Noise induced hearing loss in college students 6th,tinnitus disappears when lying down only,tinnitus stress induced qt - Try Out

Author: admin, 22.06.2015
It is important that people know the damage that can be done when they expose themselves to noises over 85 dBs.
With all of the new technology that exists in our world today, people should know what the damage can be when these technologies are wrongly used. Kayla Perry is an undergraduate student in the Speech Science Program at Assumption College in Worcester MA. Applying to Grad School for Speech Language Pathology: How Do I Get My Application to Stand Out? Welcome to The School Speech Therapist This site provides information on speech and language development and remediation, for parents, teachers and administrators. Due to the aging population and an increase to noise exposure, the prevalence of hearing loss is steadily increasing. THFC’s Sound Sense is a unique and award winning program that educates children about noise-induced hearing loss and how to prevent it from happening to them. Sound Sense is a proven program that increases children’s awareness of dangerous noise levels, as well as their potential for adopting safe listening practices that can prevent permanent hearing loss.
The Hearing Foundation of Canada, (THFC) is a national non-profit organization dedicated to eliminating the devastating effects of hearing loss on Canadians by promoting prevention, early diagnosis, leading edge medical research and successful intervention. The Canadian Academy of Audiology is dedicated to enhancing the role of audiologists as primary hearing health care providers through advocacy, education and research. We have learned about a variety of forms of hearing loss and there is one that really stands out to me. With Better Speech and Hearing Month, as well as our school concert quickly approaching, it is important for the NSSLHA chapter at Assumption College to spread awareness of Noise Induced Hearing Loss. The college student equivalent of ASHA The American Speech Hearing and Language Association. Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to create and evaluate the effectiveness of brochures to reduce the risk for noise-induced hearing loss in college students.
According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, [1] nearly 15% of American Adults (26 million people) between the ages of 20 and 69 years may have suffered permanent hearing damage as a result of hazardous noise exposure.
Noise-induced hearing loss in young adults: The role of personal listening devices and other sources of leisure noise.
Estimated prevalence of noise-induced hearing threshold shifts among children ages 6 to 19 years of age: The third national health and nutrition survey, 1988-1994. Trends in the prevalence of hearing loss among young adults entering an industrial workforce 1985 to 2004. Perceptions about hearing protection and noise-induced hearing loss of attendees of rock concerts.
Noise induced hearing loss in dance music disc jockeys and an examination of sound levels in nightclubs. Output levels of commercially available portable compact disc players and the potential risk to hearing. The effects of listening environment and earphone style on preferred listening levels of normal hearing adults using an MP3 player.
Evaluation of noise-induced hearing loss in young people using a web-based survey technique. Acceleration of age-related hearing loss by early noise exposure: Evidence of misspent youth. Intelligibility of conversational speech and clear speech in noise and reverberation for listeners with normal and impaired hearing.
Fear as motivator, fear as inhibitor: Using the extended parallel process model to explain fear appeal successes and failures. A radio-based approach to promoting gun safety: Process and outcome evaluation implications and insights. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk due to elevated homocysteine levels: Using the EPPM to develop print materials.
Increasing parent limits on novice young drivers: Cognitive mediation of the effect of persuasive messages.
The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Using the EPPM to create and evaluate the effectiveness of brochures to increase the use of hearing loss protection in farmers and landscape workers.
Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia.
Perceived risk and efficacy beliefs as motivators of change: Use of the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework to understand health behaviors. Bulimia interventions via interpersonal influence: The role of threat and efficacy in persuading bulimics to seek help.
Motivating women and men to take protective action against rape: Examining direct and indirect persuasive fear appeals. An application of fear appeal messages to enhance the benefits of a jail encounter program for youthful offenders.
An unprecedented 1 in 5 teenagers today are showing some degree of hearing loss, a 30% increase from the previous decade. Sound Sense is currently being delivered in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia, to over 25,000 children every year. By talking about their hearing and sharing the sounds they love, children realize the important role their hearing plays in their everyday lives.
