Tinnitus mean hearing loss zedd,earrings for those with metal allergies,chanel earrings 2015 collection - Tips For You

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When it comes to risk factors for stroke, there are some we can control and some we cannot.
Are you surprised eyebrows, cheeks, chin and forehead didn't make the top 5 list but three features of your mouth did? Signs you may be over breathing include sighing, moving your shoulders when you breath, breathing through your mouth, and starting your next breath as soon as you exhaled the last one. Hide your wifea€¦hide your kidsa€¦stock up on toilet paper and milk and watera€¦.Winter Storm Bucky is a-comina€™! If stranded or even if simply plowed in and desirous of warming up your vehicle while you dig out, make certain that your cara€™s breathing system is free and clear. If youa€™re a daily soft contact lens wearer, you know the panic of forgetting to put solution in your contact lens case. Whether you wear makeup everyday, a lot or a little, or only on special occasions here are some tips that all women should follow for a healthy face. The content contributions of Welsch Hearing Aid Company should not be considered by anyone as a substitute for medical or other hearing health professional diagnosis, treatment, advice, or recommendations.
According to this neurologist, the intense craving we have for these foods from time-to-time is similar to a drug addicts craving for drugs. Currently there is legislation pending to make hearing health care more accessible to our Veterans. Due to the resultant backlog, veterans across the country are having difficulties accessing convenient and high-quality hearing care through the VA.
Within the VA system, only audiologists are permitted to perform hearing evaluations, hearing aid fittings, programming, and adjusting, and hearing aid counseling services, despite hearing aid specialists being ready and competent to provide these services. Everyone one of you have friends or family members who have served or are serving in the Armed Services. Join natural health and supplement expert, Terry Lemerond, as he dives deeper into this powerful natural medicine.
Yesterday I got the privilege of joining some very beautiful and talented ladies at Mint Salon in downtown Green Bay to get to work on a fun campaign called Beautiful on Both Sides. Tinnitus is a common hearing affliction where the patient experiences a sound that is frequently described as a ringing in the ears.  Learn more about tinnitus by reviewing the questions and answers below, or visit our hearing clinic in Kelowna. 9.     I heard that a certain diet might help to reduce the tinnitus?  Are chocolate and wine bad for tinnitus?
It is the conscious experience of a sound that originates in the head or ears.  It is frequently described as a ringing, buzzing, humming, hissing, sound of escaping steam, etc. Disco Tinnitus is the temporary tinnitus due to exposure to loud noise.  It frequently affects teenagers and adults participating nightclubs and loud concerts. No, it does not mean you will lose your hearing.  Tinnitus may co-exist with hearing loss but it does not necessarily cause the tinnitus. There is no direct correlation of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine influencing the prevalence of tinnitus.  A low salt diet helps to reduce the symptoms of Meniere’s disease but does not reduce or enhance tinnitus. Avoid the quietness – turn on the radio, fan, TV.  Having some sounds in the environment reduces the contrast between your tinnitus and quietness and makes tinnitus less noticeable. Hearing aids generally will help to cope with tinnitus more effectively if you have a hearing loss.  Being able to hear better can take the strain off listening. At Focus Hearing we want your hearing aid experience to be second to none, and your satisfaction is guaranteed. We are confident that our 17 years experience will ensure you get the best solution for your hearing.
