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Author: admin, 11.11.2015
Fire – “The rapid oxidation of a material – releasing heat, light and various products of combustion”. Historically, we relied upon fire as a source of heat and light, we used it when hunting, and we even colonised some quite inhospitable parts of the globe thanks to our relationship with it. For many of us, our constant and vital relationship with this all-important element has changed. Design decisions and the features we have incorporated allow for safe use of heat sources within our Nordic tipis when combined with following all our safety instructions. Our Zirkon and Safir tipi models have a fully adjustable ventilator cap which allows ventilation with each of our three recommended heat source options. When using the Hekla firebox or Heatpal 5100, internal control cords allow this cap to be opened facing away from the wind for ventilation.
When using an inner tent, the Comfort and Pro options allow use of a stove or fire, with a zip panel on the floor rolling back to expose the ground. All our adventure tents will allow some air flow at ground level as we don’t use stitched-in groundsheets. The Hekla 7 and Hekla 30 are fire boxes designed to contain the open fire and minimise smoke. Don’t forget that you’ll lose some of the natural air flow during snow fall, when a reduction in air flow will occur through snow build-up around the tent base. In conclusion, we’ve discussed and introduced how we design around fire – product, hints and tips.
Winter is coming and we would love to demo this, maybe get some of our local users to demo as well and write up an article on it? This is the most extensive document on heel pain, plantar fasciitis, and heel spurs that is available.
This information should not be considered medical advice and is not intended to replace consultation with a qualified medical professional. Plantar fasciitis (pronounced PLAN-tar fashee-EYE-tiss) is an inflammation of the plantar fascia. We get a lot of calls from parents who have very active children who are between 8 and 13 years of age who have heel pain. Stretching the calf muscles several times a day, especially in the morning and after prolonged sitting. Losing weight if possible, especially in overweight women because our survey of 5,000 visitors shows overweight women are 6 times more likely than overweight men to get plantar fasciitis. I would rank losing weight higher, but it is too difficult for most Americans to reduce the amount of food they eat. Causes: The condition is usually caused by a change or increase in activities, no arch support, lack of flexibility in the calf muscles, being overweight, a sudden injury, using shoes with little cushion on hard surfaces, using shoes that do not easily bend under the ball of the foot, or spending too much time on the feet. Stretching the calf muscles without reinjuring the fascia before getting out of bed in the morning and a few times per day is well-known to be a cure for many patients. Arch support is often recommended by doctors and journal articles, and it ranked #1 in our first survey, but in our 2nd survey it did not rank as high as the above treatments. Anti-inflammatory medication such as aspirin, Aleve, or Ibuprofen (but NOT Tylenol) may work for some cases.
Better shoes with an arch support, more cushion, good flexibility in front of the shoe that allows the toes to bend back easily, and a raised heel.
Heel Pads may beneift some cases just by being soft, but for many, heel pads help by having a raised heel because the raised heel compensates for inflexible calf muscles. For walkers and runners: Stretch before activity, no hills, shorter strides, no flat or stiff shoes, and ice immediately afterwards.
The most common complaints about doctors is that they do not seem to understand how terrible the condition can be, or that doctors make the patient feel as if they are unusual or otherwise at fault for showing up in their office with heel pain.
I have reveiwed the data fron the surveys in many different ways to see if any particular sub-group of patients benefitted from certain treatments more than any other subgroup.
The most frequently harmful treatments reported are the various surgeries, hard casts, deep massage, and firm heel pads. Abnormal functioning of the foot or an abnormal gait could cause excessive tension in a specific area of the heel that results in the spur. I believe most podiatrists consider plantar fasciitis to be heel pain (or sometimes arch pain) that is the result of excessive straining of the plantar fascia. Common symptoms: In agreement with most journal articles, the most frequent symptom reported in our surveys is an increase in heel pain with the first few steps in the morning (85% of our visitors). Simple tests: If applying tape as shown in this document immediately reduces pain, it is good evidence that tension in the fascia is the cause of the pain.
Advanced Tests: Bone scans ($$) often show increased blood flow where the fascia attaches to the heel (one source says 60% of those with heel pain), especially if the pain is severe.
36% of our visitors indicated that they did not know what caused their plantar fasciitis or heel spurs.
Probably the number one cause of plantar fasciitis is lack of flexibility in the calf muscles. A long-term inactive lifestyle makes it more likely that a sudden increase or change in activity will result in plantar fasciitis, because the fascia or its attachment to the heel is unconditioned for the extra stress. Being mildly or severely overweight, or experiencing a rapid increase in weight, can cause or exacerbate plantar fasciitis. Engaging in certain sports (especially on a hard surface) can make plantar fasciitis more likely to develop.