Reaching over 300,000 children as well as their teachers and family members have been reached. The children who have received the Sound Sense presentations have been very enthusiastic about this health message. It is widely speculated that this is due to increased noise exposure from digital technology, personal communication devices and noisy leisure activities, among other influences. The program has proven effectiveness, and was described as “Best Practice for Youth Audiology” in a report by Dr. In order to effectively mitigate early hearing loss on a national scale, we believe that we must deliver our prevention message to every child in Canada, to ensure hearing for all.


We continually learn that they have enjoyed the way in which the program was delivered, that they appreciated gaining new insights into how vulnerable their ears can be and they loved receiving the gift of ear plugs. More specifically, noise induced hearing loss creates damage to the outer hair cells that line the cochlea. Depending on the intensity of the sound and the duration of the exposure, permanent sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus (ringing in the ears) can ensue. The NSSLHA chapter at Assumption College has taken on the responsibility of spreading awareness of noise induced hearing loss around campus. Some of the precautions that are recommended to people are to lower the volume on personal ear buds and to take occasional breaks when using ear buds. Using these precautions can help preserve ones hearing and reduce the risk of having noise induced hearing loss. Consistent exposure to noise above 85 dB(A) causes an excess risk of hearing impairment [4] and every 3 dB increase in intensity halves the allowable exposure time. NIHL is 100% preventable and the most effective ways to avert NIHL are by avoiding or reducing hazardous noise.Although, NIHL is well recognized as an occupational hazard, less recognized perhaps, are non-occupational leisure activities or environments that can put people of all ages at risk for hazardous noise exposure. The focus of this research endeavor on headphone use with MP3 players (instead of lowering the volume) was used for the following reasons. First, students entering college in the USA are very likely to have been exposed to NIHL prevention messages that focus on reducing volume. In other words, by switching to headphones a student could listen to music for twice as long as when using earbuds. Finally, by selecting a message that teens are unlikely to have been exposed to while in primary school, the effect of a specific communication model or theory on health risk knowledge and intentions could be more accurately measured in this study.Using an approach based in communication theory to achieve the goal of effectively informing young people of the threat they face for NIHL and then outlining effective ways to avert that threat seems particularly useful. This study used the EPPM [19] to design and evaluate the creation of brochures targeting college students that highlight threats associated with exposure to extreme noise and the efficacy with which hearing protection can be used.
The current study represents the first step towards the goal of reducing risk of NIHL in undergraduate college students (typically 18 to 21 years of age) and simultaneously tests the ability of the EPPM to guide effective message development in this population. This goal is particularly important given that frequent or prolonged exposure to hazardous noise levels leads to permanent NIHL (and often constant tinnitus) the consequence of which can include decreased enjoyment and quality of life, depression, lower academic performance, and reduced productivity. Specifically, the impact of NIHL on communication includes: Difficulty hearing speech from a distance, in noisy and reverberant environments, and when it is softly spoken. To the extent that this combined presentation of threat and action instigates protective motivation, recipients reduce the threat in the way advocated by the appeal. According to the EPPM, perceptions of threat require that the young person receiving the message believe that the health hazard is severe and that they are susceptible to injury or harm. When applying the EPPM to leisure NIHL, the college student, for example, must perceive that hearing loss is a real threat to their well-being and that they are susceptible to hearing loss. If a threat is considered to be trivial or irrelevant, the model predicts that the student will not be motivated to process and accept the message and no action will be taken to prevent injury.
According to the EPPM, efficacy is composed of two elements: Perceived self-efficacy and response efficacy.
Response efficacy refers to the perception that the recommended action to avert the threat (or injury) really will protect a college student from harm. Response efficacy refers to the perception that HPDs will adequately protect against future hearing loss due to hazardous leisure noise exposure and will protect against the negative personal and financial consequences that hearing loss can bring.According to the EPPM, an effective prevention message is created with a balance between threat and efficacy. The danger-control process is desired because it motivates a young person to employ protection behaviors, which will prevent the negative outcomes associated with health hazard. In the fear-control process, college students engage in denial, defensive avoidance, reactance, and ultimately reject the message in order to escape their fear Witte.
