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For aerodynamic reasons previously explained, lift normally used to counter weight is translated in a turn to a horizontal lift component. The back pressure must be increased as the bank angle increases and decreased as the bank angle decreases. With the exception of the stability-related characteristics, the airplane remains in the turn until opposite aileron is applied to level the wings. Because of the high load factors that accompany steep turns, there is a tendency for the nose to drop and altitude to be lost. Because the airplane continues in the turn until the wings are level, the roll out of the turn must be initiated before the desired heading is reached. Movement of any of the three primary flight control surfaces changes the airflow and pressure distribution over and around the airfoil. Moving the control wheel to the right causes the right aileron to deflect upward and the left aileron to deflect downward. FRISE-TYPE AILERONS With a Frise-type aileron, when pressure is applied to the control wheel, the aileron that is being raised pivots on an offset hinge. The up-elevator position decreases the camber of the elevator and creates a downward aerodynamic force, which is greater than the normal tail-down force that exists in straight-and-level flight. At slow speeds, the elevator on a T-tail aircraft must be moved through a larger number of degrees of travel to raise the nose a given amount as compared to a conventional-tail aircraft.
From this discussion, it should be apparent that pilots must understand and follow proper loading procedures, particularly with regard to the CG position.
Courtesy of Raytheon Corporation Canard—A horizontal surface mounted ahead of the main wing to pro-vide longitudinal stability and control. Yaw Left Rudder Left Aerodynamic Rudder Force Figure 4-11.The effect of left rudder pressure.
V-TAIL The V-tail design utilizes two slanted tail surfaces to perform the same functions as the surfaces of a con-ventional elevator and rudder configuration. 4-6 The movable surfaces, which are usually called ruddervators, are connected through a special linkage that allows the control wheel to move both surfaces simultaneously.
When both rudder and elevator controls are moved by the pilot, a control mixing mechanism moves each surface the appropriate amount.
Fixed slots direct airflow to the upper wing surface and delay airflow separation at higher angles of attack. Leading edge flaps, like trailing edge flaps, are used to increase both CLand the camber of the wings. SPOILERS On some airplanes, high-drag devices called spoilers are deployed from the wings to spoil the smooth airflow, reducing lift and increasing drag. TRIM SYSTEMS Although the airplane can be operated throughout a wide range of attitudes, airspeeds, and power settings, it can only be designed to fly hands off within a very limited combination of these variables.
The most common installation on small airplanes is a single trim tab attached to the trailing edge of the elevator. 4-8 If you set the trim tab to the full nose-up position, the tab moves to its full-down position. If the linkage between the tab and the fixed surface is adjustable from the cockpit, the tab acts as a combination trim and balance tab, which can be adjusted to any desired deflection.
This tab works in the same manner as the balance tab except that, instead of moving in the opposite direc-tion, it moves in the same direction as the trailing edge of the stabilator.
ADJUSTABLE STABILIZER Rather than using a movable tab on the trailing edge of the elevator, some airplanes have an adjustable stabilizer. Without Flight Simulator's auto-coordination, rudder pressure to overcome adverse aileron yaw also would be necessary.
For this reason, apply back pressure to the control yoke in a turn, the amount of back pressure being a function of the steepness of the bank (see Figure 4.3). The procedure for correcting this is to reduce the bank angle and then to apply back pressure on the control yoke. When back pressure is applied before reducing bank angle in a steep turn, the turn tightens. The primary control systems consist of those that are required to safely control an airplane during flight. The upward deflection of the right aileron decreases the camber resulting in decreased lift on the right wing. This is accomplished with rudder-aileron interconnect springs, which help correct for aileron drag by automatically deflecting the rudder at the same time the ailerons are deflected. Like the ailerons on small airplanes, the elevator is connected to the control column in the cockpit by a series of mechanical linkages.
Operation of the elevators in this undisturbed air makes for control movements that are consistent throughout most flight regimes. This is because the conventional-tail aircraft has the downwash from the propeller pushing down on the tail to assist in raising the nose.
More information on aircraft loading, as well as weight and balance, is included in Chapter 8. It may be a fixed, movable, or variable geometry surface, with or without control surfaces.
