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While digital TV, both broadcast and IP-delivered, offers great potential for interactivity and receiver functionality, it is all too easy to overlook the needs of those affected by sensory and physical disabilities. The World Health Organisation (WHO) states, in a 2013 Fact Sheet, that there are a billion people worldwide with some form of disability. According to the European Disability Forum (EDF), One in four Europeans has a family member with a disability, suggesting that around 25% of households in Europe include someone with a disability. Using an audio-visual medium like digital television creates challenges for specific groups of disabled and older people. From early on, the DTG has recognised the needs of disabled television consumers and has been active in trying to harness opportunities to improve the accessibility of digital television.
DTG and its members contributed significantly to the Government's Digital Action Plan, including in the work to ensure that accessible solutions were available to older and disabled people as switchover was taking place in the UK. More recently, the DTG's focus has been on Connected TV and ensuring that access services such as subtitles and audio description are as widely available as possible. As television evolves, the DTG Accessibility Working Group continues to develop guidance, define opportunities to harness new technologies to improve services and products and raises awareness amongst key stakeholders about the need for accessible solutions and content. The DTG's ground-breaking work on Text-to-Speech for digital television (see Text to Speech tab above), through a partnership with DigitalEurope, culminated in an International Standard IEC 62731: Text-to-speech for television - General requirements. In addition to ongoing work to keep the U-Book up to date, the Accessibility Working Group is now also preparing guidelines on the clarity of broadcast speech.
DTG U-Book: UK Digital TV Usability and Accessibility Guidelines, including Text to Speech, Version 3, December 2014.
The DTG Receiver Recommendations publication gives details of the mandatory requirements for accessibility features in receivers. The older DTG Implementation Guidelines and Recommendations for Text-to-Speech have been updated and are now included in the U-Book. Hearing loss is often categorised on the basis of degree of loss, from mild, moderate to severe and profound. A common problem for people with hearing loss is that people experience difficulty in discerning speech from background.
Subtitles are essential for many people with hearing loss, while Sign Language interpretation opens up content for those for whom Sign Language is their first language. Despite common misconceptions, blind and partially sighted people do use television, just like other consumers.
Like other conditions, colour blindness comes in varying degrees from mild over moderate to severe. The term "physical disabilities" covers a quite wide ranging set of conditions and abilities. For this group, interface accessibility (usually via alternative input devices) tends to be a high priority. Sometimes the origins are genetic, in other cases the result of injury, trauma or as a consequence of diseases such as meningitis or brain tumours. Dyslexia is often included in the group of cognitive disabilities, being primarily a reading disability.
DTG U-Book: UK Digital TV Usability and Accessibility Guidelines, including Text to Speech,Version 3, December 2014. The DTG Accessibility Working Group maintains the U-Book, the UK Digital TV Usability and Accessibility Guidelines, including Text to Speech.
Part A - Usability Guidelines: information on the best industry practices for ensuring a good, usable customer experience when using digital television products. Part B - Accessibility Guidelines: offers guidelines to manufacturers wishing to incorporate accessibility features into their products.
Part C - Connected TV Implementation Guidelines: these are currently under development by the Working Group and expected to be published later this year. The challenges that disabled and older people face when using television can be divided between interface accessibility barriers and impediments in using the television content itself.
Also, as more and more features are added to television products and services, some viewers find them more complicated to use. Connected TV also offers new prospects for improved accessibility beyond what could be done with traditional solutions. However, in addition to content accessibility, the television product itself, its User Interface (UI), also needs to be accessible to people with sight loss. Such talking features provide a spoken alternative to the visual menus and other components of the default interface. The Digital TV Group, working with organisations representing blind and partially-sighted users, has been a pioneer in this field. Later, this excellent piece of work by DTG was adopted by DigitalEurope and taken to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). As a result of this work, we have seen more and more solutions with integrated text-to-speech (talking features) being introduced to the UK market. In order to make television content accessible to people with sensory disabilities and to older viewers, the UK has been a forerunner in the delivery of subtitling, signing or audio description.
Audio description and subtitles are closed services, which means the viewer can turn them on or off as they require. Subtitles are an elective service which, when turned on, provides a text representation of the dialogue or commentary. Another issue is the availability of subtitles on non-domestic TV receivers such as are found in many hotels and fed from an in-house distribution system. Whilst subtitling is the obvious facility to assist the hard-of-hearing in accessing TV programmes, for many viewers with moderate hearing loss subtitles are intrusive in a family-viewing environment and unnecessary if the TV audio can be made available to them at a higher level than for normal viewing or in a processed form that emphasises the higher frequencies. The provision of facilities for enabling both the main and any secondary audio outputs simultaneously is strongly encouraged. Audio Description is an additional narrative that describes the visual elements of a programme, such as the scene, actions, body language and expressions and is intended to make the programme clear through sound.
Broadcast-mix: this comes as alternative audio including both the standard programme audio and the audio description track, brought together by the broadcaster.
Receiver-mix: this is where the audio description is an additional audio track that the receiver combines with the main audio. According to the 2011 Census, there are approximately 25,000 people who use British Sign Language (BSL) as their first language. Complaints from viewers about the difficulty of understanding dialogue ranks high on the list of calls to broadcasters.
In 2010 BBC Vision carried out two separate surveys with its Pulse on-line panel of 20,000 viewers to identify the issues which caused problems with television sound.
Clarity of speech: poor and very fast delivery, mumbling and muffled dialogue, turning away from camera, people talking over each other, trailing off at the end of sentences.
Unfamiliar or strong accents: Audiences find accents other than their own harder to understand. Background noise - locations with heavy traffic, babbling streams, farmyard animals, in fact any intrusive background noise can make it difficult to hear what's being said.
Background music - particularly heavily percussive music or music with spikes that cut across dialogue.
A common problem for people with hearing loss is that they experience difficulty in discerning speech from background sounds. More than 10 million people in the UK have hearing loss—about one in six of the population. Age-related damage to the cochlea, or presbycusis, is the single biggest cause of hearing loss. Most of the 9 million deaf and hard of hearing people have developed a hearing loss as they get older. The curves below illustrate the way in which hearing loss increases with age, both basic sensitivity and frequency-dependent loss. A vital factor is that a majority of consonants, which are crucial to understanding, are centred in the higher frequency range, where hearing loss is most marked.