How to cite this article Mahmoudian S, Shahmiri E, Rouzbahani M, Jafari Z, Keyhani MR, Rahimi F, Mahmoudian G, et al. Tinnitus is a debilitating condition that is widespread yet difficult to successfully diagnose and treat. Regarding to McFadden (1982), Tinnitus is the "conscious experience of a sound that originates in an involuntary manner in the head of its owner or may appear to him to be so"1. Some underlying causes were defined for tinnitus, including otological diseases, tumors, ototoxicity, acoustic trauma, noise-induced and psychological disturbances. Since almost the majority of tinnitus questionnaires for assessing individual's reaction to tinnitus are in English language and there is still no standardized and valid questionnaire in Persian, the provision of a Persian version of these questionnaires according to the culture of Iranian society is inevitable. The first aim of the current study was to investigate the linguistic validity of the Persian Version of the THI as a measure of tinnitus-related reactions in three dimensions 95 International Tinnitus Journal, Vol. The present study consists of translation and standardization of the original version of THI [25] into Persian version (Linguistic validation) then the reliability of the Persian version of THI has been identified. In the first step according to the IQOLA protocol26, THI questionnaire was translated by two native speakers of Persian, bilingual in English and Persian, separately translated the original instrument into Farsi (Persian) language (translator 1 and 2). At the second step of linguistic validation, we used two other translators (5 and 6) with high level of proficiency in Persian and English languages.
Before the THI-P can be administered to assess the effects of tinnitus, its test-retest stability must be determined. The degree of hearing loss is defined as the severity of the hearing loss measured by audiometry.
Patients were asked to complete the THI-P questionnaire as part of the initial assessment at the tinnitus center. All analyses were performed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 16. Student t-test was used to test for differences between THI scores and its subscales and gender, hearing impairments and tinnitus laterality. From the 25 items of THI-US version translated to Persian version of THI, thirteen items (52%) including 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 20, 21 and 22 as an easy translation, six items (24%) including 6, 12, 14, 17, 18 and 19 as a relatively easy translation and finally other six items including 4, 5, 13, 23, 24 and 25 as a difficult translation were evaluated by translators. The tinnitus characteristics of the 112 subjects attending the tinnitus center to consult about tinnitus management have been summarized in Table 1. The frequency distribution of tinnitus subjects who answered the various items in the THI-P questionnaire has been outlined in Table 3. The correlation of age and total THI-P score was calculated by Pearson's product and for calculating the effect of sex and total THI-P score we applied independent student t-test.
Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the first and second administrations of the THI-P among the tinnitus subjects to assess the strength of the relationship between tests and retest (Figure 2). We assessed the percentages of "Yes", "Sometimes" and "No" answers and then we calculated the reproducibility (internal consistency reliability) of items in THI-P using the Cronbach's-alpha coefficient. In recent years, the need to assess and consider the consequences of diseases as well as distressing symptoms has been specifically considered in all special facilities of medical and rehabilitation.
Hence, as a first step, standardization and validation of appropriate tools such as psychometric questionnaires are very important in order to evaluate disease or monitor treatment outcomes.
One of our ultimate goals for validating the Persian version of THI and for conducting current study was to develop a standard self-report tinnitus instrument, appropriate to the Persian's culture so that it could be administered as a criterion measure in clinical and research approaches available to clinicians and other researchers who are involved in different aspects of tinnitus subjects. It is widely agreed that in addition to desirable translation to validate an assessment tool, we should also use the terms adapted for socio-cultural setting of the population which will serve. The translation quality was assessed by translator 3 and 4 using a VAS criterion (from desirable up to absolute undesirable score).
In order to determine the divergent or discriminate validity of THI-P, we used the effects of three factors including hearing impairment, gender and age of the tinnitus subjects on the questionnaire scores. Regarding to other studies, in order to identify validity of THI questionnaires (German, Brazilian, Danish versions), authors administered the correlation between items in translated THI with the other standardized questionnaires (convergent validity structure)33.
The most important specifications of one assessing instrument are always including repeatability, consistency and validity of obtained scores. The other part of consistency was related to the correlation between test-retest which was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient.
In this study, with omitting any of the THI-P items, the acquired score of Cronbach's alpha coefficient as calculated by the total score of Cronbach's alpha coefficient was very close (r = 0.943). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the Persian version of THI (THI-P) is a valid and reproducible tool to assess the psychological complaints of tinnitus sufferers. We find that THI-P in structural and practical point of view is compatible with the original English version of THI. In this era, the determination of both objective and subjective effects of clinical intervention is critical, because clinicians using outcome measures could make decision about patient's status and the effective treatment. For people with HFHL, it can be as though someone has removed certain letters from the alphabet in speech.