No more than 40 subjects were grouped at any one event, and subjects were only allowed to participate in the study once.
This sample was reduced to 176 after removing subjects with a self-reported history of hearing loss. In the control condition, subjects responded to a questionnaire designed to measure the EPPM variables of severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions, as well as several demographic variables.
After completing the questionnaire, these subjects received the brochure so as not to withhold any benefits of the brochure from the control condition.
After being given a few minutes to review the brochure, subjects responded to the same questionnaire that was administered to subjects in the control condition. In both conditions, subjects were instructed to ask the researcher if they had questions or needed clarification while completing the measure. None of the subjects needed any clarification.Brochure and measurementBrochurebrochure was designed specifically for a target population of college students focussing on two different types of behavior. Specifically, the two qualitatively different activities of portable audio device use and student leisure activity engagement were considered. Consequently, people's motivations to engage in behaviors to protect hearing may be very different across the two behaviors resulting in the possibility of observing a differential pattern of results. Thus, each page of the brochure contained messages developed to make salient the threat college students face for NIHL and increase the perceived efficacy of behaviors that can avert the threat. The messages contained in the brochure were collaboratively designed by an EPPM expert and an audiologist with NIHL expertise.
The NIHL data contained in the brochure was provided by an audiologist with expertise in the area. The EPPM variables were measured using five-point Likert-type scales ranging from "disagree strongly" to "agree strongly" where higher scores corresponded to greater item endorsement. Threat was also hypothesized to be second-order unidimensional and composed of the constructs of susceptibility (SUS) and severity (SEV).
Only responses to the RE and SE items for wearing formable earplugs in loud environments were considered for these analyses. Analyses of responses to the RE and SE items for wearing over-the-ear headphones when listening to MP3 players were conducted separately.After examining the response distributions of each item for normality, the 20 item inter-item correlation matrix was examined for items lacking internal consistency and parallelism. The results of these analyses yielded four potentially content valid indicators of RE, four of SE, four of SEV, and five of SUS. The AMOS 16.0 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) algorithm using a maximum likelihood parameter estimation method was employed to test the hypothesized measurement model. Examination of the obtained parameter estimates presented in [Figure 3] reveal that they are all ample.


Furthermore, examination of the modification indices suggested there were no localized areas of substantial model misfit. An efficacy index was created by averaging (arithmetic mean) across responses to the four RE items and four SE items, whereas a threat index was created by averaging across the five SUS items and four SEV items.
As was the case in the loud environment analysis, efficacy was hypothesized to be a second-order unidimensional construct composed of the constructs of RE and SE and threat was hypothesized to be second-order unidimensional and composed of the constructs of SUS and SEV for the MP3 player analysis. RE, SE, SUS, and SEV were each measured by a set of five items.Using the same procedures of initial analysis as applied to the loud environment data, the same four potentially content valid indicators of RE, SE, and SEV and five potentially content valid indicators of SUS emerged in the MP3 data. CFA also using the same procedures as applied earlier was performed to test the hypothesized measurement model with the MP3 data. The obtained parameter estimates presented in [Figure 4] are all ample, and the modification indices suggested there were no localized areas of substantial model misfit. The efficacy index was created by averaging across responses to the four RE items and four SE items, whereas a threat index was created by averaging across the five SUS items and four SEV items. HypothesesLoud environmentseffects of the EPPM brochure on threat, efficacy, and intent to wear ear plugs in loud environments are presented in [Table 1]. Hypothesis one predicted that college students who received severity and susceptibility of hearing loss messages would rate the threat of hearing loss higher than students who did not receive the messages.
These results indicate that the loud environment data were indeed consistent with hypothesis one.Hypothesis two predicted that college students who received messages with response efficacy and self-efficacy components would rate efficacy of using ear plugs in loud environments higher than those who did not receive the messages. Intent was measured by a single item focusing on the intent to use ear plugs when in loud environments in the future.
Hypothesis 1 predicted that college students who received severity and susceptibility of hearing loss messages would rate the threat of hearing loss more highly than those who did not receive the messages. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that the MP3 player data were consistent with hypothesis one.