While subtitles are a solution for some viewers, many of those suffering from mild hearing loss prefer not to use subtitles, particularly for news programmes, as the delay and errors can be distracting. A study carried out by the BBC in 2003 revealed that the over-55s account for nearly 40% of peak-time audiences, and that the average time spent watching all channels was, at 4hrs 21mins, about 45 minutes longer for the 55 – 65 year-old than for the population as a whole.
Considering just the over-65s, 29% of programmes posed speech audibility problems to at least 10% of their viewers.
You can hear for yourself what it's like to have impaired hearing by using software simulators. University College London's HearLoss - an interactive Windows PC program for demonstrating to normally hearing people the effects of hearing loss. University of Cambridge Inclusive Design Kit - demonstrates some of the main effects of common types of hearing loss in the UK. Many of the difficulties affecting the clarity of speech can be reduced or removed by care taken in the production process, including pre-production planning and quality control. Whenever possible, prior to release a programme should be played through domestic quality loudspeakers to someone not involved in the post production so that any instances of unclear dialogue can be identified and rectified prior to transmission. The BBC's College of Production has made a number of useful training videos giving practical advice on, among many other things, acquiring, recording and post-producing sound for television. The RS 195 is specially tailored to the needs of people who suffer from hearing loss, and is the first wireless headphones that compensate for hearing limitations while also delivering high audio quality. In addition to providing sound quality adjustments, the headphones automatically optimize the volume so manual readjustments are no longer required.
The RS 195 transmitter also serves as a charger and has numerous settings, so that the sound can be customized to each usera€™s preferences. In order to ensure consistently reliable, high-quality audio transmission with minimal latency, the RS 195 uses Sennheisera€™s latest digital wireless transmission, which is based on 2.4-GHz band and has a very stable range of up to 100 metres. Many parents today are concerned that their kids may be spending too much time on the Internet. Parents around the world are concerned that their kids may be spending so much time in the “screen world”, that their kids may be missing out on real life experiences. It’s estimated that kids and teens between the ages of 8 to 28 spend about 44.5 hours each week in front of digital screens.
About 23% of kids and teens have reported that they actually feel as if they have addictions to video games.
However, it’s up to parents to regulate the amount of time their kids spend online each day. Just like any other addiction, Internet addiction can be a way for your kids to escape the real world. Talk with your child about the things you read and hear, especially the things you find interesting.
If you demonstrate excitement about learning and are open to your children pursuing their own interest areas, it will be hard for them to resist the opportunities.
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Do not place a baby on a waterbed, sofa, soft mattress, pillow, or other soft sufrace to sleep. Even women who put a lot of thought and planning into eating the right foods can miss out on important vitamins. The National Council on Folic Acid recommends that all women who can become pregnant consume 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid daily to prevent serious birth defects of the brain and spine. Studies have shown that, if taken before and during early pregnancy, folic acid can dramatically reduce the number of birth defects of the brain and spine called neural tube defects.
Half of all pregnancies are unplanned; that’s why it’s important to start taking a multivitamin with folic acid now, even if you’re not planning a pregnancy. Getting 400 mcg of folic acid each day might also help protect against disease and promote long-term health.
Taking a daily multivitamin containing 400 mcg of folic acid is an easy way to make sure you get enough of this B-vitamin. In today’s fast-paced world, busy schedules often make it difficult to be sure you’re getting the vitamins and minerals you need from your diet every day. Replace standard bulbs with low-heat CFL (compact fluorescent lights) or LED (light emitting diodes) bulbs as standard light bulbs emit a lot of heat.
Take cool rather than hot showers and keep the bathroom exhaust fan on for about 20 minutes afterward to remove excess heat and humidity. If you are worried that your child has one or more of these signs, take your child to a doctor or hospital.
If your child is going outdoors, use an SPF 30+ sunscreen on your child’s face, hands and any other parts of the body that aren’t covered by clothes. Recently, researchers have been looking at whether sunscreens harm babies younger than one year old (most authorities don’t recommend sunscreen under the age of six months).
If you use only small amounts of sunscreen on uncovered areas such as the face and hands, and use clothing to cover most of the body, rather than slathering your baby’s legs, arms and body in sunscreen), the tiny amount of sunscreen that might be absorbed shouldn’t harm your baby.
Never leave babies or young children alone in a car, even to run a quick errand, no matter what the weather.
Make sure air can circulate around them – for example, by removing any padding around the cot. Cover mattresses and waterproof sheets with thick layers of cotton sheets to absorb perspiration and prevent prickly heat rash. See How to be patient for some more general ideas on letting a little more patience into your life.
If you do not allow children to do things their way, this takes away their autonomy and potentially stunts their ability to discover things for themselves.
If you feel that a situation is getting out of hand with a child, take a step back and create space between you and the child.
A child who is given time with an adult soaks up the message that the busyness of adult life can wait, that childhood is a good time, and that there is no need to grow up too quickly.
Another kind of patience that can be hard to find is when dealing with an infinitely stubborn child. If impatience is running your life and threatening your relationships, consider seeking professional help to gain some insight as to why. We recommend that your child eat 3 meals per day plus snacks in between, from a variety of foods. Offer your child plenty of variety, and don’t worry if they refuse some things – they’ll make up for it by eating other foods. Present your child’s food in different ways, like offering meat as hamburgers or meatballs.
To help prevent choking offer food that matches children’s chewing and grinding ability, and avoid small, round, hard foods like nuts and grapes.
Young children need some fat in their diets for energy and growth, but it’s important not to have high-fat and high-sugar foods (eg, chips, lollies and ice cream) every day. Try to offer snacks and treats well before mealtimes so your child has time to get hungry again. Helping children to learn to behave the way you want them to is one of the most important jobs of being a parent. Know the times when your child is likely to have a tantrum, such as when they are tired, hungry or frustrated – have food and drink on hand or give them something else to do to calm them down. Your health care provider will be able to support you with strategies to manage your child’s tantrums. Look after your child’s first teeth by brushing them twice a day – after breakfast and before bed.