Clearly the best thing to do is to be knowledgeable about the types of causes for hearing loss and how to avoid them. Should the worst occur and you have discovered some hearing loss, there are some options available. While there are treatments available, and there are new breakthroughs happening all the time in the field, the best measures to take are ones of prevention. Caring for the ears is as simple as identifying the hazards and putting measures in place to either avoid or protect from these hazards.
When aiming to treat, instead of only protect, The Hearing Loss Pill team has created a post specifically covering all of the available options which include everything from stem cell treatments to cochlear implants.
Some data from studies is showing that high frequency hearing loss is actually getting worse in the main population, particularly in the youth. A: Possible causes for HFHL include extreme noise exposure, genetics, aging, ototoxicity, and desease.
A: Hearing Aids can take the higher frequency sounds, not heard by someone with HFHL, and lower the frequency one of two ways.
Some features are considered more important than others in determining if a face is attractive or not.
We also know that eating more calories than we need does not improve our body's performance.
For the majority of people, an encounter with a major snow event will prove an inconvenience and minor to mid-major annoyance.
The potentially deadly carbon monoxide that emits from your vehiclea€™s tailpipe will find a way out. Accumulating snow and drifting snow can pile up around your furnace exhaust pipe, your dryer vent, around anything that vents out of your home. This is a step that lots of people skip especially those who don't wear makeup everyday or don't wear much at all. A Usually it has to do with things high in carbs and oftentimes our "comfort foods" are items that contain bread. As a result, these audiologists are being pulled away from the more complex care and services they are uniquely qualified to provide. A Second, pay attention to some everyday things like washing your hands often and coughing into your sleeve or a tissue, and then discarding the tissue. A This is from Terry Talks Nutrition and it's a great way to learn more about this powerful natural medicine! And the treatment options offered by conventional medicine can cause severe side effects and dona€™t guarantee survival. Learn about the exciting research on Grape Seed Extract, how to pick the most effective Grape Seed Extract and how this brilliant botanical can help bring you closer to vibrant health. Tinnitus may co-exist with hearing loss but hearing loss may not be the cause of tinnitus.  Tinnitus is frequently associated with some diseases in the ear, such as otosclerosis, ear infections, and Meniere’s disease.
A relaxed body can cope with tinnitus more effectively.  Tinnitus is usually not a sign of a serious, ongoing medical condition.


Persian language version of the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory": translation, standardization, validity and reliability. This symptom is a debilitating condition that is widespread yet difficult to successfully diagnose and treat.
For some patients with tinnitus this sensation does not interfere with their daily activities and for others it is disabling and restricts their work, sleep, and social activities10,11. Numerous studies using various open-ended or self-report structured questionnaires have been conducted. For this reason we perform according to the International Quality of Life Assessment protocol (IQOLA) approved by WHO in 1991. Craig Newman, author of the original questionnaire of THI, has permitted us to develop and use the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in Persian Language Version. They were asked, if needed, to mention a list of possible translations for some words, sentences and phrases. On the other hand, the words and items on the level of reading ability of 14 years old or less were noticed for linguistic validation of THI-P.
All subjects gave written informed consent in accord with the declaration of Helsinki before examinations. So, in retest after one week from filling the first THI-P, the questionnaire was filled again by the same patients.
Descriptive statistics, including frequency distributions, means and standard deviation were computed for each item of THI-P. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of gender, hearing loss and the tinnitus laterality on the overall THI score as well as the functional, emotional and catastrophic subscales.
In this study, the research method and the role of subjects were explained clearly and completely. The translation clarity exception in one item (item 17) which was evaluated as relatively desirable, in the other 24 items (96%) of THI-P was evaluated as desirable. Most of tinnitus subjects (72.7%) perceived one type of tinnitus sound, while others complained of sensation of more than one type of sound on different occasions.