It has often been written that people with flat feet or high arches are more likely than others to get plantar fasciitis (heel spurs). Weak foot muscles that control the toes and ball of the foot may contribute to plantar fasciitis, because these muscles promote better functioning of the foot.
A lower center of gravity as can be caused by pregnancy, equipment belts, large thighs and hips (this may explain why overweight women are 6 times more likely than overweight men to get it) can contribute to it because more flexibility in the calf muscles is required when the center of gravity is lower.
Sciatic nerve problems (sciatica) usually cause pain in the buttocks and back of the upper thighs, but the pain may also appear very low in the back where the pinching of the nerve begins and in the heel area where the nerve ends.
We did some research after a visitor emailed to say the antibiotic ofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone or quinolone) had caused her plantar fasciitis.
Other causes of heel pain are the loss of resilient tissue in the heel pad (more common in the elderly -- needs soft heel pad), and heel bursitis. A study reported that 50% of its sample of 411 plantar fasciitis (heel spurs) patients were on their feet most of the day. Being overweight (from either fat or muscle - your feet don't know the difference) is a contributing factor and major cause of plantar fasciitis (heel spurs), especially in U.S. Plantar fasciitis (heel spurs) can begin with pregnancy because of the increase in weight and carrying the baby after pregnancy. One source claims roughly 40% of the incidence of obesity is caused by genetics and the remaining 60% is believed to be due to the environment14 but another source claims obesity would be very rare if only 10% of our calories were from fat27 as was common in paleolithic times and in modern countries where cancer is, by comparison, non-existent.
Surgery using gastric bypass (25-40% weight reduction in 3-5 years) or vertical banded gastroplasty (17-25% in 3-5 years) are probably the most effective means of losing weight.
Diet: The JAMA article indicates a low-calorie diet results (on average) in a 8% weight reduction. Supplements: 200 mcg chromium and 1,000 mg to 4,000 mg vitamin C with each meal will help stabilize blood sugar and pancreatic enzymes decrease appetite in addition to reducing inflammation. A major cause of heel pain is the lack of physical conditioning that results from not walking and standing as much as is natural.
Several visitors with desk jobs have emphasized a completely different form of "physical therapy" as their cure: simply stretch in the morning and before walking anywhere at work. It is beneficial during doctor visits for the patient to provide a brief, itemized, typed list of their history, symptoms, the success of the various treatments they've tried, and any questions. Patients who rely solely on the brief remarks spoken by their doctors are at a great disadvantage compared to those who become more knowledgeable about their specific health condition.
Hello- I have been recently diagnosed with plantar fasciitis- after suffering with incredible pain for several months I finally went to a podiatrist, he told me the ONLY thing that would help me is to purchase $300 inserts for my shoes that he custom makes. A short foot, a high center of gravity, and good flexibility in the calf muscles reduce the tension in the fascia when walking. Shoes that do not bend under the ball of the foot as easily as toes are effectively increasing the length of the foot. If women gain weight in their thighs and hips and men gain weight in their chest and belly, then a woman's lowered center of gravity could help explain why heavy women are 6 times more likely than heavy men to get heel pain. Heel lifts help the foot tip over, so that they reduce tension in the fascia in those that have limited flexibility in the calf muscles.
The Achilles tendon and plantar fascia are two links in a chain that extends from the ball of the foot to the back of the knee. As described in the previous section, I believe shoes that are stiff in the ball of the foot and prevent the toes from bending back easily and naturally are an important cause of many cases of heel pain, plantar fasciitis, heel spurs, and Achilles tendonitis. OSHA requires steel-toe shoes in many work environments that do not bend in the very front very well.


We mentioned design principles of the Nordic tipi, unchanged over thousands of years and still in use by the Sami today – principles used by Tentipi although brought completely up-to-date through the use of modern manufacturing techniques and materials. What we are able to achieve through the introduction of a fire or stove is to create a certain sense of comfort – you’ll notice this every time the stove is lit, but especially under damp and cold conditions. If this symptom is not present then the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis has to be checked more carefully. The heel spurs to which this web site refers are on the front and bottom of the heel, not the back of the heel. If there is pain with the first few steps in the morning, the fascia is getting injured every morning and not getting enough time to heal.
Ibuprofen cream and gels may be the best and safest (I'm not aware of an FDA study but some formulations have worked great on me), but they are often hard to obtain in the U.S. In my case, being gentle on my feet for several months until there was no pain and then very slowly and carefully increasing activity was the key.
Several have reported orthopedic surgeons find heel pain boring, difficult to treat, and unrewarding.