Regular check-ups of your child’s teeth increase the chances of finding and treating any tooth decay (holes) early. If your child accidentally bumps their teeth, take them to a dentist, even if the teeth still look all right. Teaching a child to read is a fulfilling and educational process, both for the parent and child. As your child ages to elementary school level, try reading them books that might be above their reading level but that have an interesting or engaging story to get them interested. Look for books that combine other senses along with the reading, to help your small child to interact as you tell them the story. Help to teach your child critical thinking skills by asking open-ended questions about stories. Because your child may be touching and reading the books often, be sure to choose ones that have wipeable pages and that aren’t incredibly sentimental. A fancy bookshelf may seem like the most attractive option, but until your child is in school focus on the utilitarian purposes of book storage. It is easier for children to develop phonemic awareness when words are broken down into their smallest parts.
Don’t move onto explicit phonics until your child has developed adequate phonemic awareness.
Don’t use whole stories or books yet; have your child read from word lists or from a basic story (not focusing on the plot). Make a questions list that your child can read; their ability to read and understand the provided questions is nearly as helpful as answering the questions themselves.
You’ll notice an enhanced reading ability as your child learns to spell by decoding and sounding out words. Reading out loud doesn’t have to be limited to stories; whenever you are around words, have your child sound them out to you.
If your child has no patience to learn to read and would rather watch TV, try turning on the closed-captions and encouraging them to follow along.
Whether you’re in the backyard, at the beach or at a community swimming pool, keep your toddler safe by following these simple tips. Whenever infants or toddlers are in or around water, an adult should be within arm’s reach to provide active supervision. Every child is different, so enroll your child in swimming lessons when you feel he or she is ready.
Remember that things such as water wings, noodles and other swimming aids are fun toys for kids, but they should never be used in place of a U.S.
Install a door alarm, a window alarm or both to alert you if a child wanders into the pool area unsupervised.
Most women sail through pregnancy and the postpartum period but it is good to be prepared for any untoward incidents. Have had fluid gushing or leaking from your vagina (the amniotic sac has ruptured) AND you know or think the umbilical cord is bulging into your vagina (cord prolapse).
A common method of checking your baby’s movement is to count the number of kicks or moves you feel in an hour. Uterine tenderness, unexplained fever, or general weakness (possible symptoms of infection). Between 20 and 37 weeks, more than four to six contractions in one hour could indicate preterm labor. After 37 weeks, contractions every five minutes for one to two hours could indicate labour.
Between 20 and 37 weeks, preterm labour could be indicated by low back pain or pelvic pressure that does not go away, or intestinal cramping with or without diarrhea. Get emergency help if you think you are in danger for example if you have a seizure or pass out. Your breasts are painful or red and you have a fever, which are symptoms of breast engorgement and mastitis.
Your vaginal bleeding seems to be getting heavier or is still bright red four days after delivery, or you pass blood clots larger than the size of a golf ball.
You have a severe headache, visual problems, or sudden swelling of your face, hands, or feet. You buy those little mittens to protect your infants precious little face, but eventually those mittens have to come off and here is how you can trim those thin, sharp finger nails. Studies have warned that prolonged exposure to screens and devices — televisions, computers, tablets, phones, and the like — may cause attention, socialisation, emotional and physiological problems in children. That being said, when regulated well, there are devices and programmes that can engage a child in a more compelling manner and aid in their development. Yes, the first step to getting children interested in life is for parents to be engaged themselves.
One of the most effective means of getting a child to participate is to engage them with activities that stimulate the senses. For the more adventurous, attempt to create funkier supplies that would befuddle the minds of your young ones.
The creation of sounds and music is another sensory activity that warrants its own introduction. Getting a pet might seem like even more work for the already overwhelmed working parent, and it is. Furthermore, consider adopting a pet from a rescue shelter — teach your child the importance of responsible and the sanctity of life before involving them in the decision-making process.
Allowing your children to make their own decisions about what they want to learn or play with is another way to make them interested in what they are doing. This way, the young ones are not only engaged in all their senses, they are also getting some exercise, and reconnecting with nature as well. Otherwise, write a short story: it will get the young ones’ imagination racing and enable their wildest dreams to come to life.
Make each engagement session a special event where you as parents, get to bond with children.
Grateful young children compared to their less grateful counterparts are happier and more optimistic, have better social support,  are more satisfied with their school, family, community, friends, and themselves, and give more emotional support to others.

Using an authoritative or democratic parenting style, which is firm, yet flexible, sup- ports children’s autonomy. After you’ve identified your children’s top strengths and you know their unique strengths profile, you should encourage and help them to use those strengths whenever possible. It’s very easy for people, especially youth, to pursue extrinsic—or materialistic—goals such as desiring or having possessions that show wealth, status, or convey a certain image. Trying to make grateful kids isn’t just an issue for families; it’s an issue for society as well. It also confirms that the incidence of disability is increasing due to population ageing, amongst other causes. Individuals with sight or hearing loss are particularly affected, but there are also accessibility challenges for people with physical and cognitive disabilities.
DTG has also published the U-Book, which complements the DTG D-Book and provides detailed Usability and Accessibility Guidelines for manufacturers. The Working Group includes representatives of manufacturers, broadcasters, charities and organisations working for those with a wide range of disabilities, including sight and hearing loss. Nevertheless, for practical reasons it may be helpful to identify some of the key stakeholder groups for the DTG's accessibility and usability work. People who develop hearing loss later in life usually have acquired spoken language, whereas those born deaf or with severe hearing loss from birth (or shortly thereafter) often use British Sign Language (BSL). Even the minor hearing loss that is a natural result of ageing leads to a noticeable reduction in the ability to follow dialogue over background sound. In fact, many people with sight loss have some perception and most, of course, are able to enjoy the sound. In most cases colour blindness is genetically inherited, while diseases such as diabetes and medication are other common causes. Nevertheless, colour blindness can occur for the whole colour spectrum and even black can be confused for dark green or dark blue in some cases.
This user group includes people with motor impairments, dexterity barriers as well as wheelchair users and individuals with missing or differently formed limbs. Indeed, there exist many types of cognitive disabilities covering a wide range of difficulties and deficits involving language understanding, reading, memory, visual comprehension, problem solving, reasoning and reduced mathematical comprehension. Sight and hearing loss, reduced dexterity and sometimes decreased cognitive faculties are all typical corollaries of getting older.
