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An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that contains the tiny vibrating bones of the ear.
Ear infections frequently are painful because of inflammation and buildup of fluids in the middle ear.
Because ear infections often clear up on their own, treatment may begin with managing pain and monitoring the problem. The eustachian tubes are a pair of narrow tubes that run from each middle ear to high in the back of the throat, behind the nasal passages.
Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory infection or allergy can block them, causing the accumulation of fluids in the middle ear. Ear infections are more common in children, in part, because their eustachian tubes are narrower and more horizontal — factors that make them more difficult to drain and more likely to get clogged.
Adenoids are two small pads of tissues high in the back of the nose believed to play a role in immune system activity. Because adenoids are near the opening of the eustachian tubes, inflammation or enlargement of the adenoids may block the tubes, thereby contributing to middle ear infection.
Otitis media with effusion is inflammation and fluid buildup (effusion) in the middle ear without bacterial or viral infection. Chronic otitis media with effusion occurs when fluid remains in the middle ear and continues to return without bacterial or viral infection. Chronic suppurative otitis media is a persistent ear infection that often results in tearing or perforation of the eardrum.
Your doctor can usually diagnose an ear infection or another condition based on the symptoms you describe and an exam.
Some evidence suggests that treatment with antibiotics might be beneficial for certain children with ear infections. Children younger than 6 months of age with confirmed acute otitis media are more likely to be treated with antibiotics without the initial observational waiting time. During an outpatient surgical procedure called a myringotomy, a surgeon creates a tiny hole in the eardrum that enables him or her to suction fluids out of the middle ear.
Ear tubes (tympanostomy tubes, ventilation tubes, pressure equalization tubes) are tiny cylinders, usually made of plastic or metal, that are surgically inserted into the eardrum. If your child is old enough to respond, before your appointment talk to the child about questions the doctor may ask and be prepared to answer questions on behalf of your child.
Have you observed possible signs of pain in your infant or toddler, such as ear pulling, difficulty sleeping or unusual irritability? The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Here is some inspiring pictures about Home Ent Doctor Singapore Treatment Of Ear Nose Throat Allergy . A bacterial or viral infection of this fluid is usually what produces the symptoms of an ear infection. This function may make them particularly vulnerable to infection, inflammation and swelling.


Inflammation of adenoids is more likely to play a role in ear infections in children because children have relatively larger adenoids. The middle ear is separated from your external ear by the eardrum and connected to the back of your nose and throat by a narrow passageway called the eustachian tube. Children between the ages of 6 months and 2 years are more susceptible to ear infections because of the size and shape of their eustachian tubes and because of their poorly developed immune systems. Children cared for in group settings are more likely to get colds and ear infections than are children who stay home because they're exposed to more infections, such as the common cold. Babies who drink from a bottle, especially while lying down, tend to have more ear infections than do babies who are breast-fed. Ear infections are most common during the fall and winter when colds and flu are prevalent. Exposure to tobacco smoke or high levels of air pollution can increase the risk of ear infection. Mild hearing loss that comes and goes is fairly common with an ear infection, but it usually returns to what it was before the infection after the infection clears. If hearing is temporarily or permanently impaired in infants and toddlers, they may experience delays in speech, social and developmental skills. Untreated infections or infections that don't respond well to treatment can spread to nearby tissues.
The doctor will likely use a lighted instrument (an otoscope) to look at the ears, throat and nasal passage. This test measures how much sound emitted from a device is reflected back from the eardrum — an indirect measure of fluids in the middle ear. Rarely, a doctor may use a tiny tube that pierces the eardrum to drain fluid from the middle ear — a procedure called tympanocentesis. If your child has had persistent ear infections or persistent fluid buildup in the middle ear, your doctor may refer you to a hearing specialist (audiologist), speech therapist or developmental therapist for tests of hearing, speech skills, language comprehension or developmental abilities. If the diagnosis is otitis media with effusion, the doctor has found evidence of fluid in the middle ear, but there are presently no signs or symptoms of infection. If the doctor makes a diagnosis of chronic suppurative otitis media, he or she has found that a persistent ear infection resulted in tearing or perforation of the eardrum. What's best for your child depends on many factors, including your child's age and the severity of symptoms.A wait-and-see approachSymptoms of ear infections usually improve within the first couple of days, and most infections clear up on their own within one to two weeks without any treatment. Talk to your doctor about the benefits of antibiotics weighed against the potential side effects and concern about overuse of antibiotics creating strains of resistant disease.Managing painYour doctor will advise you on treatments to lessen pain from an ear infection. Your doctor may advise the use of over-the-counter acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) to relieve pain. Failing to do so can result in recurring infection and resistance of bacteria to antibiotic medications.
A tiny tube (tympanostomy tube) is placed in the opening to help ventilate the middle ear and prevent the accumulation of more fluids.
An ear tube creates an airway that ventilates the middle ear and prevents the accumulation of fluids behind the eardrum. You may be referred to a specialist in ear, nose and throat (ENT) disorders (otolaryngologist) if the problem has persisted for some time, is not responding to treatment or has occurred frequently. Teach your children to wash their hands frequently and thoroughly and to not share eating and drinking utensils.


This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Click image to get bigger picture, and if you find Home Ent Doctor Singapore Treatment Of Ear Nose Throat Allergy interesting, you might pin it to Pinterest. It may also occur because of some dysfunction or noninfectious blockage of the eustachian tubes. People with seasonal allergies may have a greater risk of ear infections during seasonal high pollen counts. Persistent infection or persistent fluids in the middle ear may result in more significant hearing loss. He or she will also likely listen to your child breathe with a stethoscope.Pneumatic otoscopeAn instrument called a pneumatic otoscope is often the only specialized tool a doctor needs to make a diagnosis of an ear infection. The device, which seals off the ear canal, adjusts air pressure in the canal, thereby causing the eardrum to move. Tests to determine the infectious agent in the fluid may be beneficial if an infection hasn't responded well to previous treatments. Your doctor likely makes this diagnosis if he or she observes signs of fluid in the middle ear, if there are signs or symptoms of an infection, and if the onset of symptoms was relatively sudden. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about what to do if you accidentally skip a dose.Ear tubesIf your child has recurrent otitis media or otitis media with effusion, your doctor may recommend a procedure to drain fluid from the middle ear.
Some tubes are intended to stay in place for six months to a year and then fall out on their own. You'll receive instructions on how to suction fluids out through the ear canal before administering drops.MonitoringChildren with frequent or persistent infections or with persistent fluid in the middle ear will need to be monitored closely. Seasonal flu shots, pneumococcal and other bacterial vaccines may help prevent ear infections.
If there is some permanent damage to the eardrum or other middle ear structures, permanent hearing loss may occur. This instrument enables the doctor to look in the ear and judge whether there is fluid behind the eardrum. The device quantifies how well the eardrum moves and provides an indirect measure of pressure within the middle ear. However, the more pressure there is from fluid in the middle ear, the more sound the eardrum will reflect.
Otitis media is defined as three episodes of infection in six months or four episodes of infection in a year with at least one occurring in the past six months. Rarely, serious middle ear infections spread to other tissues in the skull, including the brain or the membranes surrounding the brain (meningitis). Children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should never take aspirin because aspirin has been linked with Reye's syndrome. Otitis media with effusion is persistent fluid buildup in the ear after an infection has cleared up or in the absence of any infection. If the middle ear is filled with fluid, your doctor will observe little to no movement of the eardrum.Additional testsYour doctor may perform other diagnostic tests if there is any doubt about a diagnosis, if the condition hasn't responded to previous treatments, or if there are other persistent or serious problems.



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