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Author: admin, 29.01.2016
As we age, the things we forget are at first laughed off as “senior moments.”  But when forgetting to send a birthday card becomes forgetting to pay the mortgage, the natural cognitive decline that accompanies aging becomes a serious financial issue. With Americans living longer and an estimated 10,000 baby boomers turning 65 every day, a spate of fresh research has examined how and whether older brains can handle the challenges of modern financial life.  But what the researchers have found out so far about the aging mind and money is somewhat of a mixed bag.
Among those surveyed, 41 percent said they or their family member forgot to pay their bills and 14 percent paid the same bill twice, according to the National Endowment for Financial Education and Harris Interactive.  More than one-third had trouble with simple math or made rash purchases.
Retirees today face bigger financial challenges than that if they have to juggle their 401(k) investments and withdrawals.  This is a change from the days when an employer simply issued a check every month from the defined-benefit pension plan, said Laura Bos, AARP’s acting vice president of financial education and outreach.
Now the good news: there is fresh evidence that when people get older they in many ways get better.
New research out of Denmark published in The Lancet followed people in their 80s and 90s and found that 32 percent of men born in 1915 scored the maximum on a test of their attention level, memory, and word fluency – they outperformed men born 10 years earlier, indicating significant improvements from one birth cohort to the next. The research will continue, but perhaps it’s time to move past thinking simply that age necessarily leads to impaired financial decision-making.  The issues are more complex than that. I’ve used corded versions of this tool and, when drilling into a vertical surface, always tied it off with a rope in case someone pulled the plug. If you have access to the backside of what you’re drilling you can put a scrap piece of plate there to give more material for the magnet to attract.
Having spent some time wielding a Milwaukee mag base, the permanent magnet base looks promising — except for the 2-3 turns to lock it. Is this a similar unit to what was used in the movie Panic Room to crack open the safe at the end? Mike { They are WELL worth the price, I have 2 and I'm not a paint contractor but I love them. Despite the progress decline in function associated with aging, many elderly individuals remain cognitively sharp and physically active.
The growth and replication of cells is often described as a cyclic process with two main phases: interphase, when the cell grows and replicates DNA in preparation for cell division, and mitosis, during which the actual division of the cell into two daughter cells occurs.
In group 1 (absence of p53) 80% of the mice developed tumors, while none of the mice in group 2 (shortened p53 gene) developed tumors, and 45% of the mice in group 3 (normal, wild type) developed tumors. Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a regulated process that takes place throughout life and serves to eliminate necessary or damaged cells. Recent studies suggest that cellular senescence might be a cellular model of organismal aging. Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest, which was first introduced by Hayflick and Moorhead in 1961. Studies showed that cellular senescence is commonly triggered by various forms of DNA damage. Sources of DNA damage include external sources, such as ionizing radiation tobacco smoke, air pollution and genotoxic drugs, and cell-intrinsic sources, such as replication errors, programmed double-strand breaks, and DNA damaging agents—reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reactive oxygen species (ROS),such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, are normal byproducts of metabolism took place in mitochondria, and are believed to be one important source of DNA damage.
ROS can damage the mitochondria's DNA (mtDNA) and proteins, and the mutant mtDNA in turn are more liable to produce ROS byproducts.
The increased generation of ROS can cause lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and several types of DNA lesions in cells.
Telomeres are repeated nucleotides sequences on the end of chromosomes that are believed to protect the DNA strands and prevent them from fusing with other strands.
How does the lung function of a healthy 70 year old compare to that of a healthy 30 year old?
How could it be that some 78 year olds can recall memories from their twenties while others cannot remember their grandchild's name? Many older adults complain of increased memory lapses as they age, and a major focus of research has been to try to distinguish memory declines attributable to normal aging from those that are indicative of premature, accelerated aging, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive decline is inevitable, but the extent to which it occurs and the rapidity of onset varies among individuals. According to the National Institute of Aging, Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia among older people, and it affects an estimated 5.2 million people in the United States. During the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (up to ten years), there are no symptoms, but the plaques and neurofibrillary tangles accumulate and progressive kill more and more brain cells.
The captioned video below [4:22 min] from the National Institute on Aging provides an overview of Alzheimer's disease. Aging and death are, of course, inevitable, but despite the progress decline in function associated with aging, many elderly individuals remain cognitively sharp and physically active. Several studies have suggested that maintaining a large network of personal relationships, and regularly engaging in social and productive activities is associated with a decreased risk of cognitive and physical decline. Lung disease: Smoking damages the lungs and airways, sometimes causing chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Many studies suggest that engaging in leisure activities regularly reduces cognitive decline, especially with respect to Alzheimer's disease and dementia due to severe vascular disease. Regular participation in cognitive activities is associated with a reduced risk of dementia.