This part includes guidance on remote controls, Electronic Programme Guides, User Interfaces, labelling, user documentation, etc. In addition, the DTG Receiver Recommendations give details of the mandatory requirements for accessibility features in receivers. The advent of Connected TV brings many benefits to viewers, bringing together traditional television services with Internet based content. However, the added functionality and jargon of Connected TV can create new challenges for accessibility and usability. The U-Book's Connected TV section identifies these opportunities to harness Connected TV as a means to bring innovation to accessibility-related features and content.
Where content is concerned, the DTG and the UK have been pioneers in the provision of audio description, a major feature to give this user group an equivalent experience in consuming television programmes. A talking interface can provide a substantial improvement in accessibility and usability for this group of consumers. By using text-to-speech in a television solution, a person operating the product via the spoken interface will receive the same feedback and be able to perform the same tasks as someone using the default (visual) interface. It started work on text-to-speech in 2007, bringing together industry and other stakeholders to write a technical specification for Text to Speech (this has since been included in the U-Book). The U-Book contains best practice guidance surrounding the implementation of access services in digital television solutions.
They are normally shown at the bottom of the picture and benefit from the use of different-coloured characters for different speakers, when applicable. Whilst many receivers have an option for the audio to be processed to give an output that is more intelligible for the hard-of-hearing, this is suitable only for solitary viewing.
Audio Description is used primarily by blind and partially sighted people and supplements the dialogue spoken by the cast.
When activating broadcast-mix audio description, the receiver selects this alternative instead of the default audio. The research showed that nearly 60% of viewers had some trouble hearing what was said in TV programmes. This includes over six million people who could benefit from hearing aids (hearing loss of at least 35dB in the better ear). With HearLoss you can replay speech, music and noise under a variety of loudness, filtering and masking conditions typical of hearing impairments.
Use of a hearing-loss simulator provides a convenient way of checking the clarity of the speech element of a programme and is encouraged.
The RS 195 compensates for age-related hearing loss through personalised sound adjustments that can be adapted to each usera€™s preferences and individual hearing levels. The user can optimise the sound quality and speech intelligibility to reproduce every detail of their favorite TV programs and music. In addition to TV noise suppression and switchable modes for speech and music, the device has seven presets options with different sound profiles. These days, kids and especially teens need the Internet to research information for school projects. Plus, kids don’t like to take time away from their digital screens to sit down to healthy meals. This can lead to an internet addiction, which just like any other type of addiction, can destroy a healthy balance of interests and activities in your teen’s life.
And, make sure it’s situated so that you can easily view the screen when you step into the room.
Troubling situations and painful feelings may be suppressed, which will only cause bigger problems later in life. A passion for learning is quite different from just studying to earn a grade or to please parents or teachers. If they show curiosity about a hobby, area of study, sport, or instrument, encourage and support them in any way your finances allow.
School, educational games and television, and a shelf full of books all can’t accomplish what you can in the education of your child. Fostering independence in your child is very important for their brain development and how they feel about learning. Attend school functions, volunteer in the classroom if possible, and communicate with the teacher.
Some things are not taught in a class room, but that doesn’t mean they are worth exploring. If your child makes a low grade, don’t scream and yell, but instead show them what they did wrong and help them understand.
Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Encourage Your Child to Love Learning.
It is found in most standard multivitamins, as well as in fortified foods like cereal, bread and pasta. New research also suggests that folic acid might reduce the risk of other birth defects, such as cleft lip and palate and some heart defects. New research indicates that folic acid may reduce the risk of heart disease, as well as colon, breast and cervical cancer. Preparing healthy meals often takes a back seat to other activities, and even people who eat a balanced diet every day may not get enough folic acid from their diet alone. Check your food in the oven by looking through the glass rather than opening the door and cover pots to reduce indoor humidity.
Make sure your ceiling fans run in a counterclockwise direction to help keep you cool during evaporation.
Sunscreen works better if you put it on 20 minutes before you go outside, and reapply it every two hours. They have studied whether a baby’s thin skin can absorb chemicals from sunscreen, which might damage the baby’s organs.
To cool hot little bodies, try frequent lukewarm baths, or sponge your child down with a cool face washer. Patience gives us time to reflect, to slow down and think about the world and the things we’re doing.
When the daily chores mount up and everyone is rushing about, sometimes it’s easy to take one another for granted.
Allow a child to try new things often, so as to give them a sense of self-trust and personal responsibility. Children are ready to trust and soak up information from the people who care for them and spend time with them.
Instead of seeking to control, patience allows the child to grow at their own pace, rather than being pushed into doing things before being ready. This breathing space is important for both of you, after which you can express your thoughts and establish boundaries when you are collected, rather than channeling your concerns through frustration.
It can be very hard to be patient sometimes in a world where teaching Mozart in the womb and expectations of exemplary behavior from preschool are considered the norm. Sometimes our greatest impatience arises when we allow our own endeavors such as work, personal pursuits, hobbies, sports, etc., to get in the way of spending time with children. The point of life is being with one another, a gift that can only be imparted to a child in the doing.
In this case, part of the trick is to have a good sense of humor, not at the child but about the situation. People who have adopted or fostered children who have experienced hardship or horrors, such as living through a war, a famine, or violence of any kind, often attest to the need for waiting patiently while the child learns to trust again, to unfurl from the cocoon of safety in which the child has wrapped themselves up as they realize that people do care again and that they are respected. At the core of severe impatience could be psychological issues that can be successfully worked through with the right kind of help and support. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Be Patient With Kids. If your child is rejecting certain foods and drinks, there’s a range of things you can do to encourage their eating.
Always make sure your child sits down while they’re eating and drinking and that an adult is with them. If your child drinks more than 2 cups of milk (500 ml) a day, they may not eat well because they’re already full. If you want them to behave in a kind and calm way, they need to see you often being kind and calm.
Make sure that everyone who looks after your child agrees on TV time, eating, playing, bedtime and general expectations. They’ll feel a lot safer when they know what the limits are, even though they will test them sometimes. Here are some tips to stop tantrums before they start, and to help your child when they do have a tantrum. You may find it easier to stand behind your child and gently tilt their head back as you brush. Don’t rinse with water, because a small amount of fluoride toothpaste left around the teeth will help to protect them.
