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09.04.2016
If you’ve just married, or are getting married soon, you’re probably starting to address the question of whether to change your last name.
Once the name change process is complete, you will get a new Social Security Card with your new name. Since the name on any travel documents need to match the name on your identification, use your maiden name when making travel arrangements within the first couple months from your wedding date (i.e. Start the name change process at the social security office (locations), and bring the completed SS-5 form, a certified copy of your marriage certificate, and identification.
Check with your employer’s human resources (HR) department to ensure that they are using the correct name and that your company changes your tax deductions and withholdings to reflect the fact that you’re married.
For new brides who want to simplify the process of changing their last name, the do-it-yourself name change kit offers state specific instructions and forms. The kit contains all required government forms, every personal record change form, an instruction guide and checklist to help the you change from your maiden to your new married name.
Offered as a time saver for the busy newlywed, US Legal Forms’ professional name change service includes all the forms from the do-it-yourself kit above, but offers the additional peace of mind of having professionals review your forms for you, which helps ensure that filings are all handled correctly. Although it’s not legally required in the United States, many women still choose to take their husband’s name after marriage.
Contrary to popular belief, however, a woman is not required to take her husband’s name after marriage.
For some couples, such as those who marry later in life, after-marriage name changes are still prevalent, but have declined in recent years.
If you do choose to change your last name to something other than your spouse’s, give careful thought to the name you choose. No matter which option you choose, if you make the decision to change your name, there are steps that need to be taken in order to do so legally. We are here to make it easy for anyone to share experiences or ask questions about family law related issues. What began as a sideline business selling polished metal mirrors to pilgrims in Germany (to capture holy light) evolved into an enterprise that altered the course of art, religion, politics and industry: Johannes Gutenberga€™s movable type and printing press. We judge ourselves by our noblest acts and best intentions, but we are judged by our last worst act. There are 10,000 species of ants, and for several million years they have coved the earth, except Antarctica [no pun intended].
Credit has existed globally since the early days of trading and mercantilism, but it wasna€™t until the 1920s that oil companies issued a physical card to repeat customers who purchased fuel for their new-fangled automobiles.
Therea€™s nothing so hollow as the laugh of the person who intended to tell the story himself. CHALLENGE #111: Why is the numeric keypad on a computer (7-8-9 at the top) upside-down from the numeric keypad on phones (1-2-3 on top)?
English belongs to the very large Indo-European language family [Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Celtic, Latin, Hellenic, Iranian, Sanskrit et alia, which led to Polish, Welsh, French, Greek, Kurdish, Punjabi, and English, to name a few].
The real test of character comes when doing the right thing may not be in our self-interest. In the past 5,000 years the human genetic code changed 100 times faster than it had in any prevous period.
In the 1880s, Samuel Augustus Maverick was a Texas cattleman who refused to brand his cattle, seeing it as cruel.
CHALLENGE #111 was: Why is the numeric keypad on a computer (7-8-9 at the top) upside-down from the numeric keypad on phones (1-2-3 on top)? Researchers gave cash to experimental subjects who were instructed either to spend it on themselves or on others.
BIG Q #26: Pericles argued in his Funeral Oration that democracy stimulates excellence because all citizens are stakeholders with public responsibilities. When intensive-care units at Michigan hospitals followed a 5-step checklist for how to insert intravenous lines in patients, infections were virtually eliminated, saving the hospitals $175 million over 18 months. The peace symbol began as the emblem of the British anti-nuclear movement 50 years ago on Good Friday: a combination of the semaphore positions for N and D [Nuclear Disarmament] within a circle [the earth].
CHALLENGE #114: He was a fighter who was obsessed with boxing and he abused drink and drugs.
BIG Q #27: Since poverty is deeper among children than the elderly, why does public spending on the elderly vastly outstrip spending on the young?
E-mail and Web searches consume 1.5% of the nationa€™s electricity last year, and if current trends continue, by 2010 the power bill to run a computer over its lifetime will surpass the cost of buying the machine. Biologically speaking, humans have changed little in the 100,000 years [or 3,000 generations] since modern humans emerged on the African savanna--not enough time for serious adjustments.
Rembrandt was a master of chiaroscuro (kee-ahr-uh-SKYOOR-oh), the use of contrasts of light and shade to enhance the depiction of character and for general dramatic effect. CHALLENGE #114 was: He was a fighter who was obsessed with boxing and he abused drink and drugs. CHALLENGE #115: What proportion of the cells in your body are not actually yours but belong to foreign organisms?
BIG Q #28: Why do girls, on average, lead boys for all their years in school, only to fall behind in the workplace? Only 11% of CEOs of top 500 companies have an Ivy League degree, but 20% of the top 60 women in Forbes a€?most powerful womena€? list did. The hormone oxytocin is naturally released in brain after a 20-second hug from a partner, triggering the braina€™s trust circuits.
CHALLENGE #115 was: What proportion of the cells in your body are not actually yours but belong to foreign organisms?
CHALLENGE #116: A westerner and an easterner who each changed the world, but didna€™t want their names used to identify a religion--to no avail.
Featured Quote: a€?The truth of the matter,a€? is that a€?we havena€™t sacrificed one darn bit in this war, not one. BIG Q #29: Why are the most powerful people in the world old white men and pretty young women?
When lima bean plants are attacked by spider mites, they release volatile chemicals that summon another species of mites to attack the spider mites. Funeral directors promote embalming: replacing body fluids with formaldehyde, a carcinogen that eventually leaches into the environment when the buried body decays [800,000 gallons annually].
In 2001, President Bush exempted some 3,500 plants that spew toxic chemicals from the Right-To-Know law.
Consultants get paid up to $500,000 to name a drug, and insist that letters are imbued with psychological meaning: P, T, and K, they claim, convey effectiveness. CHALLENGE #116 was: A westerner and an easterner who each changed the world, but didna€™t want their names used to identify a religion--to no avail. CHALLENGE #117: His father a€?bluffeda€? his way into law school using a faked transcript, and went on to finish first in his class and become a successful labor lawyer. Spoken language is instinctual, the brain collects the phonemes and abstracts the rules from what it hears, but written language must be taught. Busha€™s tax cuts for the rich have reduced annual tax revenue avaiable for public needs by $300 Billion each year. CHALLENGE #117 was: His father a€?bluffeda€? his way into law school using a faked transcript, and went on to finish first in his class and become a successful labor lawyer. FACTOID: Unusual English spelling shows the way the words were pronounced 100s of years ago. Chinoiserie (sheen-WAH-zuh-ree) is a style of ornamentation using motifs identified as Chinese. CHALLENGE # 118 was: If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there, does it make a sound?
CHALLENGE #119: Which a€?booka€™ won the Pulitzer Prize for literature and drama, in successive years? If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make? Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism. However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law. In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism. And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs.
This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany.
Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires. Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult. Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body.
Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders.
Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt. In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments. Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law. The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor. Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s). Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top. Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed. Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D.
In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution.
Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern. Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another.
The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people. All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!). The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit.
The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution. Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums.
Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work.
Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people. After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France.
Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility.
Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots.
Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism. Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated. Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down. Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII. He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state. The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe.
Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government.
Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold. Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492. Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain. By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory. England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people.
Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons. Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters.
James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king. Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament.
Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated.
The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism.
Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534. Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign. With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began.
James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule. When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England. Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici. After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!). By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland.
In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel. A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens. In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them. With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England.
Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights.
After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II.
After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell.
He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship).
His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England.
Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy. When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism.
He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act.
James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England.
When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament.
With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James. The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France.
Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain. William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702. The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne.
In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights. This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth. The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament.
Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S. The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria. The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority. These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law?
How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms? What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism?
What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included?
Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants? What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U. Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal.
This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny.
In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain. After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic. The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers.
Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power. In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament.
Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports. Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride. The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph.
At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival.
Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe. Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers.
Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary. Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power.
Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory. By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe.
In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months.
After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales. 1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558. 1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands. 1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing.
Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism.
Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture.
France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688. The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic. List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic.
List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France. Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe.
Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism. Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries. There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay. I have just put in the most wonderful day of my life; it is impossible to explain it all, or to tell how it feels, but I can at least recount my doings in more or less detail and let you judge for yourselves and guess at it. In the afternoon I went out in the car, took an American colonel aboard before I had gone a quarter of a mile and a British and a French soldier.
The Place de la Concorde, which is the ceremonial center of the city, presented a scene indescribable. We went back to the office, stopping every two seconds to shake hands with somebody or anybody, or to kiss his wife or sweetheart if she were along, and on arrival opened up a certain bottle which we have been treasuring nearly a month for just this occasion, and then F.
We went there ostensibly for supper, but when everybody is standing on the tables cheering and singing and laughing and weeping, it isna€™t quite possible to serve meals, so for an hour or more we helped them out with what they were doing. We finally got a taxi and the driver exacted a toll of 25 francs to take us to the hotel; and on arrival there driving off again and forgetting to collect. There are those, too, to whom the coming of peace means only a sudden keen realization of their losses which they have borne so bravely while the war has lasted. Except for home leave after the wara€™s end, Christmas 1918 and the first two months of 1919, he was in Paris until August the latter year, promoted to captain and supporting the Liquidation Commission created to resolve U.S.
By family tradition Edgar met the 20-year-old Marthe Marcelle Trocqueme in Paris on Armistice Day, amidst the citya€™s jubilant celebration of the wara€™s end. General Motors, initially and in 1919 still, was a conglomeration of not always highly compatible companies and chiefs, headed by the redoubtable William Durant whoa€™d formed GM in 1908 after creating Buick. He and his boyhood chum James Morris not only went to high school together, they were GM colleagues in New York in the 1920s, with Morris later reporting directly to Edgar there. Edgara€™s November 1952 GM curriculum vitae says that his initial assistant manager position was with its Samson Tractor Sales Division. What it meant to be a junior executive there immediately after the World War is captured in the late Peter B.
This called for prodigious feats of organization and management, and GM found its leadership for that in two men.
This was new, and very modern, and Edgar was one of the pioneers a€” though by personal inclination, he was not entirely a practitioner of his own doctrine.
1 This seems to dispose of the story of how Edgar met the French girl he would marry in 1919 as told by Thomas L. 2 a€?War Letters to The Eagle from Brooklynites Abroad,a€? Brooklyn Daily Eagle, December 8, 1918. 6 At the Mairie of the 11th Arrondissement, if anyone wishes to install a plaque commemorating the event, not far from the Cemetery PA?re Lachaise where Moliere, Chopin, Oscar Wilde, and many other notables rest. 7 See my BSI Archival History volume a€?Certain Rites, and Also Certain Dutiesa€? (2009), pp. 8 Eventually quite sophisticated in his command of French: see for example his January 30, 1939, letter to Christopher Morley in Irregular Memories of the a€™Thirties, p. 10 Like other Americans, Edgar could not have helped but notice in 1937 the a€?Worlda€™s Highest Standard of Livinga€? billboard, some 60,000 of which were put up by the National Association of Manufacturers, asserting additionally that a€?Therea€™s no way like the American way.a€? Today ita€™s known from Margaret Bourke-Whitea€™s photograph of it behind what appears to be a Depression breadline of Negroes, making a mockery of its message, but that seeming breadline was after flooding in Kentucky had driven people from their homes. 11 His 1920 passport application lists countries, cities and companies where he was expected to spend time in performance of his duties. 15 As a member of the Army & Navy Club myself, I wondered why they sought membership in it in 1938. He and his boyhood chum James Morris not only went to highA  school together, they were GM colleagues in New York in the 1920s, with Morris later reporting directly to Edgar there. For decades, Pang Xiaowei has been shooting black-and-white portraits for thousands of celebrities in China. The 60-year-old photographer has captured the likenesses of all the Olympic gold medal holders in China up to 2012 and more than 1,000 celebrities, from singers to film-industry figures, including famed directors, performers and producers. He started to snap celebrities in the film industry in 2002 to honor the 100th anniversary of China's film industry.
The difficulty of photographing an actor or actress is that they don't know how to be themselves in front of a camera when they don't have to play a role, says Pang. Pang understands it well because he had been a theater actor for 10 years before taking up photography at age 30. After the film celebrity series, Pang was touched by Beijing's excitement to hold the Olympic Games in 2008, and he began his Chinese Olympic champion series, which included 186 Chinese gold medal winners. That seemed like an impossible task, because many champions then lived in various countries and out of the public eye. For his latest show, which just closed on Tuesday at the National Art Museum, he aimed his lens at craftsmen, local residents and even the boys of a visiting chorus from Saxony in Germany, a cultural project initiated by A. Fan Di'an, head of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, says Pang's photos represent a process of using film to reveal a person's inner self. Pang is now working on a Peking Opera series, and for the first time in his life, he will create portraits of the well-known performers in color - but he will also produce a black-and-white edition of the series. He adds that Spanish tenor Placido Domingo loved the Peking Opera photos Pang gave him as a gift when the two met in Beijing last year.
Her country-and-western covers album Detour, which was out on Friday, brings another unexpected twist to a career that has included music, theater, television, movies and wrestling.
A musical chameleon, she's won two Grammys, an Emmy and a Tony, but despite all the success, she says she's not as savvy at the art of business. Her meandering path took her from Broadway where she wrote music for Kinky Boots, which won six Tony Awards, to Music City where the pink-haired 62-year-old singer recorded her latest album with guest vocals from Willie Nelson, Vince Gill, Alison Krauss and Emmylou Harris. Together with producer Tony Brown, she worked with some of the city's best session musicians to craft a live sound that wasn't polished to perfection. The songs are from a different era of country music, as far back as the '40s, when country was heavily influenced by early rock 'n' roll and blues, or as Lauper says her record label head Seymour Stein put it, "before Elvis kicked the door down". She covers songs made famous by Patsy Cline, Loretta Lynn, Wanda Jackson, George Jones, Dolly Parton and Marty Robbins. At four hours long (not counting two intermissions), the play does not contain much dramatic conflict.
The hero of the play, Professor Josef Schuster, jumped to his death shortly before the curtain rose.
Heroes' Square is one of the foreign productions presented during the Tianjin theater festival. As an alter ego of the playwright Thomas Bernhard, Josef vents his anger and frustration onto Vienna, or the world at large. When his brother, Robert Schuster, rants on about the state of affairs of the city, they obviously share political inclinations, but we are told Robert is much nicer in disposition. It may be an irony that the more the brothers, or the playwright, take on Vienna as the hotbed of evil, the more sympathy audience members in the Tianjin Grand Theater showed for the Austrian capital. As for the possible relevance for the audience, I don't think Bernhard or director Krystian Lupa had China in mind when they first broached the topic. The pessimistic streak that underpins his worldview also runs through his relationships with those closest to him, not unlike Hamlet's with Ophelia. The crowd noise from the titular square acts as the oppression of the populace, who are deemed stupid and blind. Heroes' Square is one of many imported theatrical productions the audacious Tianjin festival is presenting this season. Others include Richard III directed by Thomas Ostermeier and (A) pollonia by Nowy Teatr of Poland. Situated on a mountain top and approachable only after more than an hour's drive along zigzagging mountain roads from the nearest town, Muyang village is a favorite destination for visitors. A natural environment, refreshing air, picturesque mountain views and the clear water of its famous Muyang Brook draw people to experience life in this village, which lies near Sandouping town, in Yichang in Central China's Hubei province.
Top: A local woman in red rides a covered boat on Longjing Brook in Sandouping town, known for the Three Gorges Dam project and the Tribe of the Three Gorges. The village is home to more than 2,000 people, who live in settlements in the mountainous area, which varies in altitude from 300 to 850 meters. The villagers traditionally depended on farming and silkworm breeding for their livelihoods, according to Liu Ping, the Party secretary of the village.