Scatter plots illustration the relationship between the THI-P score and the age in all subscales. As shown in Figure 2, the scatter plot indicates the correlation between the first (test) and second (retest) administration of the THI-P and their subscales on tinnitus subjects. Scatter plots illustration the correlation between the first (test) and second (retest) administration of the THI-P and their subscales. Researches in many different countries around the world in this area indicate the global emphasis on the importance of these assessments.
This symptom is as a common problem which can affect several aspects of patients' life including: going to sleep, understanding speech, depression, irritation, concentration and worse on awakening. To acquire this expressed goal, it was necessary to translate and standardize the original version of THI and then to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the THI-P. The measure of difficulty of Persian translation of THI was evaluated by translator 1 and 2 using a visual analogue scale from easy up to difficult (VAS; 100 mm total length).
The measure of this criterion administers three measures including clarity scores, common language and identifies conceptual equivalence. Both convergent and discriminate validity methods were used for identifying validity of original English version of THI19. In current research the reliability of THI-P was evaluated from two 102 International Tinnitus Journal, Vol. We obtained 0.96 in Persian THI version, consistent with significant correlation in retest. The findings showed that none of the items of the Persian version of the questionnaire need to be removed.
Also, THI-P could be administered as a standard measuring instrument for patients and clinicians all over Iran.
Henceforth, THI-P could be used for both clinical and research purposes by different professionals like audiologists, otolaryngologists, psychiatrists and could be also used for monitoring, treatment and rehabilitative effects on the life's quality of tinnitus sufferers. ENT and Head & Neck Research Center, Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.
Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS).
Department of Biometry, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Tinnitus is a condition in which damage to the ear results in sufferers hearing sound or noise that isn?t there. Hearing deteriorates with age to a certain degree, and this decline can be exacerbated by any number of other factors.
The goal is to become educated on the risks of damaging noises and to minimize any potential hearing loss as we age. These can range from heavy-duty work earmuffs that cover the whole ear to small, inconspicuous plugs for watching bands. HFHL usually impairs the inner ear, which affects how sound is received and transmitted as signals to the brain. Obviously this plan will differ person to person: a truck driver might identify far different noise hazards than a full-time mother.
Frequency transposition, the first option, takes the higher frequency energies and moves them to a lower frequency. The truth is that most people never do anything with the products they buy, so most of the time, they dona€™t get ANY results. But dona€™t worrya€¦in many cases, you can easily reconstitute your shriveled up peeper cheatersa€¦it just takes a little time. You dona€™t need to pick a€?em up to confirm, and therea€™s a good chance you will crack or break off a chunk of that lens if your handle it. The contraction and expansion of the lens in the process of it all can cause microscopic cracks and tears that can cause some issues, potentially big issues. I use a makeup remover cloth at night to remove all my makeup and wash with face wash and hot water in the morning so I always start my makeup routine with a clean face. Some people just throw on a little powder and hit the road, but you're skipping a critical step to protect your skin.
There are a few different ways you can do this, you can use an antibacterial liquid soap and hot water, you can buy a makeup brush cleaner that you drip into the sink with hot water, or you can buy a spray to make cleaning quick and easy. 564, the Veterans Access to Hearing Care Act, which would make care more accessible for our veterans. In addition, there are more than 200 medications listing tinnitus as a potential side effect.  However, there is small percentage of normal hearing people have tinnitus. Objectives: The aim of current study was to compose and validate a Persian version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-P). The prevalence of chronic tinnitus in the general population is estimated between 5-15% and causes to develop serious psychosocial complications in 1% to 3%1.
It is reported that tinnitus can be severe enough to cause significant discomfort in one's daily life12. Finding the effects of tinnitus on the quality of life and assessing the individual's reaction to tinnitus are very important. The aim of IQOLA is to translate and provide health questionnaires with high validity and reliability for using in different countries by their formal language26. This version is both simple to administer and interpret and also a powerful psychometric tool.