In addition to reducing the risk of dementia, cognitive activities also improve performance on cognitive tasks. Diet plays a major role in the prevention and management of debilitating cognitive and physical conditions, especially for aging individuals. Healthy centenarians did not engage in overnutrition,, and they generally avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuations in body weight. The USDA has an excellent web site that provides a wealth of information about healthy eating and physical activity. These improvements occur because exercise moderates muscular, myocardial, skeletal muscle, oxidative stress, and inflammation associated with aging patterns. Aging is accompanied by a decline in cellular regenerative capacity of all tissues and organs. Ivanova DG, Yankova TM: The free radical theory of aging in search of a strategy for increasing life span.
Lagouge M, Larsson NG: The Role of Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Free Radicals in Disease and Ageing. Raiser SN and Vincent KR: The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-reslated considerations with exercise. Woo J: Relationship among diet, physical activity and other lifestyle factors and debilitating diseases in the elderly.
Older people are very susceptible to scams too my Grandpa was basically robbed of alot of his savings luckily we have a great police force and since my Grandpa was on the force he even helped track them down.
The drill forms its own mount by magnetically gripping the steel (or other ferrous metal) into which it drills.
It’s a two-speed drill, both nice and slow for big applications (380 rpm or 680 rpm).
Metabo doesn’t’ give drill tip pressure in the PDF you link to – but says the mag base is rated at 2500 lb. As people age they change in a myriad of ways - biologically, psychologically and physiologically. The events occurring in this cyclic process are summarized in the diagram on the right in which interphase events are shown with blue arrows and mitosis is shown in brown.
Replication should only occur when there is a need for growth and development (in embryos and the young) or when there is a need to replace damaged or lost cells. The p53 protein has been extensively studied because the gene that encodes it has been has been found to be mutated in approximately half of all human cancers.


Specifically, they examined the effects of either the absence of p53 or presence of a smaller than normal p53 protein in mice.
Furthermore, group 1 had the shortest life span, group 3 (normal) had the longest life span, and group 2 had an intermediate life span. Apoptosis takes place during embryonic development as a means of reshaping tissues during normal growth and development, and it provides a mechanism of eliminating worn out or damaged cells throughout life.
Like apoptosis, it is a highly regulated process that plays a normal role in cell growth, development and homeostasis. Although the question has been raised since hundreds of years ago, the mysteries that control human life span are yet to be discovered.
Accumulations of senescent cells were found in vivo in mammals with increasing age, and at sites of age-related pathology.
They found that normal human fibroblasts had a limited replicative potential and eventually entered a state of irreversible growth arrest, meaning that cells being cultured in vitro had lost the ability to divide, despite having ample space and nutrients in the culture medium. Mutant mice that are deficient in DNA repair show premature senescence and progeroid phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of DNA damage-induced senescence in aging. Therefore, ROS are considered important factors in the mechanisms of such diseases as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis, heart attacks, Alzheimer's disease, as well as in aging. One possible explanation is that caloric restriction reduced production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria.
There is ample evidence that alterations in brain structure and function are intimately tied to alterations in cognitive function. There is much evidence that cognitive decline is neither uniform among people, nor is it uniform across the different cognitive functions of the brain. Note that there are almost no changes in verbal ability and they may even have improved with age. But people who have dementia can forget simple things, like forgetting to put on a coat before going out in cold weather. Some estimates project that there will be as many as 7.7 million people with Alzheimer's disease in the US by 2030 as the Baby Boom generation ages (AARP). As part of the recycling of this protein, enzymes cleave off segments referred to as beta amyloid, which are normally removed. This section explores lifestyle choices that appear to be associated with increased longevity and enhanced quality of life in older individuals. Similarly, social disengagement, defined as having very few or no social relationships, is a strong risk factor for cognitive and physical decline. Centenarians have confidantes, daily visitors, and someone from their family, typically their children, or a friend acting as a caregiver. More people die from smoking than from HIV, illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined. The extent to which risk declines is to some extent related to the frequency and type of leisure activity participation. These tasks include perceptual discrimination, visual search, recognition, recall, spatial perception. Exercise also has an important role in the prevention and retardation of osteoporosis, the reduction of fracture risk, prevention of colon and breast cancer and the prevention of obesity.
Decline in the regenerative activities of these tissues can be attributed to an age-related decline in stem cell function.