To protect your child’s teeth, give them low-sugar snacks between meals such as fruit, fresh vegetables, yoghurt and other dairy foods. Do not give your child drinks that have natural or added sugar, such as fruit juice, cordial, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks and chocolate drinks. Whether you home school your kids or just want to give your child a head-start, you can begin teaching your child to read at home. As with all things, it’s difficult to get good at something without having a bit of exposure to it.
It’s no good if you have books around, but located in places that your child can’t easily take them.
This can be done in two ways: create your own mini-library at home by collecting dozens of books in your child’s reading level, or make weekly trips to the local public library together to check out books. Before you even start getting into the alphabet and sound specifics, help your child recognize that the lines on the page are directly correlated to the words you are speaking. In the recent past, some companies have advertised specialized flashcards to help babies, toddlers, and preschool age children to read. When your child has developed word awareness, begin breaking down words into individual letters.
One of the most important steps in teaching reading is associating a spoken sound with a letter or letter-pair. Avoid confusion and build a solid foundation by working at a steady pace through all of the speech sounds. This can be done with the clapping game (clapping out each syllable in a word) or by sounding-out words into their individual letters. Rhyming teaches phonemic awareness and letter recognition, in addition to the most basic English words.
Traditionally, children are taught to recognize a word based on its size, the first and last letters, and the general sound. If they cannot associate sounds with letters or letter pairs quickly, they need a bit more practice before moving onto complete words.
Classically known as ‘sounding out’ words, decoding is when a child reads a word by making the sounds of each individual letter, rather than trying to read the whole word at once. Regional accents and weak auditory skills make it hard for children to say most sounds in an academically correct way.
Preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders are very concrete in the way they think and cannot handle complicated concepts.
Certain words in the English vocabulary are spoken often, but don’t follow the typical phonics rules. Odds are, your child will be in school by the time they are able to read and will be given their own reading material by their teachers. Similar to when you were reading stories to your child, every time your child reads ask them questions about what they’ve just read. Reading is a necessary precursor to writing, but as your child develops reading skills have them practice their writing in conjunction. You’ll be given a better idea of your child’s reading ability when they read out loud, and they’ll be forced to slow down their reading to correctly sound out words.
Road signs are a great example of something your child sees on a daily basis, and can practice reading out loud to you.
They can recognize some shapes and correlate them to pictures, but it is not really reading. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Teach Your Child to Read.
Families who have meals at the table with no distractions (such as mobile devices or television) are found to be more likely to be a healthy weight.
We know it’s hard to get everything done without a little multitasking, but this is the time to avoid distractions of any kind. It will give you tremendous peace of mind – and the more peace of mind you have as a parent, the better. Make sure backyard pools have four-sided fencing that’s at least 4 feet high and a self-closing, self-latching gate to prevent a child from wandering into the pool area unsupervised. This is quite rare, but if it happens, immediately get down on your knees and drop your head and upper body lower than your buttocks to decrease pressure on the cord until help arrives.
You are passing blood clots and soaking through a new sanitary pad every hour for two or more hours.
They do not grow as fast, but you don’t want your baby scratching up his or her little legs. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Trim an Infant’s Fingernails. However, in this day and age, many parents forgo quality bonding time with their children simply because it is easier to thrust a smart device under their child’s nose and allow them to entertain themselves. Still, engaging a child through real-life activities and parental interaction are crucial and instrumental to their well-being and holistic growth.
Put down your phones, stow away your tablets, set aside your e-mails and place all of your attention on your little ones.
This way, they are more aware with their surroundings and are more likely to explore the world around them. Try combining corn starch with water to form a more viscous, semi-liquid, semi-solid resource that children can marvel over and experiment with. The hands-on experience coupled with the aromas — fragrant or otherwise — will be more than a stimulating experience. Create a challenge of recording as many different sounds as possible within a period of time.
However, rearing pets is also a great way of teaching a child the virtues of responsibility and commitment from young. Sate their innate curiosity and have them learn as they explore their natural surroundings. Even if they are too young to actually write, give them a hand by noting down what they dictate — it is a great way to get children to organise their thoughts and to expand their vocabulary. Value each opportunity given to educate your children when they are still at an impressionable and receptive age. Engaging your children helps them to stay connected with the real world and to be more emotionally and mentally stable, as compared to oblivious and spoilt children glued to their monitors and devices. This will enhance family relationships, improve the atmosphere at home, and help bring out their strengths and talents, all good for making grateful kids. Not only does this open up opportunities for others to contribute to the things your children love, but it also enables your children to strengthen their ability to be helpful and cooperative toward others, which will make them more grateful. This usually leads to less fulfilling social relationships and forecloses prospects for developing deep connections with others and genuine gratitude. When children lend a hand, especially while using their strengths, they feel more connected to those they’re helping, which helps them to develop and nurture friendships and social relationships. As adults, it’s our job to help kids discover their passions and to find a path to purpose that resonates with them— with their values, interests, and dreams. Don’t worry - most parents make common mistakes like putting on a diaper lopsided or backward, getting a spray of urine from their baby boy, etc. Being able to use television programmes is not just nice to have, but indeed a key part of citizenship and participation.
BSL was recognised by the Government as a language in its own right in March 2003 Using the 2011 Census there are approximately 25,000 people in the UK aged three and over who use sign language as their main language. The DTG Accessibility Working Group is currently involved in a clean audio project to improve the audibility of speech in television programmes. Nevertheless, blind people and those with significant sight loss are arguably the group that faces the biggest accessibility challenges. The use of specialised keyboards, large button remotes, single switch devices and voice control are amongst the tools used by this group.
While the degree of disability in older people is generally milder compared to other groups of disabled people, it is compounded by the fact that several of these conditions, both physical and sensory, tend to co-exist amongst these consumers rather than a single disability dominating the individual's profile of abilities and preferences. Subtitles are the most used access service in the UK, with millions of viewers enjoying them.
To achieve this, Sennheiser worked with Fraunhofer IDMT, which has developed signal processing strategies based on hearing aid technology for use in consumer electronics. These profiles compress, accentuate or reinforce the high, mid and bass ranges, while also compensating for individual hearing loss. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (NIH) reports that “screen time” as a whole is the problem.