On the other hand, displacement of the rudder pedals moves the surfaces differentially, thereby providing directional control. The control system for the V-tail is more complex than that required for a conventional tail. These surfaces, which are attached to the trailing edge of the wing, increase both lift and induced drag for any given angle of attack. It increases the airfoil camber, resulting in a significant increase in the coefficient of lift at a given angle of attack. The slot does not increase the wing camber, but allows a higher maximum coefficient of lift because the stall is delayed until the wing reaches a greater angle of attack.
This type of leading edge device is frequently used in conjunction with trailing edge flaps and can reduce the nose-down pitching movement produced by the latter. Spoilers are used for roll control on some aircraft, one of the advantages being the elimination of adverse yaw.
Therefore, trim systems are used to relieve the pilot of the need to maintain constant pressure on the flight controls.
In this case, the air flowing under the horizontal tail surface hits the tab and tends to force the trailing edge of the elevator up, reducing the elevator’s angle of attack. Any time the control surface is deflected, the tab moves in the opposite direction and eases the load on the pilot. For example, when the trailing edge of the stabilator moves up, the linkage forces the trailing edge of the tab up.
If the back pressure is applied while the bank is steep, the turn is tightened and a spiral will result (see Figure 4.4).
The corresponding downward deflection of the left aileron increases the camber resulting in increased lift on the left wing.
This helps equalize the drag created by the lowered aileron on the opposite wing and reduces adverse yaw.
For example, when the control yoke is moved to produce a left roll, the interconnect cable and spring pulls forward on the left rudder pedal just enough to prevent the nose of the airplane from yawing to the right.
T-tail designs have become popular on many light airplanes and on large aircraft, especially those with aft-fuselage mounted engines since the T-tail configuration removes the tail from the exhaust blast of the engines.


Since controls on aircraft are rigged in such a manner as to require increasing control forces for increased control travel, the forces required to raise the nose of a T-tail aircraft are greater than for a conventional-tail aircraft.
STABILATOR As mentioned in Chapter 1, a stabilator is essentially a one-piece horizontal stabilizer with the same type of control system. The balance weight may project into the empennage or may be incorporated on the forward portion of the stabilator tips.
Canard Configuration—A configuration in which the span of the for-ward wings is substantially less than that of the main wing.
Like the other primary control surfaces, the rudder is a movable surface hinged to a fixed surface, in this case, to the vertical stabilizer, or fin.
In addition, the V-tail design is more susceptible to Dutch roll tendencies than a conventional tail and total reduction in drag is only minimal. Flaps allow a compromise between high cruising speed and low landing speed, because they may be extended when needed, and retracted into the wing’s structure when not needed. At the same time, it greatly increases drag and moves the center of pressure aft on the airfoil, resulting in a nose-down pitching moment.
As is true with trailing edge flaps, a small increment of leading edge flaps increases lift to a much greater extent than drag. To turn right, for example, the spoiler on the right wing is raised, destroying some of the lift and creating more drag on the right. Trim systems usually consist of cockpit controls and small hinged devices attached to the trailing edge of one or more of the primary flight control surfaces.
ANTISERVO TABS In addition to decreasing the sensitivity of the stabilator, an antiservo tab also functions as a trim device to relieve control pressure and maintain the stabilator in the desired position.
Secondary control systems improve the performance characteristics of the airplane, or relieve the pilot of excessive control forces. Thus, the increased lift on the left wing and the decreased lift on the right wing causes the airplane to roll to the right. The strength of the pitching moment is determined by the distance between the CG and the horizontal tail surface, as well as by the aerodynamic effectiveness of the horizontal tail surface.
Seaplanes and amphibians often have T-tails in order to keep the horizontal surfaces as far from the water as possible. Longitudinal stability of a trimmed aircraft is the same for both types of configuration, but the pilot must be aware that at slow speeds during takeoffs and landings or stalls, the control forces will be greater than for similar size airplanes equipped with conventional tails.
Because stabilators pivot around a central hinge point, they are extremely sensitive to control inputs and aerodynamic loads. Although the Wright Flyer was configured as a canard with the horizontal surfaces in front of the lifting surface, it was not until recently that the canard configuration began appearing on newer airplanes.
Rudder effectiveness increases with speed, so large deflections at low speeds and small deflections at high speeds may be required to provide the desired reaction. SECONDARY FLIGHT CONTROLS Secondary flight control systems may consist of the flaps, leading edge devices, spoilers, and trim devices. Ruddervator—A pair of control surfaces on the tail of an aircraft arranged in the form of a V. On small airplanes, the hinge is located below the lower surface of the flap, and when the flap is lowered, it forms a duct between the flap well in the wing and the leading edge of the flap.