After that, each of the expert translators were asked about the difficulties of the translations and they were attributed a score according to the 100 point visual analogue scale (VAS).
Afterward, the pooled back translation was compared and formed by translators and then an agreement was obtained for one English version of THI questionnaire for finding the coherency with original version.
Therefore the formulated initial Persian version of the instrument was attended by 24 (10 female and 14 male) high school students in Tehran. The Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha test (where values>0.70 indicate a satisfactory internal consistency) was used to test for the evaluating internal stability of the THI-P29, and Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the total score of the THI-P and the scores of its subscales, age and pure tone average (PTA).
The common language score of THI-P was assessed as desirable in all 25 items (100%) and also the conceptual equivalence for three items (4, 10, 16) undesirable response (12%), for two items (23 and 14) in a relatively desirable level (8%), and the other items were desirable response (80%).
The type of sound reported by most tinnitus subjects was subjectively described as high-pitch tone, matched by external stimuli (described by 52.3% of subjects).
Table 2 summarized the mean air conduction thresholds across frequencies of 500-4000 Hz for left and right ears.
As shown in Figure 1, the total score of THI-P and its subscales were not correlated with the age of tinnitus subjects. Total score of the THI-P and its associated subscales are very close to corresponding values in the original THI-US (Table 6). In Iran, in order to converge and coordinate with the ongoing research at the international level concerning the evaluation of consequences of diseases, impairments, handicaps, treatments and rehabilitation, we should create a new movement.
Sense of the various problems among the subject sufferer from tinnitus and understanding the impact of tinnitus on their quality of life are of the uttermost importance. Translation of the original questionnaire of THI in Persian language in overall was easy due to its simple sentences, whereas, the translators in six items acknowledged difficult translation (items of 4, 5, 13, 23, 24 and 25). The translation clarity in 24 items of THI-P was evaluated desirable and only one item (item 17) evaluated as relatively desirable. Majority of epidemiological tinnitus studies have reported a positive relationship between tinnitus and hearing loss4,34-35. This valid tool allows us to quantify how much tinnitus impacts the life's quality of these individuals. Functional brain abnormalities localized in 55 chronic tinnitus patients: fusion of SPECT coincidence imaging and MRI. Prevalence of tinnitus and hearing thresholds of a non-noise-exposed population with and without tinnitus. Assessment of psychopathological aspects and psychiatric comorbidities in patients affected by tinnitus.
Psychologic profile of tinnitus patients using the SCL-90-R and tinnitus handicap inventory. Psychological profile and somatic complaints between help-seeking and non-help-seeking tinnitus subjects.
Tinnitus reaction questionnaire: psychometric properties of a measure of distress associated with tinnitus.
Developmental and Psychometric Adequacy of the Screening Version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. Psychometric Adequacy of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) for Evaluating Treatment Outcome. Tinnitus with normal hearing sensitivity: extended high-frequency audiometry and auditory nerve brain-stem-evoked responses. Validity of the Italian adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; focus on quality of life and psychological distress in tinnitus-sufferers. Brazilian Portuguese Language version of the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory": Validity and Reproducibility.


Impact of tinnitus as measured by the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory among tinnitus sufferers in Singapore. What happens is the tiny hair nerves that are contained in the basilar membrane die as a result to over-exposure to loud noises.
It might not even be something noticeable at the time; rather, it will be a slow deterioration. Carrying around a pair of the smaller ones are a good idea, especially if you think you might be exposed to noise.
While there is no cure as such for hearing loss, there are a range of treatments and aids to improve the quality of hearing.
There is only a limited amount of times the ears can be exposed to loud noises before they start to deteriorate. A range of ear protection, from the large rubber earmuffs to smaller earplugs, are a great investment and should always be close to hand ? This is hypothesized to be due to noise induced hearing factors from an increase of noise in daily activities, including everything from normal environmental noise to the increased use of ear buds for music listening.
