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Author: admin, 14.05.2016
Upon first reading the Fox News piece, my immediate thought was that it was a bit of a leap to connect a headline of that ilk to the data they presented, which was scant. Seems to me claiming that marijuana installs a cardiovascular problem in an otherwise healthy person is a stretch.
Luckily, the (much smarter than I) folks at NORML drilled into the study that spawned this Fox-baby and delivered some great insight into how little it actually proves. The [French researchers] looked for cannabis users and found a shade less than 2,000 in the past 5 years. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapy in Chronic Kidney and Cardiovascular DiseaseDavid M.
Cardiovascular system diseases are conditions that affect the heart and the blood vessels, which are the main components of this system. The human cardiovascular system is composed of a heart, blood, and a network of blood vessels. A series of physiological and morphological changes occur with advancing age, which in turn, alters the way in which the cardiovascular system works.
Also known as coronary heart disease or ischemic heart disease, this condition is considered as the most common cause of heart attacks. Hypertensive heart disease is the term used for the diseases or complications associated with systemic arterial high blood pressure or hypertension. Also termed as congestive heart failure or congestive cardiac failure, this cardiovascular disease is caused by a failure of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the requirement of the body.
Cor pulmonale is also known as pulmonary heart disease, as it is caused by pulmonary hypertension. Inflammatory heart disease can be of three types―endocarditis, inflammatory cardiomegaly, and myocarditis. Valvular heart disease can affect one or more of the four heart valves―the aortic and mitral valves of the left heart, and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves of the right heart.
Cerebrovascular disease includes several conditions that can affect the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) or peripheral vascular disease is the condition where the flow of blood through the peripheral arteries gets obstructed.
Rheumatic heart disease is caused by rheumatic fever, which is a complication associated with untreated or inadequately treated A streptococcal (strep) infection, or scarlet fever.
Tobacco smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, alcohol abuse, uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, and excessive consumption of unhealthy fats, are the common risk factors for a large number of cardiovascular diseases, including strokes and heart attacks. To sum up, certain risk factors for cardiovascular diseases can be managed with a few simple changes in your lifestyle and dietary habits. Disclaimer: This article is for informative purposes only, and should not be treated as a substitute for professional medical advice. Cholesterol is one of the primary building blocks that your body’s cells need to create structural integrity and fluidity.
To help you manage these high cholesterol levels, your Palm Beach cardiologist may start by recommending that you work on eliminating or lowering your risk factors for heart disease.
You can’t start managing your blood cholesterol levels unless you know what they are. South Palm Cardiovascular Associates provides South Palm Beach County (including Lake Worth, Delray Beach, Delray Beach, Boca Raton) with leading edge cardiac care, peripheral arterial disease treatment, and vein care.
Some voices cried BS, while the anti-pot movement got so excited that they grabbed a jar of mayo and locked the bedroom door. A headline’s job (especially in our modern, ad-driven revenue model that the web has embraced) is to get your attention so you will click the link and be exposed to the advertisements.
Considering that the same article points out that France has an estimated 1.2 million regular pot smokers, their numbers are even more watery. It’s impossible to know what that number means without knowing the number of people these physicians saw or how many patients used cannabis and did not end up reported to this database…They then found a whopping 35 of these who had cardiac complications. Both apparently healthy subjects and those with diagnosed CVD may reduce their risk by modifying their lifestyle and controlling risk factors like smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, alcoholism, high cholesterol, being overweight and having high blood glucose. This Buzzle write-up will give you a basic idea about cardiovascular diseases and disorders, and their symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options. It is concerned with the circulation of nutrients, gases, and hormones throughout the body. True to its name, this condition is characterized by the weakening of the heart muscles, which makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. In other words, these conditions are caused by the high level of pressure exerted by the circulating blood on the arterial wall.
When the level of blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs is very high, the right side of the heart finds it difficult to pump blood to the lungs. As the name suggests, endocarditis refers to the inflammation of the endocardium, the inner layer of the heart, while cardiomegaly is the condition where the heart becomes enlarged. So, cerebrovascular disease can impair blood circulation to the brain, which can result in a transient ischemic attack (mini-stroke) or stroke. It refers to any defect in the structure of the heart, or the large blood vessels that bring blood to and from the heart.
It is basically caused by an autoimmune reaction to the infection caused by A streptococcal bacteria. So, it is possible to cut down the risk for such diseases to a great extent by controlling these risk factors.
By adopting a healthy lifestyle, we can boost the health of the heart and the cardiovascular system, and reduce the incidence of life-threatening complications. It is a waxy substance that is naturally produced by your liver to meet your body’s needs, but it can be overproduced if you consume a diet that is too high in cholesterol that comes from meat, poultry, and full-fat dairy products.