Ai Shihua, 83, a villager who has spent his entire life in the village, says he has seen big changes in the lives of the villagers in the past decade thanks to tourism. Now living with his son in a home that is equipped with modern appliances like a TV and a refrigerator, Ai helps the family run a farmhouse restaurant that they started in 2009. During the peak season, which runs from May to October, the family can earn up to 800 yuan a day just by providing food. Ai's son is now building a better-equipped farmhouse inn so they can expand their business to cover both dining and accommodation. Even his grandson is trying to promote the family's business using WeChat, a popular app in China. The family owns less than 0.3 hectare of land, on which they grow corn, potatoes or rapeseed.


As more visitors come to their village, products such as rapeseed oil have become popular with tourists and bring them income.
Ai adds that earlier the family used to depend solely on farming and earn about 10,000 yuan per year before they turned to tourism. Meanwhile, according to Liu, many families are now operating farmhouse restaurants, inns and parking lots in the village.
He adds that the village also plans to add a mulberry plantation of 67 hectares for fruit picking to its current tourist assets.
Separately, the village will introduce more farm crops that can be used to make products which can be sold to tourists. Rural tourism has now become a critical part of the local tourist industry and will be the main focus of the town's tourism promotion in the future, says Wang Hua, the head of the town's government.
In 2015, the town's scenic areas and rural tourist destinations welcomed more than 4.73 million people, bringing in 4 billion yuan of consolidated revenue for a town that has a population of 35,000. In recent years, the local tourism industry has also put a large number of local farmers on the road to a better life, she says. In 2015, the Tribe of the Three Gorges, an area with the highest ranking under China's tourist-attraction rating system - 5A - developed from a previously poverty-stricken village, drew 2.8 million visitors, contributing about 12 million yuan of taxes to the local government.
To encourage rural tourism, the local government also offers training to poor families who are willing to enter the tourism trade. The families are then provided with a "green pass", which simplifies the approval process and provides them with easier access to loans. In recent years, the government has also tried to further integrate its well-known tourist spots, such as the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River and Tribe of the Three Gorges, with its rural tourist destinations nearby by developing more tourist routes.
Thanks to the Three Gorges Dam, Sandouping receives about 350,000 Chinese and overseas visitors annually. Situated along the midsection of the Yangtze River, the town boasts two areas with the highest grade under China's tourist attraction rating system. The two areas with the 5A ratings are the Three Gorges Dam, the largest water project in the world, and the Tribe of the Three Gorges area, a picturesque landscape corridor. Thanks to its unique location, the town is an important stop along the Three Gorges section of the river. The town's only main street extends along the Yangtze, and we stayed in a guesthouse on the street, which offered a nice view of the river. In contrast to the turbid water in the lower reaches of the Yangtze, the section here is clear and quiet. After breakfast, we set out for the Tribe of the Three Gorges area, which turned out to be a good place to appreciate the quiet valley and local culture. Visitors typically take a ferry boat from the opposite bank of the Yangtze River to the valley entrance, which is connected to the river. Trackers toiling along the river while singing work songs were a common sight in the region in the old days. On the brook, a covered boat moves slowly amid soft ripples with a young girl in a striking red traditional costume standing on it holding an umbrella.
For a moment, we feel as if we are in a painting, until we are awakened by a folk song that suddenly starts to resonate in the valley.
We follow the sound and the scenes change as we walk along: A fisherman mends his net on a boat, girls in traditional blue outfits wash clothes along the edge of the brook in front of their wooden houses on stilts, and young couples stand on the mossy stone bridge in the village. Performances though they are, they create an engaging atmosphere by naturally melting into the peaceful environment.
Then we hear a noise coming from a crowd of tourists amid the sound of a gong in front of large wooden building. The performers, most of whom are local villagers, interact with the tourists and invite one of them to act the groom. The sightseeing route leads all the way to the mountain top, where the villagers still reside. The giant dam rises 185 meters, creating a reservoir that spans more than 600 kilometers in the middle of Yangtze River.
Local people tell us that the best way to enjoy a panoramic view of the dam and the reservoir is from the mountain nearby. They say that if you are lucky to see water being released from the dam you can feel the ground shaking. Jia Pingwa's new novel, Ji Hua, tells the story of a woman who is freed after three years after being kidnapped. The author, who won the Mao Dun Literature Prize, China's top literary award, for his earlier novel Qin Qiang (Qinqiang Opera), has named his latest book after an imaginary flower, which has later found to be the Chinese caterpillar fungus.
Ji Hua is the tale of Hu Die, a girl from a poor rural family who accompanies her single mother to the city. Jia is among China's most influential contemporary writers, and his books have been translated into many languages, including English, French, German, Russian, Japanese and Korean.
Ji Hua was written based on a real-life story that Jia had heard from a resident of Xi'an, in Northwest China's Shaanxi province, a decade ago.
Jia, who also comes from a rural family, then began to focus on population thinning in rural areas of China. Several years ago, in many remote villages in Shaanxi, the number of residents fell so much that the villages were merged into one. Many women who go to the cities with their husbands either divorce or abandon them, fearing the prospect of returning to the poor villages.
The situation reminded Jia of the story about the abducted girl, and resulted in the new novel of around 200 pages - his shortest - using a concept he borrowed from Chinese ink painting, an art form in which he also excels. Instead of depicting pure good and evil, his book creates an organic image of a remote village in his home province, where challenging living conditions present many complexities. Chinese author Liang Hong, who is known for her works about the Chinese countryside, says for her, Ji Hua isn't about an abducted woman, but more about how to communicate with the land.
According to Chen Xiaoming, a professor of Chinese literature at Peking University, Jia's writing is both about wronged women of rural China and the living conditions there.
The author writes about the villages that have been deserted for the cities - villages with history, beauty and vitality.
The novel is a mix of realism, magical realism and many other avant-garde writing techniques. Since the novel was first published, it has set a record as a contemporary literary work, with about 2 million copies sold in China, according to People's Literature Publishing House.
In 2010, the novel was adapted into a film of the same name directed by Wang Quan'an and starring Zhang Fengyi, Zhang Yuqi and Duan Yihong. Feng Jicai, another highly accomplished writer, says in a message of condolence: "Chen scaled the highest peak of Chinese contemporary literature. Chang Zhenjia, 72, an editor at People's Literature Publishing House for more than 30 years, read the first edition of White Deer Plain and published the first review of the novel. Karl Schlecht, the 83-year-old sponsor of the China Center at Germany's Tubingen University.
Wide-eyed students flocked around Karl Schlecht as he prepared to tuck into spring rolls and steamed buns after speaking at the opening of Tubingen University's China Center in Germany. The food went untouched until the 83-year-old had finished chatting and posing for pictures with his wellwishers. Sporting a bright-red tie, white shirt and double-breasted navy-blue suit, and wearing thin-rimmed glasses, he looked and sounded more like the students' favorite grandpa than a benefactor who once ruled a construction machinery empire that helped build the world's tallest skyscrapers. Born in a small Swabian town near Stuttgart in 1932, Schlecht learned to mix and lay mortar and concrete from his father, a master plasterer.
While studying at the Technical University of Stuttgart in the late 1950s, the young Schlecht answered his father by designing an automated mortar machine, which he assembled in his garage. Before graduating college, Schlecht started a company that would help change the face of civil engineering, riding on the crest of Europe's post-war construction boom.
In 2012, Schlecht astonished the world by selling the empire he had built single-handedly to a Chinese rival, Sany Heavy Industries, for a reported 560 million euros ($643 million). Schlecht insists it was the right deal, and all the proceeds went to his charitable foundation.
In addition to his charitable causes, Schlecht now serves as an adviser to Sany's chairman, once China's richest man. One of the first tips the German offered to Putzmeister's new owner came from an unexpected source: Confucius. According to the German businessman, Confucius underlines essential elements of true entrepreneurship: trust, honesty, tolerance, love and responsibility. After the takeover, Schlecht persuaded Liang to become a joint patron of the World Ethics Institute at Peking University. He now devotes most of his time to his charitable foundation, KSG, which has a long list of projects, including clean energy research and good leadership. Schlecht says the China Center at Tubingen, which is 30 minutes' drive from where he assembled his first mortar machine, was founded with an ideal: to make students aware of each other's history and of the forces that propelled China to become the world's second-largest economy within a generation. A voracious reader, he goes to bed to re-read Erich Fromm's The Art of Love or maybe a John Rockefeller biography. The 29-year-old, who moved to the UK at age 15 to pursue his snooker dream, narrowly missed out on unseating Mark Selby from his world No 1 spot in a gripping final of the World Championship at Sheffield's Crucible Theatre. It was another landmark in a career in which Ding has served as China's standard-bearer in a sport that has undergone a rapid growth of interest and participation. Jason Ferguson, chairman of the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association, says snooker was already huge in China. In addition to Ding, players such as Zhou Yuelong, Yan Bingtao and Zhao Xintong are likely to become a lot more familiar over the next decade, as will others competing in a sport that attracts 100 million TV viewers at home. During this year's final it was announced that the World Snooker Championship will stay in Sheffield until at least 2027.