The second way, known as nonlinear frequency compression, uses a compression ratio on the high frequency sound to lower it. Have you ever considered that breathing is more critical to life than eating but just like over eating over breathing can be making us sick. Find a good foundation that contains SPF for the added protection from the sun (don't rely on this as your only sun protection if you're going to be spending a lot of time outside).
Materials and Methods: The linguistic validation of the original version of THI into Persian version (THI-P) included translation, back translation and data gathering. Epidemiological studies indicated that in developed countries such as Germany about 1.5 million people, in the United States about 10 million out of 40 million tinnitus sufferers and a similar ratio in the United Kingdom have been reported that were seriously affected by tinnitus2-4. Tinnitus symptoms have been linked to various psychological and psychosomatic disorders13-15. One of the most important methods in the assessment of the severity of tinnitus and its effects on the lifestyle of a patient is the use of psychometrical evaluations.
Finally, we formulated the initial Persian version of the instrument with proper and satisfactory translation. The final version of THI-P was administered in all tinnitus subjects who were managed in our center between September 2009 and May 2010. The score of "Yes", "No" and "Occasionally" were 4, 0 and 2, respectively in three subscales: emotional, functional and catastrophic. All personal information in the questionnaire were confidential and only used in this research. The other descriptions of tinnitus included cricket, sizzling, hissing, humming and other sounds. Tinnitus is a subjective idiopathic symptom in which it is not detected by blood examination and CT scan or like this.
In this regard, translator 1 and 2 were asked to provide a list of possible alternative translations for the replacement in relatively difficult and difficult items of THI-P. The prevalence of tinnitus among normal hearing subjects has been reported between 7%-10%36-37. These hair nerves are what transmit sound to the brain to be interpreted into aural messages ? This means that instead of taking in a whole day?s worth of exposure to loud noises, we see them as isolated incidents.
We know better than that: we cover up our skin, we use sunblock, and we get our skin checked for moles and melanomas.
A medical practitioner will be able to determine exactly what hearing loss you suffer from, as well as in what frequencies, and will be able to recommended treatment. The testimonials you see on this web site are some of our better results and are not typical. That's right, our bodies need to breath but too much of a good thing is making us sick, fat and fatigued.
Foundation also protects your skin from all the free radicals we are exposed to in the air. Grape seed extract is beneficial for a wide variety of health concerns, such as high blood pressure and diabetes, but it also stands out as a cancer fighter, particularly for cancers that are aggressive and difficult to treat, such as treat triple negative breast cancer.
It is shown that 48% to 60% of patients with chronic or disabling tinnitus have major depressive disorder (MDD)16.
Such self-report questionnaires include the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ)18, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI)19, Tinnitus Severity Scale (TSS)20, Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ)21, Subjective Tinnitus Severity Scale22 and Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire (TRQ)23. The THI is a 25-item self-report instrument which is divided into three subscales including functional, emotional and catastrophic reactions to tinnitus. On the basis of these two translations and their VAS scores to each THI items, we formed the pooled version that was then reviewed by presence of translators for considering suggested replacing words and difficulty in translation. This questionnaire was used as an initial instrument for gathering data from tinnitus subjects at next steps.
Each single item was read loudly and the participants were asked to follow the items on the given sheet.
Age, gender, medical history and tinnitus characteristics were recorded as baseline information. In total, more than 92% of tinnitus subjects who attended the current study revealed high pitch tinnitus, matched by external stimuli (>3000 Hz).
Independent Student t-tests did not demonstrate statistically difference between total THI-P score and those with or without hearing impairment, neither did those with unilateral or bilateral tinnitus (Table 4). The main problem with tinnitus is its subjective nature so that evaluation of this complaint always depends upon patient's words. These alternative items were reviewed again by translator 3 and 4 in order to optimize quality of translation and finally revised for appropriate items. In conceptual equivalence of the translation, three items had undesirable response (4, 10 and 16) and two items had relatively desirable response.