If your Delray Beach cardiologists find that you have total cholesterol levels that are too high and either too much LDL cholesterol or too little HDL cholesterol, they may recommend that you take steps to reduce these levels. This means losing weight if you are obese or overweight, taking steps to lower your blood pressure, stopping smoking, and getting your diabetes under control if you have it.
Our experienced physicians specialize in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of the full range of cardiovascular disorders. In that spirit, I explored the article with an open mind and a willingness to have my position changed, should the evidence prove accurate and compelling. For instance, if I had asthma and smoked a bowl and my asthma got worse, I can’t very well go around saying that cannabis gave me asthma. It is impossible to know what to make of this number without knowing the number of cannabis users in France, which the authors report is 1.2 million. Mutual risk factors influence the development and progression of CKD and CVD and can either be modifiable (diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, smoking) or non-modifiable (genetic predisposition, increasing age, acute injury). Inflammation, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondrial, cytoplasmic and extracellular sources contribute to oxidative stress. Gobe1[1] Centre for Kidney Disease Research, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia1. Any disease that affects the heart and the blood vessels, irrespective of the organ involved, falls under the category of cardiovascular diseases. Wrong eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle are the two most important risk factors for heart and cardiovascular diseases, along with aging. Fluid buildup in the liver, lungs, and the arms and legs, is a very common complication associated with heart failure. If this continues, the right side of the heart ultimately fails to pump sufficient blood to the lungs leading to cor pulmonale. Myocarditis on the other hand, is characterized by the inflammation of the myocardium, the muscle tissues that form the middle layer of the heart.


The four heart valves are responsible for maintaining the flow of blood in the forward direction and prevent any kind of leakage.
The symptoms of this condition can be evident in childhood at times, but it is also possible for the affected child to not exhibit any signs or symptoms until adulthood.
The incidence of rheumatic fever has been observed to be more in children between 5 to 15 years of age.
It’s this overproduction that you need to be concerned about and manage, because if you have high levels of blood cholesterol you are twice as likely to have a heart attack as people with lower cholesterol levels.
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is more beneficial, because it actually helps your body to collect excessive amounts of LDL cholesterol and route them back to your liver. The next step for most patients is to use diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes to lower their cholesterol levels.
If you are over 20, the American Heart Association recommends that you get such a test every 4-6 years, and if you are over 50, more often.
We provide heart screenings, other noninvasive cardiac testing, and the full range of effective cardiovascular treatment procedures. Vitamin E incorporates into the phospholipid bilayer halting lipid peroxidation chain reactions. IntroductionChronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have major impacts upon the health of populations worldwide, especially in Western societies.
So, cardiovascular system diseases also include vascular diseases of the brain and the kidneys.
The cardiovascular mortality rates have somewhat declined in many developed countries since 1970s, but increased in low- and middle-income countries of the world. As a result, the coronary artery becomes narrow, which inhibits the supply of sufficient oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Cardiomyopathy can be extrinsic (caused by an external factor or condition) and intrinsic (not due to an external cause). This is the reason why this condition is also known as congestive heart failure, which means that the cardiac output is low and the body is congested due to the accumulation of fluid. Arrhythmias can occur in the atria or the ventricles, and they are usually not life-threatening conditions. Valvular heart disease can be caused by the leakage of blood or regurgitation (caused by the failure of the valves to close properly), and narrowing of the valve opening, which is termed as stenosis. PAD can be a sign of widespread atherosclerosis, where fatty deposits accumulate inside the arterial wall.
Some heart defects can be minor and may not require any treatment, while others can necessitate surgery or the use of certain medications. This disease has also been observed to be more prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries.
Your doctor may advise you, for example, to limit your intake of total fats to less than 30% of your daily calorie intake, and to limit your intake of saturated fats even more – to 10% or less of your daily calories.
So pick up your phone and make an appointment with some of the best cardiologists in Palm Beach by calling 561-515-0080 today. For patients with peripheral arterial disease we provide PAD testing and advanced PAD treatment. I’m guessing that not all these cannabis users went to the doctor…so let’s say that we’re off by two orders of magnitude. Omega (?)-3 fatty acids displace arachadonic acid in the cell membrane and thus reduce arachadonic acid-derived ROS, but also significantly reduce inflammation and subsequent fibrosis. The progression of CKD or CVD independently exerts synergistic deleterious effects on the other, for example, patients with CKD are more likely to die of CVD than to develop renal failure.
Said individuals may benefit from physical activities, but the type and the vigor of activities must be discussed with their personal physicians. People who do not have any symptoms may still have silent CVD, which can cause sudden death, or they may develop clinical manifestations of CVD later in their life. This cardiovascular disease can be asymptomatic for several years till the first symptom, which is often a sudden heart attack, occurs. Rarely, some arrhythmias can lead to cardiac arrest, which can be a life-threatening condition. What causes congenital heart defect is not known with certainty, but certain factors have been believed to increase the risk for this disease.