They are designed to help minimize a pilot’s workload by aerodynamically assisting movement and position of the flight control surface to which they are attached. In spite of the opposite direction movement of the trim tab and the elevator, control of trim is natural to a pilot. The fixed end of the linkage is on the opposite side of the surface from the horn on the tab, and when the trailing edge of the stabilator moves up, the linkage forces the trailing edge of the tab up. GROUND ADJUSTABLE TABS Many small airplanes have a non-moveable metal trim tab on the rudder. The purpose of these design limits is to prevent the pilot from inadvertently overcontrolling and overstressing the aircraft during normal maneuvers.
ADVERSE YAW Since the downward deflected aileron produces more lift, it also produces more drag.
T-tail airplanes also require additional design considerations to counter the problem of flutter.
Pushing the control column forward lowers the trailing edge of the stabilator and pitches the nose of the airplane down.
Canard designs include two types—one with a horizontal surface of about the same size as a normal aft-tail design, and the other with a surface of the same approximate size and airfoil of the aft-mounted wing known as a tandem wing configuration. When the rudder is deflected into the airflow, a horizontal force is exerted in the opposite direction. In propeller-driven aircraft, any slipstream flowing over the rudder increases its effectiveness. These surfaces, when moved together by the control wheel, serve as elevators, and when moved differentially by the rudder pedals, serve as a rudder. When the slotted flap is lowered, high-energy air from the lower surface is ducted to the flap’s upper surface.
As the angle of attack increases, the high-pressure area moves aft below the lower surface of the wing, allowing the slats to move forward. Deploying spoilers on both wings at the same time allows the aircraft to descend without gaining speed. Common types of trim systems include trim tabs, balance tabs, antiservo tabs, ground adjustable tabs, and an adjustable stabilizer. Placing the trim control in the full nose-down position moves the tab to its full up position.
If you have to exert constant back pressure on the control column, the need for nose-up trim is indicated. This tab is bent in one direction or the other while on the ground to apply a trim force to the rudder. The trimming effect and cockpit indications for an adjustable stabilizer are similar to those of a trim tab. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS Airplane control systems are carefully designed to provide a natural feel, and at the same time, allow adequate responsiveness to control inputs.
This added drag attempts to yaw the airplane’s nose in the direction of the raised wing. Like the differential aileron, the Frise-type aileron does not eliminate adverse yaw entirely.
Since the weight of the horizontal surfaces is at the top of the vertical stabilizer, the moment arm created causes high loads on the vertical stabilizer which can result in flutter. Without an antiservo tab, the airplane would be prone to overcontrolling from pilot-induced control inputs. Theoretically, the canard is considered more efficient because using the horizontal surface to help lift the weight of the aircraft should result in less drag for a given amount of lift. The split flap is deflected from the lower surface of the airfoil and produces a slightly greater increase in lift than does the plain flap. The high-energy air from the slot accelerates the upper surface boundary layer and delays airflow separation, providing a higher coefficient of lift. With the tab up and into the airstream, the airflow over the horizontal tail surface tends to force the trailing edge of the elevator down. The normal trim procedure is to continue trimming until the airplane is balanced and the nose-heavy condition is no longer apparent.


Since the primary and secondary flight control systems vary extensively between aircraft, you need to be familiar with the systems in your aircraft. At low airspeeds, the controls usually feel soft and sluggish, and the airplane responds slowly to control applications. Engineers must compensate for this by increasing the design stiffness of the vertical stabilizer, usually resulting in a weight penalty over conventional tail designs.
CANARD The term canard refers to a control surface that functions as a horizontal stabilizer but is located in front of the main wings. However, more drag is created because of the turbulent air pattern produced behind the airfoil. Thus, the slotted flap produces much greater increases in CLmax than the plain or split flap.
