strings are used to distinguish between the elementary particles.

Hence, by Kepler's second law, the planet moves fastest when it is near perihelion and slowest when it is near aphelion. However, the fluid in the Earth's oceans is much more easily deformed and this leads to significant tidal effects. Then, as our idealized Earth rotates under these bulges, a given point on the surface will experience two high and two low tides for each rotation of the planet. Einstein stated that all objects tend to curve or warp the space around them, which leads to the appearance of a 4D space framework. Attempts have been made to unify all the theories into one single concept known as The Theory of Everything (TOE). The strings can vibrate and oscillate in numerous manners, and they are of two types: open and closed strings. Thus, the spacetime fabric allows the motion of free falling objects around the curved or warped space, along locally straight lines called geodesics. The former ones have two separate points, whereas the latter ones are present in a closed loop.One of the oscillatory modes produces the theoretical subatomic particles called gravitons, which in turn are responsible for the mediation of gravity, at least on a microscopic level. This condition is caused by the resistance of gravitational force on the body, and it's also called Zero gravity or Free Fall.

Though the lines are straight, they get curved in a 4D fabric that includes time.For example, place a heavy iron ball at the center of a trampoline.

Thus, the string theory always exists in combination with the quantum field mechanics of gravity, and as the strings exist as the sources of these elementary particles, their different modes of vibration, depending upon the mass and frequency, can give rise to numerous types of other subatomic particles.Another concept that is modeled on quantum mechanics, loop quantum theory results in the formation of a compact and granular structure of the spacetime fabric.

Now, imagine the trampoline to be the space fabric, and the ball to be a large heavenly body. Positive geotropism is shown by the roots that grow in a downward direction, and negative geotropism is shown by the stem that grows upwards.

Now, place a small marble ball on the trampoline surface, and observe as it travels along a curved path, but at the same time, a locally linear path towards the heavier ball.

Galileo's theory, which stated that all things will fall with the same acceleration in the absence of air, was demonstrated by himself, when he released a ball of wool and a cannonball from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. This is exactly how gravity works in the universe according to general theory of relativity. Though it is the weakest fundamental force in the Universe, the effects of gravity are felt by all living beings more than the other remaining three forces (electromagnetism, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear). Both the objects hit the surface at the same time.Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by external forces impressed upon it.

The heavy ball can be considered to be the Sun of our Solar System, and the marble ball as one of the planets. Throughout the last few centuries, numerous scientists, researchers, and physicists have explained the phenomenon of gravitation with as much clarity as possible. This curving of spacetime allows the revolution of planets in their orbits, the motion of comets and other heavenly bodies, the loss in intensity of light waves as they travel through space, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, etc.Supportive TestsVarious tests were performed to validate this theory, mainly for explaining the process of working of gravity. Technically speaking, explaining its working at the most fundamental level has not been possible as compared to the other universal forces.

The orbit of planet Mercury shows an anomalous precession of its perihelion position, which indicates that not only does the planet revolve around the Sun, but the orbit too undergoes a revolution, due to the curvature of spacetime under the influence of the Sun's gravity.

Gravitational deflection and delay of light rays also explain the working mechanism of gravity, especially when such rays pass around large heavenly objects like the Sun.

This test measures the redshift (low frequency) or blueshift (high frequency) of an object, which follows a path of motion due to gravity. Gravitational waves or radiation have been indirectly studied and confirmed from binary star systems, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, etc.EquationsEinstein developed a set of simultaneous, non-linear, and differential field equations that explain the relationship between objects and the spacetime fabric curvature.

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