Ding, whose record at the World Championship was poor before this year, says: "Five years ago I reached the semifinals, and this year I made it one step further. Seven-time world champion Stephen Hendry applauded Ding, saying he is at a different level from most others.
Nowhere else in the world has one single humble bean given rise to such a large range of different foods, from juices, pickles, preserves, seasonings, custard to cakes of different textures, and finally, fertilizer. According to legend, it was indeed alchemy that led to the discovery of bean curd, more commonly known as tofu. Throughout Chinese history, those who ruled often were afraid of death, losing all they had gathered, or of having to leave all that power and glory. In their attempts, they drew water from the region's natural springs and cooked ground up soybeans to create a base for that elusive pill.
That was more than 2,000 years ago, and in the interim, bean curd has become one of the most important ingredients China has contributed to the world. As the Chinese ventured out, they brought the culture of bean curd with them, so much so that it took on a life of its own, adapting to the cuisines of various countries from Japan and Korea in the north to the Malay and Indonesian archipelagos to the south. Various forms of bean curd and its derivatives, too, have become the backbone of vegetarian cuisine in the global meatless movement. Soybean products are a good source of vegetable protein, and after being processed, most no longer have that embarrassing side effect that made the bean itself so unpopular - flatulence. One of the best breakfasts you can have in China is a piping hot bowl of soft bean curd, called doufunao in the north and doufuhua in the south.
The northerners prefer a savory version, dousing their soft bean curd with a brown sauce often laced with strips of mushrooms and a few dried daylily buds.
No one cooks tofu better than the chefs who specialize in Huainan cuisine, right from the region where it was first invented. Here, tender blocks of tofu challenge the knife skills of chefs who float strands as thin as hair in rich chicken stock. Soft blocks of tofu are also steamed to retain their original bean flavor, and may be drizzled with soy sauce or oyster sauce and garnished with a sprinkle of chopped spring onions. Cubes of a harder version may be deep-fried into puffs and then stuffed with a fish paste to create a dish popular with the Hakka community - niangdoufu.
Or the curds may be aged and fermented to create that notorious snack that has the uninitiated holding their noses. In the Jiangsu-Zhejiang region, stinky tofu is legendary, having made it into literary classics such as native son Lu Xun's works. Across the Straits, Taiwan's famous night markets must have at least one or two stinky tofu stalls. Back in my Yunnan, slightly fermented tofu is sold at breakfast stalls, sprinkled with chopped peanuts, chili sauce and cilantro.
Tender tofu and soft fish paste in custard translate to a dish suitable for both grandparents and grandchildren. This is a dish that contrasts the simple texture of the silken tofu with the stronger flavors of the spicy mince. Spread mince and sauce mix evenly over block of tofu and steam for 15 minutes on high heat. They are white, chubby and have sprigs on their heads - and Chinese social media can't get enough of them.
Roughly half the population has conveyed some kind of emotion with a Budding Pop emoji on WeChat, the instant-messaging app, making them one of the most popular in the world. Many of them hope this fame will lead to financial rewards, too, as it means they can potentially produce books for fans to buy as well as sell the rights for their characters to companies for marketing purposes.
He says the way his team works is similar to the Japanese cartoon industry: artists design an original image and others contribute ideas to update the series.
Zhong Wei in the northeast city of Shenyang has been drawing cartoons since 2014 and has published two picture books.
Zhong has released three collections of the emoji via the instant-messaging app since August last year. China's emoji craze is rooted in Japan's kawaii (cute) and otaku (outsider) movements, he explains.
Shi Donglin, 23, creator of the Freezing Gal emoji, believes the ultra-short animations can also help bring light relief at tense or embarrassing moments.
Freezing Gal, which has dark skin and a ponytail, is based on her experiences in college and is popular among students. Unlike traditional cartoonists, who generally created characters before selling stories to magazines or publishing houses, Shi launched her career via social media. She says she will continue to make emojis and has now started on a series of picture books featuring Freezing Gal. Cashing in while a character is hot is important, according to Xu Han, the artist behind Ali the red fox, another popular character. Wang at 12 Buildings agrees that it is hard to guarantee longevity, but he believes the internet provides opportunities for budding Chinese illustrators to work with major brands that would previously have opted for foreign talent. Budding Pop is now featured in promotions by Procter & Gamble, the multinational consumer goods company, while smartphone maker Xiaomi is using Freezing Gal to reach new buyers. Xu is a good model for any modern Chinese illustrator: first came the character, then picture books and emojis, and then online shops selling merchandise. Ali originally appeared online and in magazines in 2006, but only after making his debut on instant-messaging app WeChat last year did the character gain mass appeal. The fourth installment, Carrousel Garden, published in March, sees Ali encounter characters from Western fairy tales, such as the Little Prince, Pinocchio and the Ugly Duckling. Even if Chinese artists can gain exposure through the internet and social media, he says building a brand is not easy. During his six years in the job, he says there has been a noticeable increase in men in kindergarten classrooms, but there are still hurdles to attracting more. Chen Yilang and a student strike a kung fu pose at the China Welfare Institute Kindergarten in Shanghai. So are education officials, who have moved to act in recent years in the fear that Chinese schools are producing effeminate boys. Despite relaxing the college admission requirements for men seeking to study preschool education, as well as offering scholarships that come with a guarantee of full-time employment, the number of men entering the field has remained low. In Shanghai, for example, just 200 of the more than 53,000 teachers at 2,000 kindergartens were men in 2014, according to the city's education commission.
Industry insiders say the biggest hurdles are the general perception that teaching preschool is for women and the relatively low salaries that are offered to educators. Chen Yilang, who works at the same kindergarten as Gao, says most people in his job earn about 55,000 yuan ($8,400; 7,500 euros) a year, which is roughly 10,000 yuan lower than the city average in 2014.
Education experts believe the gender imbalance at preschools could have a serious social impact, as this stage of education can be critical to the forming of a young person's character. Feng Wei, the principal of the China Welfare Institute Kindergarten, argues that the shortage of male teachers has led to an increase in boys who are shy and timid.
The typical family environment in China has also played a role, she says, as mothers are expected to raise the children while fathers bring home the bacon.
To address the problem, authorities need to focus on promoting respect, says Shi Bin, director of the Fundamental Education Development Center at Shanghai Normal University. Parents are noticing, too, and some are already taking action to "toughen up" their sons by enrolling them in team sports and activities.
China Welfare Institute Kindergarten has been recruiting male teachers since the late 1990s. The distinct teaching methods employed by the male and female teachers "are a perfect complement" and help to provide children with a holistic learning experience, according to Feng. Gao, for example, says he tries to reinforce "masculine qualities" through physical activities such as making students climb orange trees to pick the fruit. Wang Jiaming, another male teacher at the school, agrees that it is important to have a mix of male and female educators involved in a child's education. Chen adds that male teachers prefer to let children obtain physical knowledge and abilities through frequent sporting activities. Strange as it may seem, carving fruit pits - or drupes, pips, seeds, and nuts if you prefer - goes back centuries. Crafting peach and apricot pits walnut shells, and even olive seeds into Buddha figurines, jewelry and landscapes has been practiced at least since the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). Yun's most famous pieces express a sense of active realism, often are praised for the sense of life he gives to his subjects, which sometimes are celebrities. Located in the heart of the city and well known for its labyrinth of alleys, Tianzifang was built where abandoned factories from the 1940s and historical Shikumen residential buildings from the 1920s once stood. Yu Hai, a professor of sociology at Fudan University who has studied Tianzifang since its inception nearly 20 years ago, says it is a shame that the true charm of the area has been lost in the modernization process.