New Balance is one of the few brands that often comes in extra wide sizes (2E and 4E) to accommodate high arches, inserts, and a heel lift. Nerve surgery ranked last out of the 46 treatments in the questionnaire because it helped only 37% and harmed 31%, but the number of responses is too small (n=16) to be statistically significant. I am not aware of an "official" definition of plantar fasciitis other than what the name implies (inflammation of the plantar fascia).
The fascia encapsulates these muscles and acts as their tendon attachment to the heel, but these muscles exert only a few pounds of tension compared with the 200 or more pounds of tension in the fascia created by body weight. For example, pronation may cause more tension in a section of the fascia and a spur could result at that section's point of insertion into the heel. If placing a firm heel pad or 1" of carefully folded paper under the heel (or stretching the calf muscles) immediately relieves the pain, then it's an indication that lack of flexibility in the calf muscles is the underlying cause of excessive tension in the plantar fascia. A journal article theorized that repetitive pulling on the tubercle (spur) from the fascia causes a small stress fracture (Graham). Visitors indicated the following causes: 15% walking, 12% running, 10% changing activity, 5% sudden injury, and 4% changing shoe.
A journal article reports that people with inflexible calf muscles are 23 times more likely to get it. People who spend too much time on their feet, such as nurses, mail carriers, and teachers, may get it.
Aerobics (particularly step aerobics), stair climbing, volleyball, and excessive running are some examples. Bad shoes are those who do not have arch support or cushion, or the toe portion does not bend back easily. Inflammation in the heel places more pressure on tissue and nerves in the area, causing more pain. Limited dorsiflexion of the great toe may also be a cause: it increases the effective length of the foot in the same manner as a shoe that is inflexible under the ball. Heel bursitis is sometimes a result of plantar fasciitis but more often it's caused by thin heel pad.
If there are major complications due to being overweight (such as diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heel pain) surgery can be considered for reducing weight if the BMI is above 35.
Swimming is one of the few alternative activities that will not make plantar fasciitis worse because it does not place weight on the front of the foot which would increase tension in the plantar fascia and thereby pull at its connection to the heel. Ideally, doctors would hand out informative brochures as soon as a firm diagnosis has been made. The combination of women's shoes and being overweight could have a combined negative effect that exceeds some threshold above which there is a cascade of additional injury to the plantar fascia (which would make my center-of-gravity explanation unnecessary).
These are zip-closed panels located at floor level and provide a key means of regulating air-flow to the fire or stove. In the summer of 1996 he began this web site to help others learn about heel and plantar fascia pain.
It has often been said that those with flat feet or high arches are more likely to get plantar fasciitis (heel spurs), but I do not know if that is the case. Since rest is the highest rated treatment, I believe many others have had a similar experience.
Shoe stores often do not have the wider sizes, but there are many places online you can find them (after first checking the styles out in local stores). I would not have surgery unless I was able to confirm the success rate and safety that the doctor claims. Although having the lowest harm rate, tylenol was also the least effective (17%, n=856) presumably because it is not an anti-inflammatory like ibuprofen, Aleve, and aspirin which ranked higher at 49% helped and 3% harmed (n=1688). I do not know of a governing body or primary reference that dictates what symptoms must be present for it to be called plantar fasciitis or heel spur syndrome. The spur is calcium that has deposited in the fascia in a process called calcification and it is bendable like cartilage. The primary cause of many cases of plantar fasciitis and heel spurs appears to be excessive tension in the medial (inside) portion of the plantar fascia that connects the heel to the big toe, which would make it appear it's tension in the muscle of the big toe causing the spur, when it's really just body weight (with or without pronation which would further increase tension in the medial portion). The Merck Manual says a true heel spur "tends to be painful during its early development, when little or no x-ray evidence is present. Since most people do not know if their calf muscles are inflexible compared to the rest of the population, this helps explain why the cause is a mystery to most people. Standing or walking for many hours without well-cushioned shoes on hard surfaces such as concrete or tile floors can also cause it. Hiking, basketball, or lunging forward in a singles' game of tennis (about 10 have emailed me) can also lead to plantar fasciitis.
Buying a new pair of boots that do not bend back easily at the base of the toes is a great way to get plantar fasciitis. Tarsal tunnel syndrome (the foot's version of carpal tunnel syndrome): The tarsal tunnel is formed by ligament and bone through which tendons and nerves pass. Treatment is the same with an emphasis on pills for inflammation and using a soft heel cushion, and manganese and vitamin B6 may be helpful.