Rheumatic fever can cause fibrosis of the heart valves, which in turn can cause valvular heart disease, and heart failure. He may also advise you to limit your consumption of sodium (salt) and to increase the amount of exercise you get. At our Delray Beach vein clinic we detect and treat vein disease, including varicose veins and spider veins and DVT.
The cysteine residue of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor for glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and the thiol group is able to scavenge ROS directly.
This overlap between CKD and CVD, in part, relates to common etiologies such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, but important dynamic and bidirectional interactions between the cardiovascular system and kidneys may also explain the occurrence of concurrent organ dysfunction [1].
Scientists have identified risk factors as well as measured their individual and combined impacts.
Your heart then pumps oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood through a network of blood vessels (arteries) to tissues including your organs, muscles and nerves, all around your body. Bardoxolone exerts transcriptional control by promoting nuclear translocation of Nrf2, facilitating antioxidant response element (ARE) binding that upregulates endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity.
Cardio-renal syndrome (or reno-cardiac syndrome, the prefix depending on the primary failing organ) is becoming increasingly recognised [2]. Our entire team of cardiologists and vascular specialists is devoted to delivering the best in cardiovascular health services while fostering positive, personal relationships. If those are the chances of having cardiac complications…my first thought is that using cannabis protects people from cardiac problems.
Allopurinol inhibits xanthine oxidase-derived ROS and the damaging effects of hyperuricemia. Conventional treatment targeted at either syndrome generally reduces the onset or progression of the other [3]. Individual risk factor measurements may be combined into a single quantitative estimate of risk, known as a "global risk score" that can be used to guide preventive interventions. We need a comparison group of people who don’t use cannabis to know their rate of cardiac problems…we simply don’t have those data.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) enhances the efficacy of electron transport in the mitochondria, thereby reducing mitochondrial-derived ROS – it is also able to directly scavenge ROS.
Even though our understanding of various factors and steps involved in the pathogenesis of CKD and CVD and their obvious links has improved, a complete picture of the mechanisms involved is still unclear. You can obtain your global risk score using one of the published global risk score calculators (Table 2). L-carnitine enhances mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis and subsequent ATP production and thereby maintains cell health. Oxidative stress has been identified as one unifying mechanism in the pathogenesis of CKD and CVD [4]. Before visiting the sites to take a test, you should obtain the requested information specified in the table.
This current chapter gives a brief review of recent literature on the relationship between CKD, CVD and oxidative stress and indicates how, by applying knowledge of the molecular controls of oxidative stress, this information may help improve targeted therapy with antioxidants for these diseases.2. Pathogenesis of chronic kidney and cardiovascular disease – The linksIt is, in fact, very difficult to separate these chronic diseases, because one is a complication of the other in many situations. The development and progression of CKD are closely linked with hypertension and dyslipidemia, both causes of renal failure. It lies just to the left side of the centre of your chest (thorax) and is surrounded by a protective membrane called the pericardium. Health and functional integrity of the lungs and the circulation are main determinants of physical fitness.


CKD, hypertension and diabetes mellitus all involve endothelial dysfunction, a change well known in the development of atherosclerosis and CVD that includes coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke and peripheral arterial disease [5].
For divers, both organs are additionally important because of their role in the transfer of gasses in the body and response to gas bubbles. Alcohol consumption affects many organs and functions in the body. Vascular calcification occurs in progressive atherosclerosis and CVD, but it is also an important part of vascular injury in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), where patients need renal replacement therapy to survive.
Small amounts of alcohol may have some favorable effects, but overindulgence damages the brain, liver, heart and other organs. It is paradoxical that approximately 50% of individuals with ESRD die from a cardiovascular cause [6].
Alcohol is very rich with calories and, in excessive consumption, contributes to metabolic syndrome and obesity.
Thus, CKD and CVD patients have closely-linked diseases with increasing morbidity and mortality. Acute effects of alcohol are not compatible with diving. Imbalance in food consumption and energy combustion is the main cause of obesity. The initiating causes of CKD are highly variable, with previously-mentioned hypertension and diabetes being two of the key ones [7]. On the other hand, for people living a sedentary lifestyle, it is hard to shed weight despite limiting their food intake.
This oxygenated blood then returns to the left side of your heart, which pumps it out to the rest of your body through your arteries. Epidemiological studies reveal other strong risk factors for CKD, such as a previous episode of acute kidney damage, exposure to nephrotoxins, obesity, smoking, and increasing age [8, 9]. The muscle on the left side of your heart is slightly larger because it has more work to do than the right – the right side only pumps blood to your lungs, the left side pumps blood around your whole body. However, no matter the cause, the progressive structural changes that occur in the kidney are characteristically unifying [10].
