Unilateral hearing loss tumor maligno,earring styles for face shapes sunglasses,noise canceling headphone bluetooth goldship - Downloads 2016

Author: admin, 04.11.2015
Importance Can be a sign of serious diseases Can be seen in other specialties Hard to diagnose because it integrates several organs and systems together and the underlying cause is not clear.
INTRODUCTION Dizziness is a common symptom that accounted for more than 5.6 million clinic visits in the United States 15% to 30% of patients, most often women and the elderly, will experience dizziness severe enough to seek medical attention at some time in their life. Physiology Function of vestibular system: “Input” resulting from a stimulus that needs to be corrected through the vestibular system such as falling down.
It is not surprisingly that vestibular lesion cause: Imbalance posture and gait imbalance visual distortion (oscillopsia ).
VERTIGO The word "vertigo" comes from the Latin "vertere", to turn + the suffix "-igo", a condition = a condition of turning about). Vestibular Neuritis Viral infection of vestibular organ Affect all ages but rare in children – mostly adults Affected patient presents acutely with spontaneous nystagmus,vertigo and nausea &vomiting stays for hours and sometimes days.
BPPV The most common cause of vertigo in patient > 40 years Repeated attacks of vertigo usually of short duration less than a minute. BPPV Diagnosis History Dix-Halpike maneuver : putting the patient in a certain position to stimulate the attack, and to look at the eye (causes nystagmus) to see which canal is mostly affected by trying to push the particles inside the canal and inducing the sense of dizziness.
Migraine associated vertigo (MAV): common in females between the ages of 20 to 35 Classical presentation, preceded by aura or without aura then headache followed by couple of hours of dizziness. Acoustic tumor Benign tumor Arise from vestibular division of VIII Clinical presentation: Unilateral tinnitus Hearing loss Dizziness The only way to differentiate between Meniere's disease and the Acoustic tumor is by MRI. The olfactory nerve (I) is attached to the under surface of the frontal lobe; its connections pass to the temporal lobe and elsewhere. The optic nerve (II) is an outgrowth of the diencephalon and is attached to structures in the wall and floor of the third ventricle.


Then have the patient open their month and resist the examiner's attempt to close the month. If there is weakness of the pterygoids the jaw will deviate towards the side of the weakness.
The facial nerve leaves the skull through the stylomastoid foramen and immediately enters the deep part of the parotid gland where it gives off its branches. At first it travels laterally, between the cochlea and vestibule, towards the medial wall of the tympanic cavity. From here, it then bends suddenly backward and arches downward behind the tympanic cavity to the stylomastoid foramen. The point where it changes its direction is named the 'geniculum'; here it presents a reddish gangliform swelling, the genicular ganglion. Anterior to the inferior aspect of the hyoglossus muscle and then to the lateral aspect of the genioglossus m.
An “output” results from responses of the vestibular system to the input such as the eyes, cerebellum.. B) central vestibular loss – above the level of the vestibular nerve and towards the brain. Patient requires only symptomatic treatment It takes 3 weeks to recover from vestibular neuritis Diagnosis – no other tool other than history.
Pathophysiology: Calcium carbonate particles shear off and enter the canal leading to brief episodes of vertigo. Provoked by cert" title="BPPV The most common cause of vertigo in patient > 40 years Repeated attacks of vertigo usually of short duration less than a minute.


Treatment: repositioning of the head to get particles out of the canal (Epley or particle repositioning maneuver).
It passes posteriorly between the superior petrosal sinus in the tentorium and the skull base and enters the pons.
If there is a jaw jerk it is said to be positive and this indicates an upper motor neuron lesion. More frequently the patient might complain of nausea when smelling something in the car or while driving around. People need hard surfaces to get the full effect of their proprioception or it will feel like they are walking on sand “ shaky grounds”.
The physical stimulus (input) will be transformed into a biological stimulas in the brain stem which will in turn be sent afterwards to the corresponding areas in the vestibular system.
Transform of the forces associate with head acceleration and gravity into a biological signals that the brain can use to develop subjective awareness of head position in space (orientation) produce motor reflexes that will maintain posture and ocular stability to prevent the feeling of dizziness.
Being pushed from behind will lead to all the previous systems to work together to maintain balance.
If there is a defect in the input and output processes the patient will present with vertigo, defects in the gait or ocular distortions.



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