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How to cite this article:Rabinowitz PM, Galusha D, McTague MF, Slade MD, Wesdock JC, Dixon-Ernst C. How to cite this URL:Rabinowitz PM, Galusha D, McTague MF, Slade MD, Wesdock JC, Dixon-Ernst C.
Tracking occupational hearing loss across global industries: A comparative analysis of metrics. Impact of OSHA final rule-recording hearing loss: An analysis of an industrial audiometric dataset. Americans hear as well or better today compared with 40 years ago: Hearing threshold levels in the unscreened adult population of the United States, 1959-1962 and 1999-2004. One consequence of this is that the metrics mandated by various local regulatory authorities may differ between countries, or even between administrative divisions of a single country such as Canada.Hearing conservation programs rely upon audiometric surveillance, with (usually) annual audiograms as an important component. The role of the professional supervisor in the audiometric testing component of the hearing conservation program. While determination of hearing loss in an individual worker is important, it is also important for a professional supervisor of such a program to review the hearing loss rates for the entire population and to determine whether such rates indicate that an unacceptable degree of hearing loss is occurring in the workforce and that the program is less than maximally effective.
The analysis of these audiograms, however, may vary greatly between countries and between and within industries. For example, while the US criterion for a "standard threshold shift" from baseline is a 10 decibel change in the average of 2, 3 and 4 KHz in either ear, with age correction allowed, [3] the regulations used in the United Kingdom base their audiometric classification on the total of recorded hearing levels obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 kHz. Rabinowitz International Journal of Audiology. Eisen Occupational and Environmental Medicine. This process is done for each ear, and then a reference table (that takes age and gender into account) is checked to determine whether the relevant warning and referral thresholds have been met. Developing such a uniform metric could allow the IAI to benchmark companies in other sectors doing a particularly good job with hearing conservation and facilitate information sharing that could lead to more effective prevention measures across the industry.We therefore performed a comparative analysis of a variety of different metrics for tracking occupational hearing loss.
The Health Committee of the IAI meets regularly and shares information on a variety of issues pertaining to the aluminum industry. As part of a current initiative to track occupational safety and health metrics across the industry, the IAI Health Committee members expressed interest in determining a common metric for tracking hearing loss. Members discussed the metrics that they were currently using, and found that they differed. They agreed to submit their current company criteria and allow these criteria to be applied to a common database for analysis.
In addition to the criteria that IAI members supplied, we also included for comparison the 15 dB significant threshold shift criteria recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which requires a confirmed shift in hearing threshold of 15 dB or greater at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 KHz in either ear.
However, they differed from each other in both the degree of shift required to meet the metric criteria as well as the frequencies used for shift calculations. Some metrics involved using an age correction method to calculate the shift and some, but not all, involved a resetting of the baseline after criteria had been met (baseline revision).
Audiometric data setAlcoa, an IAI member company, maintains an electronic data set of surveillance audiograms for current and former employees in US locations.

The Yale School of Medicine Human Investigation Committee has approved a protocol for research in an anonymous manner on this data set. Study populationWe chose for this analysis to study the audiograms of a number of workers at 10 US Alcoa locations where consistent audiometric data were available for at least 10 years on a large group of noise-exposed workers. To be in the data set for analysis, workers must have had at least three audiograms performed between 1982 and 2005, with no gap between audiograms of greater than 2 years.
Six thousand six hundred and two individuals met these inclusion criteria, and their audiograms were analyzed according to the different metrics provided by IAI member companies as well as the NIOSH shift criteria. Calculation of metricsDifferent shift criteria as listed in [Table 1] were applied to the audiometric data set using SAS v 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA).
The annual rates of hearing loss were determined for each set of criteria for each year from 2002 to 2006, and the rates for these years were also averaged in order to assess year-to-year variability of the different metrics. When age correction was required, we used the tables in appendix F-1 of the OSHA Hearing Conservation standard [3] to perform such correction. These calculations were based on hearing levels appearing in Annex A of the ANSI 3.44 standard.
However, the yearly rates of change (as opposed to the absolute hearing levels) are similar between Annex A and Annex B. We used both sets of frequencies in order to detect hearing loss in both older and younger individuals.
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) typically first appears at 4000 Hz and adjacent frequencies.
Finally, we used the difference of the two rates (observed-expected) to define the excess of high-frequency hearing loss occurring in the study population at each of the 10 locations over the 5-year period from 2002 to 2006. Comparison of observed and expected hearing loss rates with individual metrics for occupational hearing lossUsing linear regression, we then compared the average annual rate of each of the proposed tracking metrics listed in [Table 1] over the same time period (2002-2006) to the difference between observed and expected hearing loss for each location in order to determine the statistical correlation between each tracking metric and the calculated actual excess of high-frequency hearing loss among workers, in particular the company location's hearing conservation program.
Criteria that did not allow for age correction, such as metrics #4, 5a and 6, exhibited higher absolute rates than metrics that age-corrected (metrics #1, 2 and 3).
Metrics that required a greater degree of audiometric shift from baseline, such as #2, 3 and 5b and c, showed the lowest absolute rates, often 0 or close to 0. The 10 dB age-corrected shift at 2, 3, 4 KHz (#1) displayed an amount of yearly hearing loss that was intermediate between the two above extremes, with a relatively small range over the 5-year period at a particular location.
In addition to discrepant results between different metrics, some individual metrics showed considerable year-to-year variability. There was also a range of values for the observed-expected rates of high-frequency hearing loss for the different locations. As shown in the table, Metrics 1, 2, 4 and 6 were highly correlated with each otherTable 5: Correlation between different hearing loss metricsClick here to view. At the same time, a number of metrics, including an age-corrected 10 dB threshold shift criteria and a 15 dB shift criteria, showed good correlation with the observed-expected rate of high-frequency hearing loss occurring at each study location over the 5-year period of observation. These metrics demonstrate potential for providing a reasonable "signal" of hearing loss occurrence that could serve as an international standard for comparison of occupational hearing loss across countries and industries.The variation in absolute rates between different metrics implies differences in sensitivity of the measures. Approximately 10% of the population or more met these metrics' criteria for hearing loss each year of the study period.

