Unilateral conductive hearing loss rinne test juegos,tmj tinnitus permanent xtec,best in ear noise cancelling headphones for running iphone,gold weed leaf earring - PDF Review

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Positive family history and continuing nod- ular enlargement are additional risk factors for malignancy.back 63Single Nodule. Food debris may accumulate in the crevices and become irritating, but a fissured tongue is benign.back 51Hairy Tongue. These dilatations of the lingual veins have no clinical significance.back 55Hairy Leukoplakia. Patches of any size raise the possibility of malignancy and require a biopsy.back 42Marginal Gingivitis Marginal gingivitis is common among teenagers and young adults. The gingival margins are reddened and swollen, and the interdental papillae are blunted, swollen, and red.
The extensive example shown on this buccal mucosa resulted from frequent chewing of tobacco, a local irritant.
This kind of irritation may lead to cancer.back 44Gingival Hyperplasia Gums enlarged by hyperplasia are swollen into heaped-up masses that may even cover the teeth. Causes include dilantin therapy (as in this case), puberty, pregnancy, and leukemia.back 43Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis This uncommon form of gingivitis occurs suddenly in adolescents and young adults and is accompanied by fever, malaise, and enlarged lymph nodes.
Then the destructive (necrotizing) process spreads along the gum margins, where a grayish pseudomembrane develops.
Note the accompanying gingivitis in this example.back 48Abrasion of Teeth With Notching The biting surface of the teeth may become abraded or notched by recurrent trauma, such as holding nails or opening bobby pins between the teeth. Note here the erosion of the enamel from the lingual surfaces of the upper incisors, exposing the yellow- brown dentin. This results from recurrent regurgitation of stomach contents, as in bulimia.back 50Geographic Tongue.
The upper central incisors of the permanent (not the deciduous) teeth are most often affected. This, together with fever and enlarged cervical nodes, increases the probability of group A streptococcal infection or infectious mononucleosis. Anterior cervical lymph nodes are usually enlarged in the former, posterior nodes in the latter.back 34Diphtheria Diphtheria (an acute infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae) is now rare but still important.
The throat is dull red, and a gray exudate (pseudomembrane) is present on the uvula, pharynx, and tongue. Among people with AIDS, the palate, as illustrated here, is a common site for this tumor.back 35Thrush on the Palate (Candidiasis) Thrush is a yeast infection due to Candida. Predisposing factors include (1) prolonged treatment with antibiotics or corticosteroids and (2) AIDS.back 38Fordyce Spots (Fordyce Granules) Fordyce spots are normal sebaceous glands that appear as small yellowish spots in the buccal mucosa or on the lips. These spots are usually not so numerous.back 37Torus Palatinus A torus palatinus is a midline bony growth in the hard palate that is fairly common in adults.