These analyses were consistent with hypothesis 2.Finally, hypothesis three predicted that students receiving messages with threat and efficacy components would have greater intent to use over-the-ear headphones than would those who did not receive the messages. One item, focusing on intentions to use over-the-ear headphones while listening to MP3 players in the future, was used to measure intent. Exposure to the brochure created perceptions of increased threat of NIHL resulting from loud environments as well as MP3 players.
Brochure exposure also resulted in increased perceptions of the efficacy of using ear plugs as well as the efficacy of using over-the-ear headphones to avert the threat of NIHL.
Exposure to the brochure only increased behavioral intentions to use over-the-ear headphones, however, and not behavioral intentions to use ear plugs. Put differently, the brochure produced statistically significant changes in only the threat and efficacy variables for the loud environment data whereas the changes produced in all three variables for the MP3 data were ample and statistically significant.Although it could be argued that the lack of effect on behavioral intentions to use ear plugs when in loud environments is due to a failure of the EPPM, an alternative argument could be made.
It is possible that wearing ear plugs is a response that no matter how effective the intervention used, will not be changed easily, if at all. In other words, the impact of threat and efficacy on intentions when the baseline is below the threshold is smaller than the impact of threat and efficacy on intentions when the baseline is above the threshold.
Such threshold effects, or more precisely effect nonlinearity, result from the presence of a moderator variable.
Similar effects have been observed in research focused on encouraging college students to wear bicycle helmets while riding their bikes on campus.
As a result, although the brochure brought about increases in the perceptions of threat and created a substantial increase in the efficacy of the recommended response, an unobserved moderator variable may have attenuated the effect on intentions causing people to engage in fear-control processes that resulted in people failing to engage in the response recommended to avert the threat.
As a result of the higher level of one of these moderator variables the effect on intentions was not attenuated and people engaged in danger-control processes and intentions to wear over-the-ear headphones when using MP3 players in the future were increased. Based on the findings of this study, the likely moderator variable is related generally to the desirability of performing the recommended response. This study did not include such a measure and it resulted in the need to make inferences of desirability based on the efficacy, threat, and intention perceptions that were measured.
For example, although perceived as efficacious, the recommended response of wearing ear plugs in loud environments could have been seen as undesirable, perhaps because it would be perceived to get in the way of hearing sounds in the environment that need to be heard. Having a way to measure issues of response desirability would allow the researcher to diagnose its status as a moderator variable, determine how much impact it had on EPPM processes, and in turn control for or reduce that impact.Future examinations of the EPPM would also be well served at improving the quality of instrumentation used to measure the EPPM components. The measures employed in this study were improved versions of the the risk diagnosis behavior scale.
The measures in this study also included additional items to measure each of the variables. Although, fewer items on a questionnaire can be advantageous pragmatically, too few a items can result in problems assessing the measure's validity and reliability. Therefore, paying a small price in practicality allows for the disposal of items displaying misfit during testing of the measurement model, but also an increase in reliability estimates as long as the items are of equal quality to the existing items. Therefore, it is recommended that the response scales for each item be increased from five-point to seven-point response scales, which will serve to relieve the equivalent of a restriction in range problem attenuating the reliability coefficient.
When the message development phase of a communication effort begins, at a minimum, the messages will have to include threat and efficacy components.
Moreover, the threat component must convince the intended message recipients of their susceptibility to the condition by making arguments that the condition can and does happen to people just like them. In addition, the threat component must include messages that convey the severity of the condition. In other words, the message must convince recipients that they are at risk of grave potential harm. Leaving the message recipients without an efficacious means to deal with the threat, however, may lead to counterproductive responses intended to control fear. Therefore, for these situations brochures can be helpful to inform of the threat and efficacy of a response but will not be sufficient to improve intentions to engage in the response.
In these cases, practitioners will need to search for alternative responses that have similar levels of efficacy but higher levels of baseline intent. For situations where only one recommended response is possible, further research must uncover the potential moderators that may be attenuating the EPPM's effect on intentions and design messages aimed at reducing their impact on the target's intentions to engage in the recommended response.



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