The characteristics of CKD are tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis, renal vasculopathy, and presence of granulation tissue. Salt may contribute to increased blood pressure, while too much sugar and flour can cause an individual to be overweight or increase risk for diabetes. Alterations in the glomerulus include mesangial cell expansion and contraction of the glomerular tuft, followed by a proliferation of connective tissue which leads to significant damage at this first point of the filtration barrier. Structural changes that occur in the kidney produce a vicious cycle of cause and effect, thereby enhancing kidney damage and giving CKD its progressive nature.
Advances in our socio-economic environment eliminated the need for physical activities in everyday life; as a result most people should exercise purposefully. Whilst early pathological changes in the kidney can occur without clinical presentations, due to the high adaptability of the kidney [10], once the adaptive threshold is reached, the progression of CKD is rapid and the development of ESRD imminent.
Both bursts of near-maximum exercise and periods of prolonged vigorous exercise are necessary to maintain body structures, physical working capacity, integrity of the cardiovascular system, the body's natural defense systems and its self-repair processes. Vascular pathology exacerbates development of CKD, and it is perhaps here that the links with CVD are closest. Air passes from your nose and mouth into your trachea (windpipe), before passing into each lung, through two airways called the bronchi. Hypertension induces intimal and medial hypertrophy of the intrarenal arteries, leading to hypertensive nephropathy. Indeed, limiting exercise in diving is one of the strategies to control risk of decompression illness, but divers must be physically fit to respond to emergencies that may arise.
These divide into smaller airways, called bronchioles, which repeatedly divide and end in tiny sacs called alveoli.
This is followed by outer cortical glomerulosclerosis with local tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. There is no formal consensus about what the required minimum sustained exercise capacity for divers is or how to measure it. It's here that oxygen and carbon dioxide filter into and out of your blood across a thin membrane. Compensatory hypertrophy of the inner-cortical glomeruli results, leading to hyperfiltration injury and global glomerulosclerosis. Currents of 1 knot (33 yards per minute) are not uncommon, and divers at the surface should be able to swim faster than that in case the need arises to swim against it. In this process, oxygen and carbon dioxide bind to haemoglobin, which is a protein in your red blood cells.
Note, however, that although glomerulopathy is an important characteristic of CKD, the incidence of tubulointerstitial fibrosis has the best correlation with CKD development [11]. As such, kidney tubular cells and renal fibroblasts may be the founding cell types in the progressive development of CKD.The main clinical manifestation of CKD is a loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), allowing for staging of CKD with progressively decreasing (estimated) GFR. However, risk factors like blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol can be measured by simple and inexpensive tests, and all adults should be tested periodically. CKD staging was facilitated by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and the Kidney Disease - Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), an outcome that highlighted the condition and facilitated its increased diagnosis [12]. Most healthcare insurance companies provide incentives to their clients to visit primary physicians for annual evaluations. The first two stages have normal, or slightly reduced kidney function but some indication of structural deficit in two samples at least 90 days apart. Stages 3-5 are considered the most concerning, with Stage 3 now being sub-classified into Stages 3a and b because of their diagnostic importance.
In cases of divers with known risks, the annual exams are an opportunity for physicians to check for early signs of possible organ damage and to adjust control measures if needed.
It is thought that stages 2 and 3 should be targeted with prophylactic therapies, such as lipid lowering drugs or RAS modifiers [13], to minimize the progression of CKD. Diabetes, high cholesterol and hypertension may benefit from lifestyle changes, but most patients need prescription medications for proper control of these risk factors and their possible consequences.ReferencesCenter for Disease Control and Prevention. The blood is under pressure as a result of the pumping action of your heart and the size and flexibility of your arteries. This is a measure of the pressure when your heart muscle is contracted and pumping blood out of your heart, and is the maximum pressure in your blood vessels. This is the pressure between heart beats when your heart is resting and filling with blood, and is the minimum pressure in your blood vessels.
Eating a healthy diet, getting plenty of exercise and not smoking can all help you to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system.
However, your GP can advise you on how you can reduce your risk by making lifestyle changes and controlling your condition.
You may be able to control your blood pressure by losing excess weight, doing more exercise and cutting down on alcohol and salt, although you may need to take medicines too. Do monitor your blood glucose carefully as you build up your level of physical activity, as you may need to change your medication dose.
Stress can encourage less healthy behaviour, such as smoking, drinking too much alcohol and over-eating. Common sources of stress can include relationships, work, health, financial problems, and major events such as moving house, bereavement or divorce. Then try and think about how you could change both your physical and mental response to it.
If you think you are stressed or very anxious, talk to your GP who will be able to help you decide on the best way to deal with it.



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