As you might expect, mag drills are also generally larger than their standard counterparts because there’s usually not as much requirement for mounting when drilling smaller holes. Data from the US Census Bureau show that in 2008 there were 39 million Americans 65 years of age and older, a dramatic increase from the 3 million in 1900. The rapid grow of the elderly population makes it increasingly important to understand the aging process and to promote lifestyle choices that maximize not only longevity, but also the quality of life during aging.This module will summarize what is currently known about the biology of aging, major theories of aging, physical and cognitive effects of aging, and interventions that may diminish physical and cognitive decline.
Note that cells may also exit the cycle and enter a G0 phase either temporarily or more or less permanently. Thus, the cycle is influenced by growth factors and by proto-oncogenes that favor replication and by anti-oncogenes that produce proteins that inhibit replication. Arrest at the G1 checkpoint is mediated by p53 and is rapidly induced in response to damaged DNA.
In order to do this, two transgenic mouse lines were used that had either a shortened form of p53 gene (p53m, partial mutant) or a complete deletion of the p53 gene (p53-, complete deletion). Thus, partial p53 mutation reduced the risk of developing cancer, but at the cost of a decrease in longevity.
Age-related diseases such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson's disease have been linked to an increase in apoptosis where cells that might otherwise continue to support proper tissue functioning are eliminated. The chromatin condenses, the cell begins to shrink and irregular bulges in the plasma membrane known as blebs form. Autophagy allows a starving cell to reallocate nutrients from unnecessary processes to more essential ones, and it also plays an important housekeeping role by removing misfolded or aggregated proteins, clearing away damaged organelles, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, as well as eliminating intracellular pathogens.
During the last decades, many theories have been proposed to explain the process of aging, but neither of them seems to be fully satisfactory.
Two general models have been proposed to explain how cellular senescence may contribute to aging.
With age the number of mutant mtDNA increase and the mitochondrial functions decline, leading to an increased production of ROS. Evidence has shown that species that live longer generally show higher cellular oxidative stress resistance and lower levels of mitochondrial ROS production compared to species that live shorter.
Since replicative DNA polymerases are not able to replicate telomeres, and telomerase (specialized DNA polymerase that could replicate telomeres) are not expressed in normal mammalian somatic cells, telomeres become too short to replicate after a fixed number of cell divisions. In addition, calorie restriction induces autophagy that removes harmful proteins and organelles, thereby reducing the accumulating damage to the cell. In order to understand aging-related cognitive decline it is important to study the relationship between the brain and cognition. In other words, some 60 years olds experience worse memory loss than other 70 year olds, and one person may have excellent episodic memory but impaired executive control.
Dementia is a term for a group of symptoms caused by disorders that that affect the ability to think so severely that it impairs one's ability to perform normal daily activities like eating or getting dressed.
They might ask you the same question over and over, each time forgetting that you've already given them the answer.
Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory, language, thinking skills and the ability to plan. However, in Alzheimer's disease these sticky protein segments adhere to one another and accumulate in the spaces between neurons. In the final stages of Alzheimer's disease, the damage is widespread, and brain tissue has shrunk significantly. These individuals help with meal preparation, sickness, or disability and therefore help keep the centenarian relatively healthy.
Those who quit smoking generally experience improvements in breathing and control of high blood pressure.
Leisure activity can be divided into two subgroups: physical activities and cognitive activities. It keeps a person sharp by enhancing resistance to insults, promoting plasticity, increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors, and promoting overall health. For those with chronic disease or recovering from acute illnesses, exercise programs are an important part of the management. While individuals with the highest levels of physical activity were a striking 38% less likely to show signs of cognitive decline over time compared to those with very-low activity levels.


As a result, scientists and researchers are delving into the world of stem cell therapy to look for possible answers to treat, and hopefully one day cure, some of these age related disorders.
In addition, as shown in the graph on the right, the populations aged 65 and over and 85 will increase dramatically in coming years, and these increases will be accompanied by a large increase in the number of people suffering from age-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease.
In cells that are actively growing and dividing, such as those in an embryo, the cycle is completed frequently as cells divide over and over as the embryo grows and develops. These various factors interact to regulate the cell cycle in cells that have retained the capacity to divide. Following the arrest of cell division, p53 will also induce either cell death through apoptosis or permanent loss the ability of a cell to proliferate (senescence). The authors also found that the group 2 mice developed phenotypes characteristic of old mice (hunchbacked spines, slow hair re-growth, etc.) earlier than the normal group 3 mice did. There are many pathways and proteins that regulate apoptosis, such as p53, that are able to sense cells that are damaged or no longer needed. The cell eventually breaks into several smaller pieces known as apoptotic bodies containing the cell components and the nucleus. Some authors believe that mitochondrial dysfunction, which is believed to contribute to cellular aging, occurs in part because of the inability of cells to remove their damaged mitochondria.