In this example, an upper denture has been fitted around the torus.back 40Petechiae Petechiae are small red spots that result when blood escapes from capillaries into the tissues.
Petechiae in the buccal mucosa, as shown, are often caused by accidentally biting the cheek.
The rash of measles appears within a day.back 22Angular Cheilitis Angular cheilitis starts with softening of the skin at the angles of the mouth, followed by fissuring. It may be due to nutritional deficiency or, more commonly, to overclosure of the mouth, as in people with no teeth or with ill-fitting dentures. The inner ear or cochlear nerve is less able to transmit impulses regardless of how the vibrations reach the cochlea. The normal pattern prevails.back 24Herpes Simplex (Cold Sore, Fever Blister) The herpes simplex virus (HSV) produces recurrent and painful vesicular eruptions of the lips and surrounding skin. Both of these stages are visible here.back 23Actinic Cheilitis Actinic cheilitis results from excessive exposure to sunlight and affects primarily the lower lip. The lip loses its normal redness and may become scaly, somewhat thickened, and slightly everted. Because solar damage also predisposes to carcinoma of the lip, be alert to this possibility.back 26Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Multiple small red spots on the lips strongly suggest hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
Affected people often have nosebleeds and gastrointestinal bleeding.back 25Angioedema Angioedema is a diffuse, nonpitting, tense swelling of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue.
Although usually allergic in nature and sometimes associated with hives, angioedema does not itch.back 28Chancre of Syphilis This lesion of primary syphilis may appear on the lip rather than on the genitalia.
Because it is infectious, use gloves to feel any suspicious lesion.back 27Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome When pigmented spots on the lips are more prominent than freckling of the surrounding skin, suspect this syndrome. Multiple intestinal polyps are often associated.back 30Large Normal Tonsils Normal tonsils may be large without being infected, especially in children. The white marks are light reflections, not exudate.back 29Carcinoma of the Lip Like actinic cheilitis, carcinoma usually affects the lower lip. It may appear as a scaly plaque, as an ulcer with or without a crust, or as a nodular lesion, illustrated here. Fair skin and prolonged exposure to the sun are common risk factors.back 12Bullous Myringitis Bullous myringitis is a viral infection characterized by painful hemorrhagic vesicles that appear on the tympanic membrane, the ear canal, or both. Symptoms include earache, blood-tinged discharge from the ear, and hearing loss of the conductive type. In this right ear, at least two large vesicles (bullae) are discernible on the drum. Redness is most obvious near the umbo, but dilated vessels can be seen in all segments of the drum. Spontaneous rupture (perforation) of the drum may follow, with discharge of purulent material into the ear canal. Hearing loss is of the conductive type. Acute purulent otitis media is much more common in children than in adults.back 14Inner ear disorder involves cochlear nerve and neuronal impulse transmission to the brain.


Causes include loud noise exposure, inner ear infections, trauma, tremors, congenital and familial disorders, and aging.back 13External or middle ear disorder impairs sound conduction to inner ear.
It appears as hard nodules in the helix or antihelix and may discharge chalky white crystals through the skin. Histologi- cally, it is usually either (1) an epidermoid cyst, common on the face and neck, or (2) a pilar (trichilemmal) cyst, com- mon in the scalp.
Both may become inflamed.back 8Perforation of the Drum Perforations are holes in the eardrum that usually result from purulent infections of the middle ear.
They are classified as central perforations, which do not extend to the margin of the drum, and marginal perforations, which do involve the margin. The more common central perforation is illustrated here. A reddened ring of granulation tissue surrounds the perforation, indicating chronic infection. The membrane covering the hole may be exceedingly thin and transparent.back 7Normal Eardrum This normal right eardrum (tympanic membrane) is pinkish gray. The small blood vessels along the handle of the malleus are normal.back 10Serous Effusion Serous effusions are usually caused by viral upper respiratory infections (otitis media with serous effusion) or by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure as from flying or diving (otitic barotrauma).
The eustachian tube cannot equalize the air pressure in the middle ear with that of the outside air. Air is partly or completely absorbed from the middle ear into the bloodstream, and serous fluid accumulates there instead. Symptoms include fullness and popping sensations in the ear, mild conduction hearing loss, and perhaps some pain. Amber fluid behind the eardrum is characteristic, as in this patient with otitic barotrauma. A fluid level, a line between air above and amber fluid below, can be seen on either side of the short process. Air bubbles (not always present) can be seen here within the amber fluid.back 9Tympanosclerosis In the inferior portion of this left eardrum, there is a large, chalky white patch with irregular margins. It is typical of tympanosclerosis: a deposition of hyaline material within the layers of the tympanic membrane that sometimes follows a severe episode of otitis media.
It does not usually impair hearing and is seldom clinically significant. Other abnormalities in this eardrum include a healed perforation (the large oval area in the upper posterior drum) and signs of a retracted drum. A retracted drum is pulled medially, away from the examiner’s eye, and the malleolar folds are tightened into sharp outlines.
The short process often protrudes sharply, and the handle of the malleus, pulled inward at the umbo, looks foreshortened and more horizontal.



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