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Biology in Focus, HSC Course Glenda Childrawi, Margaret Robson and Stephanie Hollis Communication Topic 12: Processing Sound. Introduction In this section we are going to trace the path of a sound wave through the ear to the organ of Corti where it is processed.
The Path of Sound Sound is transmitted as a wave through air in the auditory canal to the outer layer of the tympanic membrane. The Path of Sound Vibrations from the tympanic membrane are conveyed through this air-filled chamber via the movement of the interconnecting ear ossicles to the oval window of the inner ear.
The Path of Sound The stapes vibrates the oval window setting up a pressure wave in the perilymph of the upper canal of the Cochlea. The Path of Sound The movement of Reissner’s membrane transfers the kinetic energy to the endolymph of the middle ear canal. The Path of Sound The hair cells send messages along nerve fibres to the brain where they are interpreted. Energy Transformations As it passes into the perilymph, as a pressure wave, the mechanical energy is transferred via Reissner’s membrane to the endolymph to the organ of Corti. The Organ of Corti There is one row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells.
The Organ of Corti The fibres of the cochlea nerve are coiled around the bases of the hair cells. The Organ of Corti Activation of the hair cells occurs at points of vigorous vibration of the basilar membrane.
Sound Shadows The phenomenon caused by the obstruction or absorption of a sound wave by an object is its path is called a sonic or sound shadow. Sound Shadows The sonic shadow is the region which does not receive the direct sound as the head is blocking the vibration As humans are binaural (have two ears), the head creates a sonic shadow for the ear further away from the sound source. Sound Shadows Animals use the sonic shadow to determine the direction of the source of the sound.
Sound Shadows Many humans will turn their head when trying to determine the source of a sound.

Sound Shadows The effect has been shown to be less important than the split-second time difference in each if the two ears receiving the same sound. Hearing Aids The most avoidable of these causes is acoustic trauma or the chronic exposure to sound.
Hearing Aids Short term hearing loss is caused by fatigue of the hair cells of the cochlea. Hearing Aids Continual exposure to excessive noise (over 85dB) causes damage to the cilia of the hair cells. Physiology of Hearing Sound Sound is a form of energy Sound is a form of energy It is transmitted through a medium as a longitudinal pressure wave It. ANATOMY OF THE EAR How Sound Travels ? First, sound is collected by the pinna (the visible part of the outer ear) ? Then, it is directed into the outer.
Chapter 10: Perception of sound If a tree falls in the woods and there is no one around, does it make a sound? 9 Quick Review Colour vision concluded LGN Story Visual Cortex story Colour vision in Animals. Members of Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and Thai forensic police officers inspect a blast site after the explosion'The force was really intense.
Sound energy is converted to mechanical (kinetic) as the vibration is set up in the tympanic membrane. Mechanical energy is now converted to electrochemical energy as information is transmitted, as nerve impulses, from the hair cells by the auditory nerve to the brain. It is composed of supporting cells and about 15 500 hearing receptor cells called cochlea hair cells.
The ‘hairs’ of the hair cells (cilia) protrude into the potassium (K+) rich endolymph and the longest of them are embedded in the overlying gel of the tectorial membrane.
Hair cells nearest the oval window (base) are activated by the highest pitched sounds while those furthest away at the narrow end of the cochlea are stimulated by low frequency sounds.
Standard volume music, transmitted directly vie earphones, reach 100dB and can cause permanent damage after only 15 minutes per day.

The difference in loudness and time of arrival of the sound at each ear can be interpreted by the brain to determine location. Turning the head increases the difference in time of arrival at each ear and increases the ability to determine location. Visually impaired people use the sonic shadow effect, together with echolocation and other cues for orientation.
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) may result from a one-time exposure to loud sound or from repeated exposure to sounds of various amplitudes over an extended period of time. Why sound is a useful and versatile form of communication Sound is a form of energy that travels in waves. Equilibrium and hearing are provided by a receptor complex called the inner ear - the receptors are called HAIR CELLS - the complex. Unlike other cells of the body, there is a finite number and they are not replaced as they die.
Many everyday sounds may not be recognised as hazardous as they do not intrude our comfort zone. The effect will be greatest when the sound source, the absorbing object and the person hearing the sound are all aligned. The causes of hearing loss are generally grouped into such categories as heredity, diseases, accidents, prescription drugs, aging and acoustic trauma. It happens when delicate cells inside your ear that send sound messages to your brain are injured or over-stimulated. For me it was the blast itself, it was something I've never experienced,' Ms Porter told the breakfast show from her Bangkok hotel room.
The thoughts of all Australians are with the injured and the families of those who have lost their lives,' DFAT said.Thai authorities say the bomb was clearly aimed at foreigners.

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