This used to be a place where people can savor the essence of old Shanghai, and one that was slated to become a community for people from the creative industries. Zheng Rongfa, the former administrative head of the Dapuqiao area which Taikang Road is under, recalls how Tianzifang used to be a vibrant place filled with the sounds and smells coming from the homes of Shanghainese families. In 1998, Zheng kicked off the project to turn the area into a hub for the cultural industry. In 1999, Chen Yifei, a world-renowned Chinese painter, and several other artists set up studios in the old factories on Lane 210 along Taikang Road, creating a cluster of more than 200 culture and art venues. One year later, the sub-district government leased the remaining spaces to a sole proprietor named Wu Meisheng. Fortunately, thanks to the intervention of Zheng and a group of his supporters, Tianzifang emerged unscathed.
According to statistics provided by Yu, 100 million square meters of old buildings in Shanghai were torn down between the early 1990s and 2008 to make way for modern ones. However, the Shanghai government has also been striving to preserve traditional architecture, turning many old estates into zones for creative industries. According to statistics from the municipal government, there were 87 zones hosting creative industries and 52 parks for cultural industries at the end of 2013. Following this incident, Zheng realized that the residents from neighboring lanes needed to band together to help expand the size of Tianzifang in order to boost the significance of the area.
However, he says that he had done so only because the 3,500 yuan ($540) he charged for rent would go a long way in helping with his living expenses - he was only getting 300 yuan every month from his retirement pension. In the past decade, more than 500 households have followed in Zhou's footsteps to convert their houses to non-residential units.
While the interiors of many of the buildings have since been renovated and given a new coat of paint, the old brick facades from which Tianzifang gets its charm, are still very much intact.
Laundry would hang from balconies as new-age music spilled through windows of boutique shops on the ground floor. In 2008, the government took over Tianzifang and shifted the focus from developing the place into an art and culture hub to commercialization, security and property management.
As one of the first shop owners to arrive on Lane 274 in 2007, Yan Hongliang, who sells ceramic art designed and produced in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, has witnessed the tremendous changes that have taken place since. Having already struggled to break even in the first few years of his business, the exorbitant rent now has made doing business in Tianzifang unrealistic. Unsurprisingly, Yu's survey reveals that many shop owners have cited the rising rent - it has increased at least ten-fold in 20 years - as the primary reason for relocating. Fabienne Wallenwein, a German PhD student who is enrolled in a one-year exchange program at Fudan University, shares the same sentiment. In the meantime, Zheng Rongfa, the former administrative head, says he can only hope that the government thinks the same way about the future direction of Tianzifang's development. They range from cotton drawers worn by the mother of Queen Victoria (the V&A museum is named for the 19th-century monarch and her husband), to a Swarovski crystal-studded bra and thong. But there are men's unmentionables, too, including 18th-century shirts, which were considered underwear because they were worn next to the skin - only the collars and cuffs could decently be shown.
Curators of the show have emphasized the contribution of female designers and innovators such as Roxey Ann Caplin, whose "health corset" - designed to shape the body without crushing the internal organs - won a medal at the Great Exhibition of 1851.
Waist-constricting corsets run through the exhibition, in versions that range from functional to fetishistic. Edwina Ehrman, the exhibition's curator, says Lycra was "a fabulous breakthrough" - and a reminder that the evolution of underwear is a story of technology as well as creativity.
The exhibition reveals that the line between underwear and outerwear has long been blurred.
Recent years have seen the line blur even further, as tracksuits, onesies and other loungewear moved from the living room onto the streets. But French lingerie designer Fifi Chachnil - whose signature Babyloo playsuit is on display in the exhibition - thinks we will always want to show off our skivvies. A full scale replica of Dumont's legendary airplane called "14 Bis" sits outside the museum, which is the centerpiece of a revamping of the Rio port area ahead of the Olympic Games starting in 100 days. The Flying Poet is a big exhibit, the first of its kind dedicated to a man who while weighing a mere 50 kilograms was a giant of aviation. Although perhaps less well known than the Wright brothers in the United States, Dumont is celebrated in Brazil as no less than the true first pilot. Although this was three years after the Wright brothers' historic flight in North Carolina, his fans argue that only his exploit met the definition of a certified, independently powered flight.
It's a polemic rich with nationalism, but what's sure is that Dumont, who has Rio's domestic airport named after him, remains a fascinating figure. The Franco-Brazilian Dumont, who lived from 1873 to 1932, had a reputation for eccentricity and imagination. Before his feat in the "14 Bis" he was already famed for flights in balloons and dirigibles, including one he used to moor outside his house in Paris and used to fly to join friends across town.
He can also claim to having been one of the first to wear a wrist watch, having asked his friend - none other than the even more famous Louis Cartier - to make him something more practical for telling the time in the air than the traditional pocket watch. The pop-up drone cafe will be serving up all weekend as part of celebrations for the "Dream and Dare" festival marking the 60th anniversary of the Eindhoven University of Technology. The 20 students behind the project, who spent nine months developing and building the autonomous drone, aim to show how such small inside craft could become an essential part of modern daily life. The drone, nicknamed Blue Jay, which resembles a small white flying saucer with a luminescent strip for eyes, flies to a table and hovers as it takes a client's order, who points to the list to signal what they would like.
The drinks are picked up and carried by a set of pinchers underneath the drone, in a bid to show that these aerial machines could be used to carry out delicate missions such as delivering medicines or even helping to track down burglars. Each drone has cost about 2,000 euros ($2,293) to build, in a project funded by the university which the students say aims "to give a glimpse of the future".
Thanks to sensors and a long battery life they can fly inside buildings and navigate crowded interiors, unlike other drones, which rely on a GPS system. They believe the drone's applications could be endless: as extinguishers to put out fires, alarm systems to warn of intruders or mini-servants which would respond to commands such as "fetch me an apple". In some states, only a copy of the marriage certificate is required, but other states want to see the new name on a Social Security card before they issue license with the new name. Once you’ve obtained new identification bearing your new name you should begin to consistently use that name as your own. While each individual step in the name change process is fairly painless, the collective effort can be quite a bit of work. The ones that consistently receive the best reviews from our editors and our website visitors are from US Legal Forms. Each of the forms from the kit above will be checked for accuracy by specialists before paper copies are mailed out to you. This is partly because of cultural and religious traditions that have been passed down through generations, and partly because families are typically identified by their surname (aka: last name). In these situations some women opt to keep their maiden name or adopt a hyphenated version of married and maiden names as a compromise.
You will save yourself considerable time and trouble by making sure you are happy with your choice of name before you change any records. In the past, it was relatively easy to change your name simply by consistently using the new name (this is called common law name change). In the better sets, the traditional flaws of plasma (burn-in) and LCD (limited viewing angle, weak blacks, weak fast motion) have been largely eliminated.
In 1958, Dinera€™s Club launched the first card available for payment to general merchants: 27 participating NYC restaurants. Kugel, an Orthodox Jew and author of a€?How to Read the Biblea€? says that there is essentially no evidence--archaeological, historical, cultural--for the events in the Torah.
Koerner which he said depicts: a€?a horseman determinedly charging up what appears to be a steep and rough traila€?--representing his own political journey against steep odds and naysayers. The rope was not strong enough to carry them all; they decided 1 had to leave, or all would fall. According to the Energy Department, vampire gadgets account for about 25% of total residential electricity consumption in the U.S.
Guppy submitted a fish to the British Museum that was already classified, but the name stuck [and the fish is still in a jar at the museum]. Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance.
This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation. In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace. In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy. It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights. He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses. The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain. They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor. He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism.
The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king.
The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation.
His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII.
Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work).
But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes. The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set. His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection. Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam. His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific.
The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings.
The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered.
Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary.
She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen.
To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen. Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p. These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do. In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights. Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future. Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I. Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited.
In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose). Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England. James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband. Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords.
As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?. In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed!
He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism. With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king.