Instead, these theories interact with each other and all of these together contribute to aging. First, senescent cells in tissues may accumulate to the point where the strength and functional capacity of tissues in compromised. This section will provide an overview of cognitive functions of the brain and discuss cognitive decline. This inter-individual variability is likely caused by biological, psychological, health-related, environmental, and lifestyle factors and mechanisms. Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia, but memory loss by itself does not mean that someone has dementia. As these beta amyloid plaques accumulate, they have a toxic effect on the adjacent neurons and eventually kill them. This solidifies the fact that having friends, family members, caregivers or confidantes is very important for living a long healthy live. Cessation o smoking bring a rapid reduction in risk of stroke and myocardial infarction and a slower reduction in the risk of cancer. However, there is no convincing evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of dementia. These trainings typically teach mnemonic strategies, concentration, attention, relaxation, personal insight, self-monitoring, motivation, feedback, and problem solving that have succeeded in improving memory performance. Exercise training must be tailored to an individual's goals and capacities pertain to age, gender, and medication use. However, before a cure for such disorders can be found, we have to understand how our environment, physical age, cellular age, and stem cell age react with one another. Weight is an issue with these machines – and we like our older BUX drill for its aluminum construction. In addition, there are cellular processes that constitute checkpoints that prevent the cell cycle from proceeding if errors have occurred. The accumulation of senescent cells contributes to aging because it leads to reduced tissue renewal and repair. In addition, autophagy degrades proteins to enable their replacement and also degrades damaged proteins that are no longer functional. A second model proposes that senescence in stem cells limit their regenerative potential which eventually leads to a progressive loss of tissue strength and functional capacity. For an excellent review, see Ivanova DG, Yankova TM: The free radical theory of aging in search of a strategy for increasing life span. People with dementia have progressively severe problems with functions like memory and language, or they may lose their ability to solve problems. With Alzheimer's disease the tau protein separate from the microtubules and clump together to form intracellular tangles. On average patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease die about 8-10 years after symptoms become noticeable to others.
On the other hand, overnutrition increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, gallstone disease, hypertension, cancer, and sleep apnea. However, it is recommended that older adults have 30-60 min of moderate intensity (5-6 on a 0-10 pain scale) exercise training per day or 75-100 min per day of vigorous (7-8 on the pain scale 3-5 times a week.
Nevertheless, even in fully developed adults certain progenitor cells retain the ability to replicate and give rise to new daughter cells to replace cells that are damaged or lost due to wear and tear. The first checkpoint occurs during the G1 phase and provides an opportunity for cellular that processes to repair damaged DNA before the cell enters the S phase when replication occurs. Several studies conducted in both mice and humans on mutant p53 genes have supported the notion that increased cancer protection by p53 can also lead to a shortened life life span.
Some studies suggest that caloric restriction in rodents increases their life span by preventing the decline in autophagy that occurs with aging. In this module, however, we will only discuss three major theories of aging: cellular senescence, DNA damage, and telomere shortening. Cellular senescence can be triggered by a number of mechanisms, such as telomere shortening and DNA damage an described below.
The loss of functioning microtubules disrupts intracellular transport of vesicles, nutrients, and organelles.
There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, although several drugs have been developed which may slow the progression of disease. In addition, the elderly should either have 2 days a week of moderate or vigorous intensity weight training and calisthenics and 2 days per week of flexibility training. For example, Clara cells in the epithelium of the respiratory tract have the capacity to replicate to produce two daughter cells - one that will be a new Clara cell and one that will differentiate into a replacement epithelial cell. This prevents the daughter cells from inheriting damaged DNA, which would result in mutations. Overall, they concluded that just as in mice, human p53 protects against cancer but at a cost of longevity. Similarly, hematopoetic stem cells in bone marrow have the ability to replicate to give rise to progenitor cells that can differentiate into the various cellular elements of blood. There are also other checkpoints in S and G2 phases that check for damaged DNA and failure of DNA replication.
The final cell cycle checkpoint occurs at the end of mitosis and checks for any chromosomes that have been misaligned.
We use the 4209 mostly for horizontal drilling of plate there a stationary drill press can’t reach. The many factors that regulate the cell cycle play an important rol in the aging process, because as cells age their capacity to replicate diminishes to the point that they are no longer able to divide.
As this occurs, the ability to replace damaged or lost cells dwindles and ultimately results in declines in tissue strength and cellular and organ function that are characteristic of aging.



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