Long strides and hills increase damage to the fascia because of the increase in the angle that the foot has to bend back. However, doctors who do so may lose business because the most successful treatments for many conditions do not require future doctor visits. It can last a few months, become permanent, or come and go every few months or years for the rest of a patient's life with no obvious explanation. 30% of our visitors indicated they have high arches and 20% indicated they have flat feet, but this may not be different from the rest of the population. Several visitors have emailed to say that religiously stretching after extended periods of sitting down at work and before walking was the cure. Decreasing Calorie intake by 400 a day is supposed to result in a 1 pound per week loss in weight. Unfortunately many have jobs that require a lot of time on their feet which may prevent time to heal.
Although one would assume the data is biased towards chronic sufferers who are more willing to complete the survey, single-question surveys on the home page gave the same results. One only has to review our surgery message board to confirm that surgery should not be undertaken lightly. The name for many diseases is simply the technical medical jargon for describing the symptoms rather than the underlying cause(s). This estimate may be low: visitors to this web site report discontinuing doctor visits because there was nothing else the doctor could do or because the patient refused injections or surgery. Pushing a car is an ideal way to injure the fascia because of the sudden increase in unusual activity, the steep angle of the foot bending back, and the strength that is necessary. The heels on boots help counteract the harm done by the soles being stiff (more on this later), but often not enough.
It is located at the 7-o'clock position relative to the inside ankle bone (beneath and slightly behind the inside ankle bone) - halfway between the inside ankle bone and the bottom of the back of the heel. The BMI is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, with no shoes or clothes on. You can obtain products for stretching like the ProStretch, Foot Flex, and night splints, but leaning against a wall or using a step correctly may be just as beneficial (see the section on stretching). 200 ug chromium with each meal will even blood sugar levels and in one study it reduced body fat by 1 pound-per-week for 5 weeks.
The following numbers are only for the first half of the survey because the percentages stated here changed very little in the second half of the data. Depending on the patient, type of surgery, and physician, recovery from the surgery can occur in just a month or two, but it is often (if not usually) 6 months to a year.
One source says pain only in the morning is not usually caused by a stress fracture or nerve entrapment.


Squatting, especially while lifting something heavy, can be similarly dangerous (all the weight is on the front of the feet which pulls the fascia away from the heels). People conditioned to long periods of time on their feet during their teens and 20's may be less likely to get plantar fasciitis than those who start careers in their 30's and 40's that require a lot of time on their feet. Usually, BMI between 20 and 25 is considered healthy for men and women, but some sources use between approximately 21 and 26 for men and between 19 and 25 for women. Besides stretching and tape, my case would have progressed better if I had followed a protocol of physical therapy. An excellent and uncommon doctor will routinely hand out documents telling patients more about their specific health condition. Doctors may recommend specific, inexpensive over-the-counter inserts that have a good arch support. Male sufferers weighed 12 pounds above the average American male (which is already hefty) and female sufferers weighed 30 pounds above their counterparts (compared to 1999 CDC data).
If 2 minutes of compression with the palm of your hand or anti-inflammatory medication helps then it is a sign that inflammation is a cause of the pain. Another source says squeezing the sides of the heel (anteriorly, medial to lateral) very strongly to put pressure on the heel bone (to slightly deform it) should not hurt and if it does, it is a symptom of stress fracture or osteomyelitis (infection).
If heel pain began concurrently with a change or increase in activity, or an increase in weight, then it can be considered more evidence of plantar fasciitis (heel spurs).
Three visitors have emailed me who appear to have acquired heel pain by operating a delivery vehicle where they have to make a high step many times a day to get in the vehicle. The fascia also can become thicker (from a normal of 3 mm up to 15 mm) with more injury, putting more pressure on the nerves.
It may be that the ability able to endure lengthy periods of time on the feet requires years of conditioning ligaments, fascia, and tendons. Another important caveat to the BMI is that it is shifted higher for those who have lots of muscle mass because muscle is more dense than fat. Sports that require running on grassy fields have been said to not result in heel spurs, so running on a hard surface could be a major cause. Contrary to the Merck Manual, my impression is that most doctors use either name for heel pain but stick to "plantar fasciitis" when it's not in the heel. The pain is usually in the heel area, but visitors frequently report that it "moves around" for no apparent reason. This is an ideal way to get it because all the weight is on the ball of the foot for that one long hard step.
The heel and bottom of the foot can be affected because the trapped nerves provide sensation to these areas. Thick rubber floor mats have long been a foot-saver to those who have to stand for long periods on hard surfaces. The National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) define overweight as a BMI of 25 or greater and obesity as a BMI of 30 or greater.