He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy.
He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England. In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists. The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed.
But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands. From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence.
The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes.
A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause.
In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France.
Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces. While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment.
In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health. The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights. It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact. The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs. They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power. The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them. The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany.
He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine.
Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control. Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige. This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs.
Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism.
England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament.
Needless to say there was little work done, and when at the appointed hour the guns boomed all over the city and the sirens shrieked (no more with the message they formerly bore) it was the signal to turn loose. A group of the wounded men who were convalescing, or who began to convalesce when the news came, wheeled one of their number in a chair up and down the block, the occupant of the improvised chariot of victory playing a corneta€”what could it be but the a€?Marseillaisea€?? Five small boys piled on the running boards and we made progress somehow or other through the cheering crowds surging all around until we became hopelessly entangled and stopped in a position from which we could not have been extricated for an hour.
In the course of our progress home we went through a dense crowd at the Place de la€™Opera and about a hundred people seized the taxi, which was in gear at full speed ahead, and dragged it backward about half a block, assaulting me in the window (the captains were on the floor) with salutes of both a manual and osculatory nature.
Now that the fighting is over, it comes to them that they are alone, and that one of the contributing causes of all the celebration and joyousness was the giving of a life which they loved. The armistice terms are crushinga€”they have taken the very bones out of the structure of the German nation and leave her at the mercy of the Alliesa€”a mercy which they do not deserve. There still remains much for the American Army to do in the way of occupation, readjustment and reconstruction. It has almost been worth all the long months away from home to have been herea€”the very center of the universea€”on the greatest day the world has ever seen, and to have been part of it. His immediate superior at the time was the last Second Assistant Secretary of War during the war years, Edward Stettinius Sr., previously president of the Diamond Match Company. General Motors Export Company had been created three years later with a staff of three and only $10,000 in capital, located in New York as the fulcrum point for American commerce abroad. He applied for, and was accepted as, assistant manager of one of the GM Export Companya€™s sales divisions.


Not only a young man of brains, energy, and pleasing personality, Edgar had prewar business education and experience, and had been an army staff officer in high-visibility wartime assignments in Washington and Paris, training him in the skills needed to organize and manage tremendous undertakings. Spivaka€™s chapter a€?Baker Street Industrialista€? in the third of my BSI Archival History volumes, Irregular Records of the Early a€™Forties. Russiaa€™s Bolsheviks and Whites were fighting a vicious civil war, with Russian aristocrats and democrats resettling in Paris in reduced circumstances. In the late 1930s and a€™40s, when he and Christopher Morley worked some ten blocks apart in that age of communications, with telephones on their desk, they habitually conducted BSI business with each other by letter, as often as three times a day. On August 26, 1926, he was appointed assistant to the vice president for overseas operations. The letter was likely one to Edgara€™s parents at home, and made available by them to the newspaper. What would have pleased Edgar was the family of four, plus dog (his family had one at home), being shown not in a kitchen with the latest appliances, or in a living-room with a console radio and perhaps a piano, but in an automobile, clearly taking to the highways for pleasure.
Perhaps it was only, as their work took them to Washington more often, to have a congenial place to stay that was convenient to the State Department and other government offices. In addition to celebrities, he also focuses on ordinary people, as seen in the works in his latest show (below) in Beijing.
It took him nearly four years to frame more than 1,000 famed faces, including actresses like Gong Li and Zhang Ziyi, and directors Zhang Yimou and Jiang Wen.
For instance, he took the photo of Zhang Ziyi when she rested while performing the leading role for the film Purple Butterfly in 2003. After visiting a solo show of the late American photographer Ansel Adams, famed for his charming black-and-white photography, Pang felt the power and beauty of the simple colors. The first act, which lasts 90 minutes, has the memorable action of ironing and folding a shirt, as some in the audience joked.
He made his only appearance when he was lit from behind a screen at the end of Act I, doing nothing but folding a shirt. He is the subject of this measured and calculated character study - of a character who is mostly absent from the stage yet increasingly comes into relief as each onstage character reminisces about him. The freedom to express such views, no matter how biased, does not equal artistic ingenuity. The only sliver of compassion he displayed was for his housekeeper, who seemed to sing his eulogy with clenched teeth. The way he listed the evils of the world before his suicide is a reminder of "the whips and scorns of time, the oppressors' wrong, the proud man's contumely, the pangs of despised love, the law's delay, the insolence of office", etc, when the prince of Denmark contemplated "making his quietus with a bare bodkin". Within the cloistered space of the stage, the balance is often tipped by actors' movements that are concentrated in one corner. When the historical recording of Hitler's speech and mass cheering shattered the Schusters' window glasses, the message came loud and clear. But in recent years, the village's well-preserved environment has become its greatest selling point. Now the area has more than 10,000 people who work directly or indirectly in the tourism industry.
On our second morning there, a light haze hung over the river, obscuring the view of buildings on the other bank.
Before entering the valley, we were able to enjoy a show that recreated a scene of boat trackers on the bank pulling a traditional sailboat with ropes. It extends along the Longjing Brook, whose mirror of light-indigo-blue water is half hidden under thick clumps of bamboo. As we walk closer, we see it is the enactment of a traditional wedding ceremony by the local Tu ethnic group. There, tourists can enjoy a view of the peaks, the rocks and also a spectacular 1,500-meter-long karst cave. It's a great experience to see it," Australian Stave Sloan says after viewing it as part of a 15-day cruise tour along the river. But her urban dreams are soon shattered as she is abducted by a group of people, taken to a village and sold to a family.
She returns to the same village to reunite with her baby boy, whose biological father is her former captor. Through the abducted woman's perspective, readers not only see the problems of the rural areas, but also the different aspects of village life. So all the characters in the novel are part of the village, and each person has his or her position on issues," says Liang. They try to find ways to communicate with the outside world such as by doing business, and even with Hu Die to reach a reconciliation," she says. He started writing prose in 1965, and in 1992, he completed White Deer Plain, a novel based on the county annals of his hometown, Bailuyuan in Shaanxi. Half a century later, Putzmeister has become not only a global leader in concrete pump makers, but also the embodiment of the mittelstadt - Germany's small or medium-sized family-owned businesses with time-honored traditions, values and management practices (think Bosch and Trumpf). The German businessman was lambasted for "selling the German soul to the Chinese", while Sany was mocked as "a snake that swallowed an elephant".
It would have been unreasonable for Putzmeister, which had been China's market leader since 1979, to compete with a new dominant force in the world's biggest market, he says. They saw eye to eye on a key issue - trust - and he empathizes with the humble roots of Liang Wengen, the founder of Sany, a backyard soldering stick maker turned billionaire entrepreneur. When you are successful at home, you want to go abroad to grow your businesses," Schlecht says, punching the air with his fist.
Years before the Sany deal, Schlecht, a self-taught philosopher, became fascinated with Confucianism, especially the notion of "Confucian entrepreneurship", which calls for applying ancient Chinese wisdom to business practice.
These are values he describes as the nuts and bolts of a global ethic for success, which he has championed. If old friends visit, he puts down his gardening tools to collect them at the airport in his black Mercedes.
He has inspired a new wave of young players who aim to match his career haul of 11 ranking titles. From Emperor Qinshihuang of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) onward, they have tried to uncover the recipe for immortality.
In that beautiful land full of springs, streams and picturesque mountains, Liu An gathered the best Taoist masters - eight of them - and started his search. They didn't succeed, but what was left in the tripod was a pure, white jelly-like substance.
Doufunao literally means tofu brains while doufuhua is definitely more lyrical, translating as tofu flowers. In the south, the tender jelly is sweetened with syrups made from plain or brown sugar and flavored with ginger juice. Or they deep-fry bean curd so that its texture changes and then braise the entire block in a gravy made with soy sauce and sweet spices. It's deep-fried, served with pickled cabbage and sweet chili sauce, boldly advertising its presence through its lovely pungency. She is now a second-year art student in Shanxi province and works part time for 12 Buildings, a studio in Beijing.
Among the 32-year-old's creations is a white cat, which he has since turned into a popular emoji.