Our previous analysis of metric 6 as a candidate "early flag" for detecting cases of early hearing loss in individuals found that the high number of individuals flagged by such sensitive metrics on annual screening may limit its clinical usefulness due to the requirement for greater resources for follow-up of many individuals who may not go on to develop significant hearing loss during employment. For metric 3, the criteria requiring a significant shift from baseline (25 dB age-corrected shift in the average of 2, 3 and 4 KHz) means that only a few individuals who work at a location for many years will be identified.
By that time, it will be too late to salvage much of their hearing, and the noise problem of the company will also have gone undetected for a prolonged period.
Such measures, because they produce low annual rates of loss, are likely, in a smaller worker population, to spuriously produce rates of 0 due to their inability to detect small hearing changes in the population.Whether or not to adjust a baseline following the occurrence of a hearing shift is another important consideration in developing an international standard. If no baseline revision takes place, sensitive metrics such as #4 would produce results several-fold higher (data not shown) and be less likely to detect recent trends, as much of the annual hearing loss reported would be cumulative from previous years.For valid comparison of rates of health outcomes across different at-risk populations, the methods of analysis need to reduce possible biases that could lead to erroneous conclusions about where unacceptable rates of occupational hearing loss are occurring. A particular problem arises in comparing rates of diseases that are more common in different age groups across populations with varying age structures. The age correction of surveillance audiograms is a form of age standardization, whereby each individual audiogram is "adjusted" for the expected amount of hearing loss due to normal aging (using standard tables such as appendix F of the OSHA hearing conservation standard). While age correction may have some disadvantages when applied to an individual audiogram, [6] age correction does allow the hearing loss experience in an industry where the workers are older, to be compared with the hearing loss occurring in an industry where the workers are relatively younger, without as much bias due to a differential effect of age. One key potential problem with this type of age standardization of hearing loss as an international standard is that rates of hearing loss with normal aging may vary across different populations and countries.
Little is known about this, and if subsequent studies confirm such variability, development of country-or population-specific age adjustment tables would be indicated. At the same time that age correction appears to be intuitively important, our finding that the 15 dB shift metric (with no age correction) demonstrated a similar degree of correlation with the observed-expected hearing loss as the age-corrected 10 dB shift suggests that age correction may not be critical for the purposes of comparing occupational hearing loss across locations or countries. In fact, the two measures (10 dB age-corrected shift and 15 dB nonage-corrected shift) showed a high degree of correlation between the measures.
This finding is consistent with other recent reports that suggest that Americans hear as well or better than 40 years ago, and that the age correction tables in current use may need to be updated.
The population of workers used to validate these metrics was based in the US, and further development of an international standard should involve analysis of databases from other countries as well to ensure that the metrics perform well in a number of settings.The study was also limited by the small number of locations used for the comparison (10). As a result, although the correlations between certain metrics and the difference of observed and expected hearing loss were statistically significant, and the R2 values for some metrics appeared much larger than others, a larger sample should be used to assess the statistical significance of the differences between the performance of individual metrics.This study used the observed-expected rate of high-frequency hearing loss (either at 2, 3 and 4 KHz or 3, 4 and 6 KHz) as a comparison standard to approximate the actual degree of high-frequency hearing loss occurring in each location.
One could argue that this type of measure would be even better than the other proposed metrics that are based on either shifts from baseline or absolute values of hearing loss at particular frequencies.
Calculating observed and expected rates of loss, however, requires more sophisticated computing that is beyond the capabilities of many industrial settings, and an approach that is unfamiliar to many hearing conservation professionals. The good correlation between metrics 1 and 6 and the observed-expected hearing loss argues that existing methods such as age-corrected shift rates or the 15 dB shift criteria that we used could provide useful comparison metrics for assessing the relative burden of NIHL in different industrial settings across countries.

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