Only a very low percentage of patients will ask for a hearing test when they visit their GP. Any music lover should consider the volume levels they enjoy their music at, as many people turn music up far too high (especially with ear-buds). Hearing aids, sound therapy and possibly surgery are all methods that are used to help amplify and possibly correct to a degree a person?s hearing. They stuck to the dose as directed and maintained a healthy lifestyle and balanced diet alongside it. All sorts of junk is floating around us and absorbed through our skin, but that layer of foundation helps stop those toxins from getting through.
In addition, tinnitus is a common symptom of the auditory system disorders that is usually associated with sensoryneural hearing loss6,7. Asplund reported that among subjects with tinnitus poor sleep and frequent waking were more common in men and women17.
In this regard the client was questioned in order to find out which activity or performance of the patient is affected by tinnitus.
Analysis of the THI items suggested that this self-report instrument had excellent internal consistency reliability and adequate convergent and constructive validity28.
It is worth to mention that in this step, for differentiation of the level of difficulty in translation, average scores less than 25 were considered as easy, more than 30 as difficult and between 25 and 30 as relatively easy.
Thus, items with undesirable translation were revised by translator 5 and 6 and revised by suggested replacing proper words, sentences and phrases.
As reported in several studies for the original version (US), Italian, Turkish, Danish, Portuguese and Singapore translations of THI19,28,38-41, the Persian version of THI was not significantly different in the handicap scores between those with normal hearing and those with hearing impairment with regard to the degree of handicap severity. Eventually it became clear that internal consistency was high and the response of every item to the response of total items was matched. If there is a ringing noise in the ears in an otherwise silent room, this is tinnitus1 and suggests that the ears have been over-exposed to noise.
If it?s someone who works with heavy machinery, or in areas of high traffic, or even as a bartender, a day?s worth of sound exposure could be happening at levels that damage the ears.
You are simply looking for the amount of time it takes for you to desire taking a next breath, when you would naturally breath again if you weren't pausing your breathing.
All participants complained of chronic unilateral or bilateral subjective idiopathic tinnitus lasting for at least 6 months before consulting about their tinnitus. An epidemiological study in Italy based on a tinnitus questionnaire demonstrated that the prevalence of tinnitus was 8% in normal hearing subjects while this amount rose up to 30.5% in the presence of auditory dysfunctions8. This agreed version of Persian THI translation was given to the two other translators who were expert to Persian philology (translator 3 and 4). Finally, the results of the present investigation suggest that the THI-P was simple and clear, without losing its equivalence towards cultural issues.
All values of item-total correlation coefficient are greater than 0.3 which also indicated high internal consistency in THI-P except item 19.
Results: There was no significant difference between gender, age, hearing impairment and total score and subscales of THI-P. Therefore, the valid psychometrical evaluations such as THI can be administered as a robust instrument to objectify tinnitus distress, but additional measures might be needed in order to catch the dimensions of tinnitus-related problems. Inoverall the translation quality of THI-P was evaluated as desirable from both aspects of a careful translation and adapted to the socio-cultural setting.
Pearson product-moment correlations revealed adequate test-retest reliability for the THI-P (r = 0.96).
Also the valid questionnaires are valuable in the evaluation of results from before to after special treatment and its effect on the individual's quality of life. Therefore, the symptom of tinnitus has forced clinicians to attempt to establish protocols for accuracy of tinnitus diagnosis and treatment9. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI)25 has gained widespread acceptance as a self-report measure of tinnitus around the world.
Therefore, these translators (3 and 4) for each question determined 3 scores on the basis of 100 point criteria. Therefore, the Persian translation of THI was not affected by hearing impairment, gender and age factors.
In this VAS, zero point means absolutely improper quality and 100 means absolutely proper and satisfactory quality.
After that, the subsequent processing was attended by audiologists from department and research center of otolaryngology of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Criteria for decision making in improper quality of each translation items was the average score less than 90 (determined by translators 3 and 4). Accordingly, in this step, Persian version of the THI was obtained, which regarding to all translators 1 to 4, had satisfactory quality.



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