To express various levels of anguish, for example, WeChat users can share an animation of the white cat crying while laughing, sobbing in a pool of tears, or wailing while clapping its hands. In just a short while, she was producing work for instant-messaging tools like QQ and WeChat. The fox, which Xu created in high school, was among the first emojis made available on the QQ messenger in 2012. During the Chinese New Year holiday in February, he topped the emoji charts as users rushed to send friends and relatives seasonal greetings.
However, he says China's animation industry lags behind those in the West and Japan, which have worldwide appeal. They hope a more masculine presence can have an effect, but it appears there is still some way to go. Plus, because of the one-child policy, many children have grown up without siblings and tend to lead sheltered lives.
A post-80s generation artist, Yun graduated from the art department of Shenyang University, majoring in murals and frescoes, woodcarving and clay sculpture.
Yun can lay claim to creating the split-carving technique, which allows him to compose a piece at scale while keeping the realistic details intact. He feels proud of what he has done but says it is far from enough, with hopes that such a precious cultural relic will be recognized and loved by more and more people.
Now home to the iconic Tianzifang, the area is filled with numerous retail outlets, small snack shops, bars and cafes, most of which are occupied by tourists from other Chinese cities and abroad.
Today, it is just another tourist attraction, albeit a very famous one, that only has a faint glimpse of its artistic core. Those who are in the area now are also planning to move out," says Yu, who recently led a team of students from Fudan University and Tongji University to conduct an in-depth survey on the current situation of Tianzifang, which is quickly losing its artistic soul to commercialization. Many men would smoke cigarettes and play poker on tables in the courtyard in the afternoon," says Zheng, who is widely regarded as "the father of Tianzifang".
He leased out the 10,000-square-meter space occupied by the idle factories on a 20-year contract and moved the street market indoors.
This was also the time when Huang Yongyu, another well-known painter, named the area "Tianzifang" as a tribute to an ancient Chinese painter of the same name. Galleries, cafes and boutiques have since opened like clockwork alongside old Shanghai homes, imbuing the area with a unique charm not seen before in the city.
Calls were made for the place to be torn down to make way for high-rise shopping malls that were part of a real estate project by Taiwan's ASE Group.
Formerly a slaughterhouse, the place is now home to several creative agencies and design studios.
But as time passed, I began to realize the importance of protecting the origins of the place," says Zhou. Middle-aged housewives carrying bags of vegetables would squeeze past expats sipping cappuccino at outdoor cafes. Between 2004 and 2008, as many as 6,000 people would walk along Taikang Road's crowded lanes on weekends.
He is now paying 40,000 yuan and said that the rent will exceed 60,000 yuan after his current contract expires in two years. The place is now filled with more tourism-related items instead of original art works," says Yan, adding that he plans to move out of Tianzifang after fulfilling his rental contract despite his attachment to the area. It's no surprise that many talented artists are leaving the area," says Zhou Xinliang, the resident of Tianzifang.
Over the past five years, retail outlets have steadily replaced the art studios and galleries, which now account for just 2 percent of the shops in Tianzifang. Though he said he does not think that this will lead to the demise of the place, he is concerned that it will eventually result in a change of appearance and the loss of its iconic architecture.
This is getting lost in the process of commercialization," she says, adding that she is very impressed with how the buildings in Tianzifang are preserved. London's Victoria and Albert Museum has peeled back fashion's layers to expose everything from long johns to lingerie in Undressed, an exhibition tracing the hidden history of underwear.
For centuries, people have worn undergarments for practical reasons of protection, hygiene and comfort - but there has always been an element of sexuality and drama as well. The show, which features more than 200 items made between 1750 and the present day, is dominated by women's undergarments: corsets and crinolines, stockings and shifts, chemises and stays. More recent items include David Beckham boxer shorts and crotch-enhancing Aussiebum briefs. There are 19th-century models with whalebone stays, a modern-day red and black rubber corset by House of Harlot, and one worn by burlesque artist Dita Von Teese with a wince-inducing 18-inch waist.
The exhibition traces the history of brassieres, from their development as "bust supporters" in the 1860s through their wide adoption in the early 20th century to the introduction of Lycra in the late 1950s.
Ehrman says people have been revealing their undergarments since at least the 16th century. In this exhibit, 110 years after the flight of '14 Bis', we want to show the young that using the imagination is a way of promoting discoveries," Gringo Caria, the curator of the exhibit, says. The world's first cafe using the tiny domestic unmanned aircraft as servers has opened in a Dutch university. Lane January 21 - 23, 1991 No sound files are available for the interview with Justice Coleman.
Here we have outlined all the steps you need to take, and all the organizations you need to contact, to complete a full legal name change after you’re married. If you need your name change to be handled quickly and accurately, you will appreciate the accountability of the name change service. Some couples want to be known by a hyphenated combination of their last names, and there are some who even make up new names that combine elements of each. Despite these new trends, changing your name after marriage continues to be an overwhelmingly common practice. But after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. No man spoke, but the woman said she would voluntarily let go of the rope, because, as a woman, she was used to giving up everything for her husband, kids and men in general, and was used to always making sacrifices with little in return. This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away. These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live. He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c.
Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life. They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement. The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs! The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them. It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots!
Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean. If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went.
His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign. Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne. Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home.
A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution.
His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17.
Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII. In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism. Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic!
When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers.
James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV. King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry.
Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor.
Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven.
Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants. The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas. Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740. Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy. After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918. After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government. Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city.
The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary. The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship. Even now, at 2 oa€™clock in the afternoon of the next day, the parades and crowds are still thronging the avenue. The clouds of four years and three months were blown away in ten minutes and the population simply went insanea€”and are still insane. According to the marriage announcement in the New York Times after he brought her home to start a new life together in America, her parents were M. In the beginning, GM Exporta€™s energies were focused upon the sale of GM products through foreign distributors, but with the war over, its ambitions turned to establishing manufacturing operations abroad as well. In that job, and in other sales and junior executive posts at various European plants and at the home office, he became intimately acquainted with world trade problems.
Samson Tractor, purchased in 1917 in order to compete with Ford in that market, was a signal failure, losing GM some $33,000,000 before being shut down for good in 1923. Edgar had also, Morris tells us, learned to speak French during his twelve months in Paris, and had a French wife to keep him in practice. Spivak, a member of The Amateur Mendicant Society who had also been a Detroit lawyer and judge with both professional and marital connections to GM, was able to exploit for me its tightly-controlled archives for an account that must be one of the definitive Smith biographera€™s first stops. Sloan, expand overseas, dazzle the public with its vision of the future at the 1939-40 New York Worlda€™s Fair, convert its vast industrial base to military production for Americaa€™s armed forces in World War II, and then convert it back again to consumer products after the end of that war, just as automobiles and modern highways began truly to transform American life. France and Britain were rubbing the new Weimar Republica€™s nose in Germanya€™s defeat, with Berlin thwarting their reparations demands by setting off the horrendous inflation that undermined Germanya€™s economy, facilitating the rise of both communism and fascism. Then on March 23, 1925, the family came home for good (now at 1355 East 16th Street, Brooklyn). This was no gofer job; it carried responsibility, authority, and promise, with the last starting to be fulfilled before the year was out, when Edgar was appointed additionally a director of GM Export Company. In 1937, the thought was still a stretch; but by the time Edgar retired from GM in 1954, he saw it come true, complete with automatic transmissions and air-conditioning, on the four-lane highways GM had predicted at the 1939 Worlda€™s Fair. GMa€™s first assembly plant overseas was in 1923; by 1937 it was adding four new plants a year around the world, putting considerable stress upon the companya€™s organization and management ability. But there were equally congenial and convenient hotels nearby, so something more must have been involved. Raped by Hei Liang, a member of that family, she lives through her troubles until her mother rescues her with the help of police and a reporter. It tells of changes to the land over 50 years from the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Evenings find him helping his wife, Brigitte, make his favorite Swabian noodles or pizza before he retreats to his home office to "fantasize" about new projects.
From behind the wheel, the silver-haired Swabian then doubles as an animated tour guide to the picturesque Neckar Valley, his childhood home. Barry Hearn, the chairman of World Snooker, says the Chinese government is pouring investment into sport, which will help the country dominate not only snooker, but also other sports within 10 to 15 years.
