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Author: admin, 03.08.2015
Tinnitus Self-help - What should you do when it whistles, rings, roars or drones in your ear? The most important and encouraging information is the fact that tinnitus has a benign cause in 99% of all cases.
Phantom sounds plaguing people with tinnitus affect a much larger swath of the brain than normal sounds do, a new study finds. The results, published in Current Biology, offer a clearer view of how brains respond to sounds of their own making.
As part of his treatment for epilepsy, a man with tinnitus had electrodes implanted under the left side of his skull, creating a rare opportunity to study how the brain handles internally created sounds. Neuroscientist William Sedley of Newcastle University in England and colleagues used specially calibrated white noise to curb the man’s tinnitus, a treatment that worked only occasionally.
A surprisingly wide expanse of the brain handled the tinnitus sound, Sedley says, a pattern quite different from the small brain area that helps detect regular sounds. Sign up to receive our newsletter: a cutting edge knowledge update including case studies, research, videos, blog, and Dr Neil's periodic existential outrospection. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method to cause depolarization or hyperpolarization in the neurons of the brain. The principle of inductive brain stimulation with eddy currents has been noted since the 20th century. Single or paired pulse TMS causes neurons in the neocortex under the site of stimulation to depolarize and discharge an action potential. Although TMS is often regarded as safe, the greatest acute risk of TMS is the rare occurrence of induced seizures and syncope. Besides seizures, other risks include fainting, minor pains such as headache or local discomfort, minor cognitive changes and psychiatric symptoms (particularly a low risk of mania in depressed patients).
TMS can be used clinically to measure activity and function of specific brain circuits in humans. Studies of the use of TMS and rTMS to treat many neurological and psychiatric conditions have generally shown only modest effects with little confirmation of results.
Other areas of research include the rehabilitation of aphasia and motor disability after stroke, tinnitus, Parkinson's disease, tic disorders and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It is difficult to establish a convincing form of "sham" TMS to test for placebo effects during controlled trials in conscious individuals, due to the neck pain, headache and twitching in the scalp or upper face associated with the intervention. One multicenter trial of rTMS in depression used an active "sham" placebo treatment that appeared to mimic the sound and scalp stimulation associated with active TMS treatment. TMS uses electromagnetic induction to generate an electric current across the scalp and skull without physical contact. The path of this current is difficult to model because the brain is irregularly shaped and electricity and magnetism are not conducted uniformly throughout its tissues. A number of different types of coils exist, each of which produce different magnetic field patterns. Design variations in the shape of the TMS coils allow much deeper penetration of the brain than the standard depth of 1.5 cm. Through a technique called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), University of California neuroscientist, Flavio Oliveira is researching how decisions are made by studying which hand a person chooses for an action. Scientists at the University of Queensland in Australia, have demonstrated that magnetic stimulation of the brain can help stroke patients regain their speech.
Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a brain mapping technique that's been around for 25 years, Dr.
For over 25 years, magnets have been used to stimulate the brain to investigate how nerve cells are connected in the brain. A brief, animated video which explains the basic mechanism of action of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Therapy when used in the treatment of depression. Michael Mosley participates in some experiments showing how magnetic brain stimulation can be used to selectively affect motor control of his right hand.