Opening a slat allows the air below the wing to flow over the wing’s upper surface, delaying airflow separation. Pilots normally establish the desired power, pitch attitude, and configuration first, and then trim the airplane to relieve control pressures that may exist for that flight condition. Usually, small adjustments are necessary until you are satisfied that the airplane is no longer skidding left or right during normal cruising flight. A good source of information is the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH). When flying at a very high angle of attack with a low airspeed and an aft CG, the T-tail airplane may be susceptible to a deep stall. A properly designed canard or tandem wing will run out of authority to raise the nose of the aircraft at a point before the main wing will stall.
When fully extended, both plain and split flaps produce high drag with little additional lift.
While there are many types of slotted flaps, large airplanes often have double- and even triple-slotted flaps. Any time power, pitch attitude, or configuration is changed, expect that retrimming will be necessary to relieve the control pressures for the new flight condition.
As mentioned earlier in the coverage on stability, power, thrustline, and the position of the horizontal tail surfaces on the empennage are factors in how effective the elevator is in controlling pitch. In a deep stall, the airflow over the horizontal tail is blanketed by the disturbed airflow from the wings and fuselage.
In effect, it is an airfoil similar to the horizontal surface on a conventional aft-tail design. This makes the aircraft stall-proof and results only in a descent rate that can be halted by adding power. These allow the maximum increase in drag without the airflow over the flaps separating and destroying the lift they produce. BALANCE TABS The control forces may be excessively high in some airplanes, and in order to decrease them, the manufacturer may use balance tabs. For example, the horizontal tail surfaces may be attached near the lower part of the vertical stabilizer, at the midpoint, or at the high point, as in the T-tail design. In these circumstances, elevator or stabilator control could be diminished, making it difficult to recover from the stall. The difference is that the canard actually creates lift and holds the nose up, as opposed to the aft-tail design which exerts downward force on the tail to prevent the nose from rotating downward. It should be noted that an aft CG could be a contributing factor in these incidents since similar recovery problems are also found with conventional-tail aircraft with an aft CG. Other canard configurations are designed so the canard stalls before the main wing, automatically lowering the nose and recovering the aircraft to a safe flying speed.
The essential difference between the two is that the balancing tab is coupled to the control surface rod so that when the primary control surface is moved in any direction, the tab automatically moves in the opposite direction. The ailerons are attached to the outboard trailing edge of each wing and move in the opposite direction from each other. In this manner, the airflow striking the tab counter-balances some of the air pressure against the primary control surface, and enables the pilot to more easily move and hold the control surface in position.
Ailerons are connected by cables, bellcranks, pulleys or push-pull tubes to each other and to the control wheel. In the first portion of its extension, it increases the drag very little, but increases the lift a great deal as it increases both the area and camber. An elevator down spring assists in lowering the nose to prevent a stall caused by the aft CG position. First, it is important that the forward lifting surface of a canard design stalls before the main wing. As the extension continues, the flap deflects downward, and during the last portion of its travel, it increases the drag with little additional increase in lift.
The stall occurs because the properly trimmed airplane is flying with the elevator in a trailing edge down position, forcing the tail up and the nose down.
If the main wing stalls first, the lift remaining from the forward wing or canard would be well ahead of the CG, and the airplane would pitch up uncontrollably.
LEADING EDGE DEVICES High-lift devices also can be applied to the leading edge of the airfoil.
In this unstable condition, if the airplane encounters turbulence and slows down further, the trim 4-4 tab no longer positions the elevator in the nose-down position.
Second, when the for-ward surface stalls first, or is limited in its ability to increase the angle of attack, the main wing never reaches a point where its maximum lift is created, sacrificing some performance. Third, use of flaps on the main wing causes design problems for the forward wing or canard.
As lift on the main wing is increased by extension of flaps, the lift requirement of the canard is also increased. The elevator down spring produces a mechanical load on the elevator, causing it to move toward the nose-down position if not otherwise balanced. The forward wing or canard must be large enough to accommodate flap use, but not so large that it creates more lift than the main wing.
The elevator trim tab balances the elevator down spring to position the elevator in a trimmed position. When the trim tab becomes ineffective, the down spring drives the elevator to a nose down position. When positioned closely in the vertical plane, downwash from the forward wing can have a negative effect on the lift of the main wing. The elevator must also have sufficient authority to hold the nose of the airplane up during the roundout for a landing. During the landing flare, power normally is reduced, which decreases the airflow over the empennage. Return to Weather For Pilots Main Page Local Madison Weather This web based lab section is being developed with assistance from the College of Letters and Science and the Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies.



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