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03.05.2014
When a construction site is being built, the constructor raises a fence on the site defining the boundaries of the construction. Scope management plan should include the detailed process of scope determination, its management and its control. Large projects require more time, effort and resources to gather requirements and thus defining the scope is important. Scope definition helps us make sure that we are doing all the work but only the work included in the scope management plan.
Changes in scope must be taken into consideration all the knowledge areas of project management such as time, cost, risk, quality, resources and customer satisfaction. Continuous monitoring of scope is required to determine what is and is not included in the project.
Product Scope is nothing but a€?What customer wants?a€? An organization can execute another project to identify a product scope or it could be the part of requirements gathering of your project. On a project to build a new software application, the product scope is a€?a new workflow application that fulfils the requirements of our internal and external customers.a€? To determine if the project successfully achieved the product scope, the resulting application (the new product) is compared to the application requirements, which are recorded in the requirements documentation and the project scope statement for the project. The project scope is the work the project will do to deliver the product of the project (i.e. A project manager is required to have a good understanding of the project scope to create a scope management plan. Needs of the stakeholders should be taken into consideration while defining product and project scope. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to be used to break the scope into smaller and more manageable pieces. Scope performance is to be measured and adjusted as needed during the course of the project. Saying a€?NOa€? could become inevitable to avoid allowing unnecessary activities on the project because unnecessary scope adds cost, time and efforts on the project which is not required. The initiating phase involves defining the high-level requirements of the project and product during the project charter phase. Historical records and lessons learned are very critical for the project team that helps in gaining understanding of what were the requirements on similar projects and thus, help identify relevant processes.
In a focus group, the moderator or the facilitator plays a key role to gather inputs and thoughts that helps get the opinions and requirements for the product or an aspect of the project from a specific set of stakeholders or subject matter experts. This technique is done in continuation to the brainstorming meeting where the ranking of the most powerful ideas is done by the meeting participants. The ideas generated from any other requirements gathering techniques are grouped by similarities in this technique.
If the representation of information is not done appropriately, the collected requirements may be misunderstood. Balancing stakeholder requirements is not limited to the Collect Requirements Process, it goes beyond this. Any project request that does not relate to the objectives of the project should be rejected. In large projects, if the requirements are not documented well, there is likelihood that they may be lost. The product and project scope is determined using inputs from the requirements document (created in Collect Requirements Process), project charter, additional information about project risks, assumptions, constraints, among others.
Analysis of the objectives and description of the product as stated by the customer and the sponsor is the purpose of Product Analysis. Scope that is not approved: Project manager should identify areas where people requested scope but it was not approved to be included in the project. Scope that is not needed: Project manager should clarify areas where the scope could easily be misunderstood. Ita€™s important to note that the WBS is NOT a corporate organizational structure though it looks like one.
As the planning process progresses, the team breaks down the work packages from the WBS into activities that are required to produce the work packages.
The final, approved version of certain pieces of a project management plan is termed as a baseline. The process of keeping the project on-track in terms of the approved scope by frequent discussions between customer or sponsor and seeking their acceptance on completed deliverables. Verify scope process provides a formal acceptance by the customer of interim deliverables whereas Close project or phase is to get final acceptance or sign-off from the customer for the project or phase as a whole. Two components required for Control Scope Process are Scope Baseline from project management plan and current completed work on the project. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Uzywamy plikow cookies, aby ulatwic Ci korzystanie z naszego serwisu oraz do celow statystycznych.
The Project Management Institute Netherlands Chapter is a local chapter of the Project Management Institute.
The Project Management Instituut Nederland is an independent association associated with IPMA. Project Smart - The Programme and Project Management Resource Centre; Templates, Prince2, etc. Scope management is created as a part of Project Management Planning process and it is not included as a separate scope management process. It is a major mistake to work on a project before the product and project scope are identified. The project manager should ensure that all requirements support the projecta€™s business case.
The Collect Requirements process goes into the details of seeking additional and more specific inputs on those requirements and any related supposition from all stakeholders.