If there is little success after 9 to 12 months of proper conservative treatment, patients are often advised to have surgery. See "Risk Factors for Plantar Fasciitis: A Matched Case-Control Study" J Bone Joint Surg Am. Everyone who has plantar fasciitis and is required to climb stairs of some sort should step on their heels rather than the balls of their feet. It was difficult and dangerous to do because a lot of force had to be applied to make the cuts. But lack of flexibility in the calf is probably caused by wearing shoes that have heels because it encourages your calf muscles to be inflexible. A podiatrist emailed to say that the presence of a bone spur increases the chances that surgey is required.
Rigid orthotics can also easily make heel pain worse if they are not designed perfectly or if a break-in period for your feet is not allowed (i.e. Tapping the tarsal tunnel may produce tingling on the bottom of the foot - this is called Tinel's sign. The method of physical therapy I have used for years is to stretch, walk, and then ice, every other night.
Setbacks are the norm in dealing with plantar fasciitis, and simply preventing the daily minor injuries is just as important as preventing the less frequent big injuries. It's faster this way because the plastic in the soda bottle provides more insulation from the cold than you might expect. These activities put a large amount of tension on the fascia when the ball of the foot (instead of the heel) pushes on the ground. An October 4, 2000 an article in JAMA by the CDC 20 using 1999 telephone survey results of U.S. I do not have an explanation as to why overweight women are more likely to have heel pain than overweight men, except for different shoes or a lower center of gravity that would require more flexibility in the calf muscles. Another questionable source says MRI is the standard for finding bone fracture or infection. I've read overpronation causes thicker skin under the middle of the ball of the foot and a lack of normal thickness under the ball of the foot at base of big toe. A sudden tearing of the fascia away from the heel bone can occur, usually as a result of a sudden run or lunge forward.
Ultrasound can be used as a diagnostic tool to detect an increase in the thickness of the fascia. Several visitors to this web site have emailed to say they heard or felt a popping when this happened. 40% of the visitors to this web site are obese based on their self-reported height and weight (n=2486).
Bicycling is good but will cause too much tension in the fascia when the ball of the foot pushes too hard on the pedals.
21% of our 299 visitors who indicated they "over-pronate" also indicated pain along the medial (inside) arch. Some surgeries reported as "successful" by the doctor may decrease a patient's ability to walk for up to a year. I pedal with my heels instead of balls of my feet and I have used tape to protect the fascia. Those who delay seeing a doctor, have heel spurs in both feet, or are overweight are more likely to have the condition for a long time. I've met several people with this condition, and they all seemed to have a kind of hyper personality that caused them to walk too much, too quickly and in an obsessive way while ignoring the pain.
When pushing on the ball of the foot, tension is transferred in the fascia from the ball all the way to where it attaches to the heel and also through the heel bone to the Achilles tendon. In other words 600 extra calories a day (2 soft drinks and a candy bar) will shorten your healthy years (youth) and lifespan 8 years on average, the same as a pack of cigarettes a day. It is used in veterinary applications, but the FDA does not approve its use in humans except for interstital cystitis, so no mention of pain relief and anti-inflammatory properties is made on the bottle. Not getting at least 1 hour of heavy exercise each week also shortens healthy years, youth, and lifespan about 8 years. Running shoes have raised heels to help prevent plantar fasciitis (heel spurs) and Achilles tendonitis.
Taping is sometimes used by runners to relieve pain, but it is difficult to apply tape correctly (especially when the forces are so great as in running) and it may cause Achilles tendonitis or severe skin irritation. Toxicity data I've seen make it APPEAR to be safer than aspirin, but it is a solvent, and solvents are not regarded as "non-toxic".
This sudden separation of the fascia from the heel bone can be the beginning of recovery if the person has a history of heel pain -- or it can be the beginning of serious problems. I recommend icing immediately and 3 times a day for week, the Pinnacle arch support, rest, and tape. A few minutes of massage and applying a heating pad to the bottom of the foot and calf muscles before stretching may be an equally important step because it loosens up the tissue. Our surveys indicate it's in both feet 45% of the time, but only 14% of the respondents said their feet were equally painful. Our visitors ranked podiatrists, physical therapists, and acupuncture much better than orthopedic surgeons, but orthopedic surgeons ranked as well as podiatrists when the results were restricted to patients who had been to both podiatrists and orthopedic surgeons.
The arch can fall resulting in a flat foot and, as in PF release surgery, the cuboid bone on the top outside edge of the arch may start hurting from the lowered position of the arch. About 25% of the 267 surgeries made it worse, but 40% completed the survey less than 3 months after their surgery, so many of them are likely to improve. If surgery had made it better, they would not be visiting the web site and filling out the survey, although the same can be said for all the other treatments.



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