Professor Vincent Walsh of University College London demonstates the lost of verbal and motor control through using a TMS (Transcranial magnetic stimulation). Demonstration of neuronavigation with the NeNa software (TM), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex.
Details: before this demonstration, this volunteer was first scanned with fMRI while moving his right thumb, and an anatomical scan was acquired.
In collaboration with affected persons and with specialists we are researching and developing new forms of therapy and evaluating their chances of success. In Step 2 you will receive an overview of the most appropriate of the therapy possibilities. The researchers then compared brain activity when the white noise quieted the tinnitus with brain activity when the white noise was ineffective. A clearer understanding of how the brain responds to tinnitus might ultimately lead to better ways to hush the noise. TMS uses electromagnetic induction to induce weak electric currents using a rapidly changing magnetic field; this can cause activity in specific or general parts of the brain with minimal discomfort, allowing the functioning and interconnections of the brain to be studied.
The first successful TMS study was performed in 1985 by Anthony Barker and his colleagues in Sheffield, England.
If used in the primary motor cortex, it produces muscle activity referred to as a motor evoked potential (MEP) which can be recorded on electromyography. More than 16 cases of TMS-related seizure have been reported in the literature, with at least seven reported before the publication of safety guidelines in 1998, and more than nine reported afterwards. Though other side effects are thought to be possibly associated with TMS (alterations to the endocrine system, altered neurotransmitter and immune system activity) they are considered investigational and lacking substantive proof. The most robust and widely-accepted use is in measuring the connection between the primary motor cortex and a muscle to evaluate damage from stroke, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, movement disorders, motor neuron disease and injuries and other disorders affecting the facial and other cranial nerves and the spinal cord.
However, publications reporting the results of reviews and statistical meta-analyses of earlier investigations have stated that rTMS appeared to be effective in the treatment of certain types of major depression under certain specific conditions.
TMS has failed to show effectiveness for the treatment of brain death, coma, and other persistent vegetative states. The investigators reported that the patients and clinical raters were unable to guess the treatment better than chance, suggesting that the sham placebo adequately blinded these people to treatment. A plastic-enclosed coil of wire is held next to the skull and when activated, produces a magnetic field oriented orthogonally to the plane of the coil. The magnetic field is about the same strength as an MRI, and the pulse generally reaches no more than 5 centimeters into the brain. These differences should be considered in the interpretation of any study result, and the type of coil used should be specified in the study methods for any published reports. Solid core coil design result in a more efficient transfer of electrical energy into a magnetic field, with a substantially reduced amount of energy dissipated as heat, and so can be operated under more aggressive duty cycles often mandated in therapeutic protocols, without treatment interruption due to heat accumulation, or the use of an accessory method of cooling the coil during operation. Circular, H-shaped, double cone coils and other experimental variations can induce excitation or inhibition of neurons deeper in the brain including activation of motor neurons for the cerebellum, legs and pelvic floor. Joseph Devlin and conduct an experiment using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to illustrate the importance of Broca's area in controlling speech. Oliveira's findings are helping scientists better understand how the brain works which could one day lead to better treatments for stroke patients. This surprising experiment of stuttering triggered by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) answers this question. The therapy is called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and its impact on stroke survivors has been dramatic.
Adam Kirton of the University of Calgary's Faculty of Medicine is taking an old technology in a new direction to treat children who've suffered a stroke at or near birth.
In many instances people with diseases affecting the brain such as stroke, epilepsy, dystonia and depression have been studied, to work out which pathways are affected.
In order to be certain about even the last percent, one should go to an ear, nose and throat specialist.

A variant of TMS, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), has been tested as a treatment tool for various neurological and psychiatric disorders including migraines, strokes, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, tinnitus, depression and auditory hallucinations.
Its earliest application demonstrated conduction of nerve impulses from the motor cortex to the spinal cord, stimulating muscle contractions.
If used on the occipital cortex, 'phosphenes' (flashes of light) might be perceived by the subject. The mechanism of these effects is not clear although it is widely believed to reflect changes in synaptic efficacy akin to long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). TMS has been suggested as a means of assessing short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) which measures the internal pathways of the motor cortex but this use has not yet been validated. However, that same meta-analysis found that rTMS was significantly worse than electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (effect size = -0.47), although side effects were significantly better with rTMS. The investigators concluded: "Although the treatment effect was statistically significant on a clinically meaningful variable (remission), the overall number of remitters and responders was less than one would like with a treatment that requires daily intervention for 3 weeks or more, even with a benign adverse effect profile". Varying the geometric shape of the coil itself may also result in variations in the focality, shape, and depth of cortical penetration of the magnetic field. Though able to penetrate deeper in the brain, they are less able to produced a focused, localized response and are relatively non-focal. His research is being conducted at the Alberta Children's Hospital's Paediatric TMS laboratory, the only one of it's kind in Canada.
Michelle McDonnell explored how we might treat these conditions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and if TMS treatments really work. On the screen you see his skin, brain surface (blue) as derived from the anatomical scan, and fMRI BOLD activation (red) during thumb movements. If the diagnosis is benign then, medication or surgical treaments will have scarcely any effect here. The use of magnets rather than a direct electric current to the brain reduced the discomfort of the procedure and research and allowed mapping of the cerebral cortex and its connections. In most other areas of the cortex, the participant does not consciously experience any effect, but his or her behaviour may be slightly altered (e.g. Reports have stated that in at least some cases, predisposing factors (medication, brain lesions or genetic susceptibility) may have contributed to the seizure.
An analysis of one of the studies included in the meta-analysis showed that one extra remission from depression occurs for every 3 patients given electroconvulsive therapy rather than rTMS (number needed to treat 2.36). However, a review of the trial's report has questioned the adequacy of the placebo, noting that treaters were able to guess whether patients were receiving treatment with active or sham TMS, better than chance.
A review of nine seizures associated with rTMS that had been reported after 1998 stated that four seizures were within the safety parameters, four were outside of those parameters, and one had occurred in a healthy volunteer with no predisposing factors.
There is evidence that rTMS can temporarily reduce chronic pain and change pain-related brain and nerve activity, and TMS has been used to predict the success of surgically implanted electrical brain stimulation for the treatment of pain.
In this regard, the trial's report stated that the confidence ratings for the treaters' guesses were low. All of these features should be considered when comparing results obtained from different studies, with respect to both safety and efficacy. We will try to advise you objectively and to inform you about the most promising of the treatment possibilities. A 2009 international consensus statement on TMS that contained this review concluded that based on the number of studies, subjects and patients involved with TMS research, the risk of seizure with rTMS is considered very low.

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