And, when used properly, it can be a reliable source of information for kids who simply love to read or want to learn more about specific topics. If screen time seems to be a problem, spend more time talking to your kids to find out why. Those who develop a love of learning at an early age continue the process throughout their lives and are generally more successful, interesting, and happier than those who don’t. Sometimes, activities seem too difficult for your child only because you haven’t encouraged them to do it yet.
For good grades, don’t buy big, expensive things to celebrate (at least not all the time). Also, tighten all nuts, bolts, and screws every few months, and check the mattress support hangers and hooks regularly. To get enough folic acid, women should take a daily multivitamin and eat fortified grains as part of a healthy, well-balanced diet.
These illnesses often lead to a slight rise in temperature by themselves but, in hot weather, this could lead to dehydration. Even a very young child can indicate their likes and dislikes; allowing these to express themselves at appropriate occasions is important. Taking time now and then to express your gratitude for your children will help you to respect them for the unique, individual beings they are, and helps them to see the importance of valuing others openly. While their attempts might sometimes cause you frustration and worry, it is important to allow children to show you their way of doing things. Trying to control children lacks respect for their own self and is a way of trying to insert your way of thinking and preferences onto them.
No matter what the competitive approach insists upon, patience gives you a means for remaining calm within yourself, to give you the perspective to recognize the readiness of a child at their own developmental pace, independent of external standards.

Whether we’re parenting, caring, teaching, working or volunteering with children, nobody is immune from impatience at times.
Find amusing, fun, and happy things to entice the child out of their stubbornness and to becoming involved with whatever it is that you’re doing. This kind of patience takes a special kind of reserve but it is absolutely vital if the child is to learn to trust again. Healthy baby teeth usually mean healthy adult teeth too, so it’s important that you look after your child’s first teeth. Use a small toothbrush with soft bristles and a smear of regular-strength fluoride toothpaste.
In order to get your child interested in reading, you should be reading to them on a regular basis. Keep books low to the ground and in typical play-areas so that your child begins to associate them with play activities. Spend a minimum of ten minutes a day reading when your child is around, so that they see you enjoying the activity on your own. Accompany this by pointing to words on the page to help them connect the lines on the page with the sounds that form words. Having a variety of books on hand (especially with an older child) will add interest for reading, and help to incorporate more vocabulary into their knowledge base. However, these don’t teach reading skills, but rather teach the children to associate a particular line drawing (word) with a correlated image. Although the alphabet song is the most classic means of teaching the alphabet, try getting creative.
Read nursery rhymes to your child, and then eventually make lists of easy-to-read rhymes such as mop, top, flop, pop, and cop. This method of teaching is known as implicit phonics - working from the largest piece down. By age four, most English speaking children already have an excellent grasp of grammar and in due time, they will learn all the formal grammatical rules.
Help them to read these whole stories by encouraging explicit phonics use, and recognizing vocabulary. At first it will be difficult for them to think critically about meanings of words and the buildup of character development and plot (or the semblance of those things in the most basic of stories), but over time they will develop the necessary skills to answer questions. They’ll develop a stronger phonemic awareness when they can see words as you read them, rather than struggling to do both at the same time themselves.
Avoid stopping your child to correct them while reading though, as doing so can interrupt their train of thought and make comprehending what they’re reading more difficult. Include your kids in simple chores like walking the dog or washing the car or organize a family bike ride. Try creating sandbags, water bags and flour bags, amongst other things, for your child to play with. Parents racing around with their children in order to make and experiment with different sounds and music can be one of the most entertaining things to do. It need not be a high maintenance pet; a small rabbit or hamster can help with the lesson too. Give them the opportunity to decide gives them ownership of the activity, which naturally translates into more engagement and interest. Or perhaps write to a relative to express their feelings and share their week, which helps with emotional maturity and expression in the long run.
Give the sessions a special name and treat them as a reward (“We’ll have a MamaBaby time after you finish your vegetables!). Expressing gratitude through words, writing, and small gifts or acts of reciprocity are all ways to teach children how to become grateful.
Giving a child a lot of quality time with you teaches them the language of love—life’s greatest gift. By taking ownership over their skills and talents and being responsible for developing them, children gain things to appreciate in life and make it easier to attract support from others, thus inviting gratitude into their daily life. To directly promote gratitude, encourage and help your children to use their strengths to thank and be kind to others. It’s our job to steer them away from pursuing extrinsic goals and toward pursuing intrinsic goals, such as engaging in activities that provide community, affiliation, and growth. A great way to do this is by teaching them through your actions that other people matter and that tending to relationships should be a priority.
This starts with feeding their interests in the social issues they care about and pushing them to learn as much as they can about those issues and discover ways they can make a difference. As our world becomes more culturally diverse and digitally connected, and as complex societal problems mount, gratitude may help catalyze the motivation and skills youth need to succeed not just academically but in the “life test” too. Yet, despite the prevalence of hearing loss, it is also an often overlooked group and one that is very diverse in terms of its make-up and requirements.
It is a visual language, with its own grammar and principles, which are completely different from the grammatical structure of English. They face significant barriers both in terms of using television products (interface accessibility) as well as with regard to content (where Audio Description is a key service for this group). Prototype systems demonstrating closed signing have been developed, but there are many technical and economic barriers to their real-world deployment.
Amongst the main user groups for subtitles are those with hearing loss, older people and those for whom English is not their first language.
To provide BSL interpretation for a television programme, a sign language interpreter is shown in-vision.
In addition to providing technical expertise, researchers conducted comprehensive user studies to ensure that the RS 195 is optimized for the needs of people with age-related hearing loss. So, how much time is considered to be too much for kids to be on the Internet and in front of screens in general? Here are a few simple things you can do to engage your child: count the number of houses, black cars, bicycles, etc.
For example, things like peeling their own banana, picking out which shirt to wear, and feeding the family cat, are all things that a young toddler can do. Learning to let go despite the messes, frustration, and mistakes that will inevitably arise is a vital skill when caring for or being with children.
It’s about respecting the wants and requests of the child within the appropriateness of the situation. Despite the worries of others, his mother took this in her stride, believing he’d speak more than enough when he was ready. Rushing can cause you to lose sight of your guiding role, and of the precious essence of the child. If you’re able, this should start when they are an infant and continue through their school years. Even if you’re not an avid reader, find something to read - a magazine, the newspaper, or a cookbook all count. In general, flashcards are not the most useful or effective technique for teaching reading skills. Explain each of the letters with their name, but don’t worry about trying to incorporate the sounds the letters make yet.