Various methods of interviews could be conducted by the project manager with project stakeholders to identify their requirements for the product or the process. It really does not just mean a meeting with people to discuss ideas or seeking individual thoughts. Individuals from different functions, backgrounds and perspectives can benefit the brainstorming session in a great way. Hence, it is advisable to NOT assume that the collected requirements will meet the objectives. At a later stage in the project, it is identified that certain stakeholder requirements do not match those of the project or those of other stakeholders. Another prerequisite is to identify and prioritize ALL the requirements from ALL of the stakeholders during Collect Requirements Process. For example, the risk team may slow down the pace of the project if they identify any risk and the operations team would have an interest of completing the project faster. While resolving competing requirements, the project manager should identify which of the competing requirements resonate with the project business case. If the requirement is related to the reasons the project was initiated but it does not fall within the project charter, this request should also be rejected.
Determining requirements can involve one requirement leading to more refined requirements and clarifications. This process is concerned with what is included and is not included in the project and its deliverables.
Development of project scope statement is a time consuming activity and may require multiple stakeholder participation including experts from outside the organization. It has a different function that allows you to break down a seemingly overwhelming project into pieces you can plan, organize, manage and control.
Work packages are distinguished in the WBS using the identification numbers assigned after completion of the WBS.
Note that this further breakdown of WBS into an activity list is done as a part of the time management process of Define Activities. Benefits of WBS dictionary include, avoiding scope creep and providing clear description of the deliverable. This change request goes through perform Integrated Change Control and if approved, gets added to the scope statement, WBS and WBS dictionary. A project manager needs to control scope frequently to ensure that the scope is being completed as per plan. Requirements documentation and Requirements traceability matrix can also be helpful in Control Scope process. A project managera€™s primary job is to control the project to meet the baselines as per the project management plan. Jesli nie blokujesz tych plikow, to zgadzasz sie na ich uzycie oraz zapisanie w pamieci urzadzenia. Scope management is the process of defining what work is required and then making sure all of that work a€“ and only that work a€“ is done. Gathering requirements from only a few stakeholders or only the sponsor might lead to incorrect definition of scope.
Integrated Change Management includes updating of Change Request Form by Change Originator and also tracking the change on Change Control Register. In the software application development example, the project scope is the work that is to be done to develop the software application. Scope management plan may have topics that can be standardized for the organization, however, every scope management plan is unique. Any miss in gathering these requirements may result in the failure of the project or may result in many changes or may even result in conflicts throughout the project journey.
Lessons learned from other projects may highlight common mistakes done by other project managers in defining the area of scope to ensure such requirements are not missed on current projects. The interviews can be conducted as one-on-one, emails, phone calls, group setting, letters or any other method. The participants need not be just the individuals from the organization, they could be from outside the organization as well. A request for information is sent to the experts and their participation details are kept anonymous. Many ideas are connected directly to the central core idea, and other ideas branch out from these. Multiple versions of prototype may be created till all the requirements are captured, the model is finalized and approved.
In this technique, the group takes a decision which is supported by more than half of the members. Thus, it is important to ask the stakeholders if the collected requirements would be meeting the stated objectives. If these prerequisites are not met, balancing stakeholder requirements is an impossible task. A thorough review of project charter, the scope statement and constraints will also be important factors in this regard.
Change requests related to the project charter need to be discussed with project sponsor for approval.
This can make it difficult for the project manager and the project team to remember where the requirements came from. Additionally, a list can be cumbersome and does not allow the project manager to clearly break down a large project into small appropriate pieces. A project manager can easily break down the work into work packages, and the WBS shows how the work packages are drilled down. The team uses the project scope statement, WBS, and the WBS dictionary to help define which activities are required to produce the deliverables.


All of these need to be approved by the management and stakeholders before beginning the work. This work includes the planning, coordination, and management activities (such as meetings and reports) that ensure the product scope is achieved. The project manager uses the scope management plan as a baseline to guide and measure the project until closing. Once the project is completely planned, the project manager has enough information to decide how the scope will be executed and controlled.
Their responses are compiled, and the results are sent to back to them for further review until a final consensus is reached.
They need to be reviewed, analyzed, approved or rejected and prioritized before recording them in project documents. In case there is no majority support, the group may go with the decision of largest number of supporters.
This helps ensure that the right requirements are collected and end output will be acceptable. The project manager has to ensure that the requirements are met within the stated project objectives. Thus, the project manager may need to balance the requirements against the interests of the project and resolve any conflicts.
When considering constraints, if the most important constraint is cost, then any requirements that would increase the cost would not likely to be accepted. Project Manager continues to follow the Project Management Planning process when the requirements have been determined. It involves decomposing the deliverables, and the work required to produce them, into smaller pieces called work packages. These baselines help in comparing the progress of the project to where the baseline says it should be.
These efforts are a part of project management plan and are further a part of the scope management plan. Requirements may be related to Quality, the business process, regulatory requirements, compliance, project management, among others. That idea generates an idea from another participant which leads to yet another idea, and so on. If the requirements cannot be met, then the project manager needs to identify options to adjust the competing demands of scope, time, cost, quality, resources, risk, and customer satisfaction. Those that contain the cost (without serious impact on other project constraints) would more likely be accepted. This automatically helps in seeking their buy-in and thus leads an improvement in their performance.
At the end of the project or the phase, the completed work is compared against the scope baseline in the project management plan to determine if the scope has been successfully completed.
All of the requirements (including products and process) are taken into consideration by the Collect Requirements Process. Likewise even the methods required for collecting those requirements may be different for different stakeholders.
Requests that do not fall within these guidelines can become part of a future project instead. The matrix is used throughout the project in analyzing proposed changes to product or project scope. Creation of WBS is a process that allows the team to walk through the project in their minds and thus improve the project plan. The project manager needs to identify and perform Integrated Change Control process and subsequently update the required documents. In this iteration, the later parts of project planning, such as the Human Resources planning process, can add a new scope to the process, thereby changing the scope management plan. The project manager needs to engage devoted effort to collect all the requirements before work is initiated on the project. This has an advantage of quick decision making, however, also has a disadvantage of other stakeholders not agreeing in decision making done by the individual.
If they dona€™t, the project manager needs to review all the constraints of the project and needs to maintain equilibrium of the requirements (scope) against the budget and schedule. If this is not done appropriately, a large number of changes are required on the project leading to high cost and high efforts. In case if there are certain members of the group who did not support the decision, they will willingly accept that most members of the group support.
The project manager needs to create options for meeting the scope, time, and cost objectives of the project and help management make a decision. Reviewing historical information and lessons learned could be involved in the effort of collecting requirements. Compressing the schedule, identifying alternative ways to perform work on the project, or adjusting budget or the scope are some of the tasks to be completed by project manager while creating these options. A WBS shows a complete hierarchy of the project, making it easier to see how one deliverable relates to another. The project manager makes a conscious choice to choose the most appropriate technique for project and the stakeholders. A realistic schedule and budget that can achieve projecta€™s scope is the result of this exercise. Identification of risks during the risk management process could also use the same techniques of collecting requirements process.



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