In the face of increasing globalization, food is also one of the last strong visages of community and culture. A fresh collection of 16 Budding Pop emojis released on March 12 was downloaded 4 million times within 24 hours. In 2005, Yun started his fruit pit carving career, and in 2007 he founded his workshop, Yiren Hequ, attracting many young artists to pit carving. As an artist, you need to devote your feelings, explore your innovative techniques, and commit, he says.
Yun has done his part: creating the next generation of fruit pit carvers with the same dream. You choose and you program it like you want," student and project leader Tessie Hartjes says. You can also pick a name that’s entirely different from the names you have now, just because you like it better.
If you choose to use a name other than yours or your spouse’s, a court petition is required (which you can obtain through the steps above).
So, plasma has truer color and does better in darker rooms, and LCD has more vivid color and does better in bright rooms. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow. The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade. If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic. Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period. His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity. Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown.
In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic.
At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived. Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly. Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government.
Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors.
But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament. But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary. The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent. If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy. Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings. As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible. His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes. This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule. However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army. The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult. For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people. One little midinette from the shops (of course nobody was working) wanted to see the guns fire, so H. We finally got a room upstairs and I actually ate a plate of soupa€”then supper was entirely forgotten in renewed celebrations and libations. There will be other and more elaborate affairs, with bands and uniforms and orderly array, but nothing can ever compare with the spontaneity of yesterdaya€™s celebrations.
We went into the war under the most propitious conditions; we came out of it when its effects are just beginning to be left. Edgar landed in New York in August 1919 just as the General Motors Export Company was poised to pursue these ambitions.
This firsthand experience laid the groundwork for his later prestige as an authority on international trade. But the company did not hold it against Edgar, rightly seeing in him a GM man with a future.
He was ambitious, and General Motors in 1919 was one of the most ambitious companies in the world.
Born in 1884 in Cleveland, Mooney had a technological Case Institute education, and worked for a number of major corporations before 1917 when he joined the Army as an artillery officer.
We carried it proudly all the way back to one of their houses and proceeded to patch the hole with a piece of plywood and tar.
It declined in the mid-19th century, but the art is back in force in places like Suzhou, Weifang, Guangdong and Liaoning.
Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia. Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII. The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports.
They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome.
The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not.
The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage.
After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth. Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I. Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611). James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son. The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations. The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development. Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans.
As the word slowly came out at first, and then spread like wildfire, it seemed everybody in Paris was in any one particular spot you might pick out. It was not, as in New York, on one street in one place, it was everywhere, in the most remote portions of the city. Of all the 2,000,000 men here only 30,000 have been killed in battlea€”not as many as the British lost at Cambrai alone, and not as many as one small province of France has lost.
This Stettinius went on to be a GM vice-president designing employee benefit plans, before moving on to U.S. By the following month, he was working at its 120 West 42nd Street head-quarters in Manhattan, and living in a detached house of his own at 39 Argyle Road, Brooklyn.
His agenda was to take him also to London, Brussels, Liege, Madrid, Barcelona, Milan, Turin, Geneva, and Antwerp, and perhaps other places.
Jim Mooney, to whom Edgara€™s photograph below was inscribed in 1928, would remain his boss and mentor until 1941.
But, therea€™s no such thing as a 1080p TV broadcast (cable, satellite, anything), and wona€™t be for years. Actually, it was an illustration for a Saturday Evening Post short story, a€?The Slipper Tongue,a€? about a slick-tongued horse thief fleeing a lynch mob. All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. Athens, to honor god of wine & drama, Dionysus [Baccus], where comic actors wore padded phalluses as part of their costumes. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria.
It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law. His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva.
Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir.
Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand.
Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs.
Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire. The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan. Meanwhile I had lost my hat in the restaurant and returned every few minutes or so to look for it with my head tied up in a handkerchief. He had a sophisticated view of the world, and a reputation as a management expert reinforced in 1931 by his book Onward Industry! The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna!
French civilians and women carried French, American and British soldiers about on their shoulders, motor trucks draped with flags (and every automobile had at least two) rumbled past loaded down with the boys from one country or another, all wildly cheering and singing. Each entry was the occasion for a wild tumult, the diners (?) leaping to their feet and cheering and shouting. Her French husband surnamed Trocqueme had been killed in the war, leaving her a young widow with a two-year-old son, Jacques Robert, born May 19, 1916.
As war approached again, Stettinius would serve in various senior capacities in the federal government, including Lend-Lease Administrator, Under Secretary of State, and finally Secretary of State for some six months in 1945 at the end of Franklin Roosevelta€™s life, and the beginning of Harry Trumana€™s Presidency.
The disintegration of empires ruined by the war resulted in new fragile democracies beset by enemies within and without.
Names were exchanged, and Marthe got off the Metro, walking on a€?fairy feet,a€™ to go home to tell her roommate of the handsome young American officer she was to meet for dinner a€” if he showed up.a€? Did Edgar, despite his letter to the Eagle?
And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land. This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.
Many wartime marriages do not survive, but Edgar and Marthe were married in Paris on March 20, 1919, honeymooning in Trouville and Deauville. During Edgara€™s four years in Europe, he witnessed vast economic and social dislocation, often with violence and bloodshed, and learned to detest and fear economic nationalism and the beggar-thy-neighbor policies that made a bad situation worse. Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. By Edgara€™s death in 1960 he and Marthe had been together forty-one years, with three more sons of their own.
One of the boys found a canoe paddle in the weeds and we three got into the boat and started to paddle out.
Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding.
The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law. If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank.
We feverishly paddled with that one oar and bailed out the water with our hands and an old can. Barely we made it to shore and got out just before the boat sank below the water and headed downstream.
Wet, cold and shaking the three of us headed home knowing we would never tell our parents of this stupid adventure. We were lucky to be alive and it was only by Goda€™s grace that I can live to tell about it.
Sometimes that other road will bring you back to your original path and sometimes it will take you farther away from it.
But God used him to gather and lead his people out of Pharaoha€™s slavery and split the Red Sea in two.A  Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers and was cast into prison but became the second most powerful person inEgypt.
Or, maybe just maybe a smile or a kind word from you to a stranger may just prevent them from going home and ending their own life and their grandson will some day save the world. He will bring to light things that are now hidden in darkness, and will make known the secret purposes of people's hearts. Throw your troubled waters out of your boat and paddle on down that river of life with Him at your side.
You have ears, but you don't really listen.Psalm 13:2 -- How long must I worry and feel sad in my heart all day? I have been praying for something to happen for 4A? years now and what I prayed for was not granted.
Leta€™s speak of reality a€“ He is God and He can do what He wants to or not do what He doesna€™t want to. We cannot command the Lord to do anything whether we do it in pleading, tears, anger, or desperation.
If God has the will, He may answer our prayers about life but nothing says that He absolutely has to.
All we have is the hope that he will hear us, see what we are going through, and grant us a little drop of His mercy in this life. He will cure a cancer, heal the deaf, grow an arm back or bring someone back to life but that does not mean He will do it all the time. He has given us guidance through His word (the Bible) and occasionally gives us a nudge or lesson to learn from but basically kicks us out of the nest like the mother bird does to face the challenges of life.
I get so frustrated at times that my prayers are not answered and I have to keep reminding myself that this is my life and I need to deal with it on my own sometimes. Their job is to preach the message to inspire, encourage, and give hope to their congregations. If we are to be an example of His mercy to others, it can only be done with people of lesser stature than us. He wants us to spread the Gospel and not make up stories of what He has done for us personally in life. Just show others how you believe in His salvation and forgiveness and tell them of His Word. He has promised everything in His kingdom of Heaven to those who accept His Son as Lord and Savior.
Life here is just a temporary setback, trial and test to see if we are worthy of everlasting life sharing in His love -- or without it in a very dark place. So accept His Son as your Lord and claim the only real promise that He made to us --- Forgiveness and Salvation.



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Comments to «How to change my last name after marriage in pennsylvania»

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