There are 44 speech sounds created by the 26 letters in our alphabet, and each sound must be taught paired with its letter(s) counterpart. Your child will begin to see the patterns of sounds that are made when certain letters are combined - in this case, the sound ‘o-p’ makes.
However, studies have shown that readable vocabulary dramatically increases (from 900 words to 30,000 words by the third grade) when taught in the opposite fashion: breaking each word into the smallest parts, and building them up into a full word - explicit phonics. Recognize that learning sounds is only an intermediate step to learning to read, it is not the goal. At this point, you need to concentrate only on the mechanical skill of reading, that is learning to decode new words and incorporating them in memory to build fluency.
As their word recognition increases, they’ll be able to more fully understand story plots and meanings. An easy and fun way to help encourage this is to use puppets who represent characters in the story, so your child can describe it to you through them. The motor memory of the letters, listening to their sounds and seeing them in writing will reinforce new learning. Younger children can learn math skills and older ones will enjoy being able to choose and prepare foods they like.
The best way to foster a child’s natural curiosity about the world around them is to bring an animal into the equation.
This way, parents can just sit back and relax with a cup of tea whilst still keeping a careful watch on their children. That way, kids will be clamouring for more time with their parents and away from smart devices. Doing this will help make your appreciation for the goodness in your life more public, showing your kids that blessings abound and that being thankful is a valued attitude. Savor every moment together, big and small, and rid yourself of distractions at such times, including your smartphone. Also, limiting children’s media consumption and guiding them to use media in prosocial ways protects them from commercial influences that discourage the development of the authenticity, self-development, and social interaction necessary to grow into positive, purposeful, grateful individuals. Not only will successfully achieving these goals fulfill children’s fundamental human needs of competency, belongingness, and autonomy, but their personal development, happiness, success, and gratitude depend on it. To help children strengthen their relationships, you should encourage them to be thoughtful of others, to thank others regularly, and to be cooperative, helpful, and giving. The deepest sense of gratitude in life comes from connecting to a bigger picture, to an issue that matters to others and doing things that contribute to society down the road. We must all do our part to help kids develop into moral adults, who will contribute to a world of compassion and care. Letting your child do things like this makes them feel more in control of their world, which in turn inspires them toward bigger and better exploits. Giving too many rewards also encourages bad habits and manners, such as bragging, and can lead to complexes (such as fear of failure).
Whether you’re raising children, or working or volunteering with them, a little patience goes a long way. Patience also enables others to accept us into their lives through our faithful, continued presence and enduring respect for them. Help the child to learn the difference between making a request and making a demand and what the consequences are. Read books at levels that they would be able to read, should they know how; at a young age this may lead you to read 3-4 small books a day. Soon they’ll become interested in reading on their own, simply as a result of seeing you doing it too.
Try to avoid them, and substitute out flashcards for another study and skill-development techniques described. This includes the long and short sound produced by each individual letter, as well as the specialized sounds some combined letters make (like ‘ch’ and ‘sh’). Help your child to begin reading by having them sound-out each individual letter without looking at the overall word first.
Adults can promote gratitude directly in children by helping them appraise the benefits they receive from others—the personal value of those benefits, the altruistic intention of people providing them, and the cost to those people. Being mindful helps you maintain empathy toward a child, and this provides important modeling of empathy, the most important emotion for developing gratitude and moral behavior.
To amplify their gratitude even more, remember to savor their accomplishments with them along the way, and encourage them to thank those who’ve helped them meet their goals.
But, while there’s no quick fix for cultivating gratitude in young people, the more we remain committed to it, the more rewards we’ll reap. When we accept the importance of patience in our lives, it becomes easier to be patient with others too. It is also important to help them understand the importance of delayed gratification, teaching them that when you do say no, sometimes this is about waiting, rather than never having or doing what they’ve asked for.
In watching and learning from your child or from other children, you will learn their character better, and see both their strengths and their weaknesses, giving you an opportunity to help them nurture the best talents and to learn to manage their weaknesses. It is a time during which you can learn a great deal about seeing the world through fresh eyes.
It will also give you and your child a heightened sense of appreciation for the things both of you love and for your relationship. Indeed, by bringing out the best in our kids, we can only imagine what blessings Generation Grateful could bring.
Thanks to intuitive user controls on the headphones, both volume and presets mode for voice and music can be controlled directly by the user. Through respecting the rhythm of ourselves and others, being patient presents an opportunity to give of ourselves rather than expecting others to conform to our wants. Helping them to understand this time perspective is far kinder than simply saying no and not explaining any further. It can also be a time when you realize that you can make a big difference in the life of a child by teaching or showing them something new, and by helping them to love and respect themselves all the more. The closed, circumaural design of the RS 195 also ensures the clear reproduction of voice and music, while being comfortable to wear for extended periods of listening. Three audio metrically matched groups of adults with hearing loss were tested to determine at what age performance declined relative to that expected on the basis of audibility. Scores for WDRC-amplified speech were slightly lower than for linearly amplified speech across all groups and noise conditions. The small reduction in scores for amplitude-modulated compared to steady noise and lack of ageinteraction suggests that the substantial deficit seen with age in multitalker babble for previous studies was due to some effect not elicited here, such as informational masking.This hypothesis is consistent with recent data that audibility also over-predicted adults performance in interrupted speech spectrum noise (Dubno et al, 2002). For example, Souza and Turner (1994) found speech recognition of older listeners with hearing loss to be 20% poorer, on average, in a background of multitalker babble versus a speech-spectrum noise with the same temporal characteristics. We do not know what the relationship between audibility and recognition will be when speech in noise is WDRC amplified.
Use of measured instead of nominal compression ratios was based onprevious work (Souza and Turner, 1999) that demonstrated improved accuracy of AAI predictions with that method.ProcedureThe listener was seated in a double walled sound-treated booth. Passages were paired according to the instructions forthe CST, in which predetermined passage pairs of are equal difficulty.
As dictated by the test instructions, the listener was told the passage topic prior to each passage. After the listener was informed of the passage topic, one sentence was played at a time.The experimenter was seated outside the sound booth and recorded the responses as the listener repeated the sentences through an intercom system. For each condition, a percent-correct score was calculated for each passage pair based on50 words. Sixteen test conditions were presented in random order, each consisting of a different background noise (steady state, amplitude modulated), SNR (-2, +2, +6, and +10 dB), and amplification type (linear, WDRC).RESULTSMean scores for each group and testcondition, averaged across the four signal-to-noise ratios, are shown in Table 3. Variability was higher for the groupswith hearing loss than for the group with normal hearing and increased slightly with increasing age. As expected, these listeners performed well evenat reduced signal audibility, reaching an asymptotic score of 100%. Sherbecoe and Studebakera€™s (2003) performance predictions for the Connected Speech Test are also shown, along with the 95% critical difference range for these materials (Cox et al, 1988). Scores for the WDRC-amplified speech were also well predicted at moderate to high audibility, although our listeners with normal hearing performed better than predicted at low audibility.
Performance for the three older groups with hearing loss is shown in Figure 4 (linear) and Figure 5 (WDRC). In each panel, predicted score according to Sherbecoe and Studebaker (2003) was plotted for comparison, along with the 95% critical difference values (Cox et al, 1988). The range of audibility was the same in each of the three groups, as expected because the mean audiogram was the same in each group. In comparison to the listeners with normal hearing, the listeners withhearing loss showed greater performancevariability, and performance for each group was poorer than predicted on the basis of audibility.Figure 3. Results are shown for the linearly amplified speech in steady noise (filled circles) and amplitude modulated noise (opencircles) and for the WDRC amplified speech in steady noise (filled triangles) and amplitude-modulated noise (open triangles). The left panel shows results for speech in steady noise, and the right panel shows results for speech in amplitude-modulated noise. Data shown are for Group 1 (filled circles), Group 2 (open circles), and Group 3 (filled triangles). To examine the effect of listener age, these data were submitted to a three-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance. Comparisons were made across the two noise types, two amplification types, and four participant groups. On average, performance for steady noise was about 1.5% below performance for amplitude modulated noise. Across all conditions and age groups, the actual-predicted difference was larger for linear than for WDRC amplification (p = .021). This was not because of higher WDRC scores; on average, linear scores were higher by 1a€“2%. Instead, this difference reflected higher AAIs (and therefore higher predicted scores) for the linear conditions.
The left panel shows results for speech in steady noise, and the right panel shows results for speech in amplitude-modulatednoise.
Data shown are for Group 1 (filled circles), Group 2 (open circles), and Group 3 (filled triangles).Solid line shows predicted performance, according to Sherbecoe and Studebaker (2003). Mean Deviation from Predicted Score (in RAU) for Each GroupIn the present study, performance worsened significantly with increasing age, even among listeners younger than75 years. Because the threegroups were well matched for amount of hearing loss, this finding was unlikely to be due to increasing threshold elevation. Indeed, the youngest of the threehearing-impaired groups had the poorest average thresholds within the 1a€“4 kHz range. Such questions are of great interest to researchers as this portion of the population increases, but we have found that practical issues of health, transportation, and fatigue limit the willingness of those adults to volunteer for research studies. We treated age as a categorical variableto allow comparison of performance across audiometrically matched groups. An alternative approach would have been to treat age as a continuousvariable, recruit listeners of various ages regardless of audiogram, and apply statistical controls for degree of hearing loss. Also, in contrast to the idea that the oldest listeners might be less able to distinguish between the varyingtemporal patterns of the speechand the masker, we found no interaction between age and type of noise. At present, this is the only index that incorporates nonlinear amplification characteristics.
For linearly amplified speech, the AAI was nearly identical to the conventional Articulation Index or Speech Intelligibility Index, albeit with small differences in the assumed short- term speech range.
Therefore, Speech Intelligibility Index derived performance predictions such as those developed by Sherbecoe and Studebaker (2003)seemed appropriate for comparison. This was further verified by the close agreement between predicted performance (using the Speech Intelligibility Index-derived transfer function) and our normal-hearing data (Figure 3). Previous work showed that the performance increase for a given increase in AAI was the same forlinearly amplified as for WDRCamplified speech (Souza and Turner,1999), suggesting that the same prediction function could be used for the WDRC condition. Because the long- term average spectrum of the amplitude- modulated noise and the steady noise was the same, the same noise levels were input to the AAI calculation for both noise backgrounds.
For the continuous noise used here, even though it is not a constant amplitude noise, the standard audibility index calculation was more appropriate. Some researchershave proposed including a correction for hearing loss a€?desensitizationa€? that would reduce predicted performance to be more typical of listeners with hearing loss. To that end, we expected that performance by the listeners with hearing loss would fall below predicted performance. Indeed, when considered as a single group of listeners with hearing loss, our results were similar to those reported by Sherbecoe and Studebaker (2003) for a variety of studies with the samematerials. We were more interested in whether the difference between predicted and actual performance varied across age groups, or with different background noises. Thus, the data presented here do not answer thequestion of whether lower-than- predicted performance for Group 1 is due to hearing loss, to age, or to a combination of those factors.Wide-Dynamic Range CompressionAmplificationFor each presented signal-to-noise ratio, audibility was higher for the linear speech.
In recent work (Souza et al, 2006), we noted a poorer signal-to-noise ratio at the output of a single channel, fast-acting WDRC system, due to an increase in noise level during the pauses between words. Although this increased the long-term average noise level and therefore lowered the AAI, it may not significantly alter performance. At least for listeners with normal hearing, we expected that increased noise during speech pauses should have little effect on speech recognition, because at those points in the signal there was no speech to recognize.
For listeners with normal hearing, the critical issue was any noise present simultaneously with target words.
This may be why the listeners with normal hearing performed better than predicted at low AAIs (Figure 4).
This study provided a limited view ofperformance relative to that predicted by audibility when speech is WDRC amplified. Based on previous work, we would expect to see little advantage of WDRC amplification at this input level, and greater improvements over multiple input levels or for low-intensity inputs (Souza and Turner, 1998; Jenstad et al,1999).
Second, multichannel WDRC amplification may also offer greater benefit, especially when the noise is lower (or higher) in frequency than speech and when reduced gain in some channels might improve the signal-to- noise ratio. Prediction of speech recognition from audibility and psychoacoustic abilities of hearing impaired listeners.

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