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20.04.2016
Transsexual actress Laverne Cox finds unlikely path to stardom with 'Orange Is the New Black' Star of Netflix series plays key role with help from twin brother M. Netflixa€™s latest series, a€?Orange Is the New Black,a€? has been a critical hit and has left fans buzzing. Among the most popular characters on the women-in-prison drama is transgender inmate Sophia Burset, who is played by real-life transgender actress Laverne Cox. In an early episode, directed by Jodie Foster, Sophiaa€™s back story revealed how she was once a former fireman named Marcus who longed to be a woman. It was a role Cox simply wasna€™t man enough to play a€” although it wasna€™t for lack of trying. Talking exclusively to The News about his experience on a€?Orange Is the New Black,a€? Lamar was initially hesitant to participate because he considers himself more of an underground artist, but decided to take a chance on the role. What colours should I use and why – Well within web design and any design industry colour is a very special subject, its what brings our creations to life.
Each colour has a meaning and subconsciously our brain is taking these in and processing them to determine our mood and thoughts. If your website is intended to go further than the UK and the US then you may need to do a little research on your chosen colours, this is because different colours can mean different things in the far east for example. At The Creative Den we will work with you and ask what sort of feeling you wish to portray. For parents who have been frustrated by the messages Disney princesses send to young girls (look pretty, find your prince, live happily ever after), introducing a character like Merida seemed to be a step in a good direction. A Mighty Girl, a female empowerment website, has launched a petition on Change.org to convince Disney to leave Merida alone. The redesign of Merida in advance of her official induction to the Disney Princess collection does a tremendous disservice to the millions of children for whom Merida is an empowering role model who speaks to girls' capacity to be change agents in the world rather than just trophies to be admired. Click over to Change.org to sign the petition, and take a look at some other brands that have gotten "girly" updates, courtesy of Sociological Images. Bottom-dwelling sea slugs come in all the colors of the rainbow, including blood red and a shade of neon blue that almost makes the above mollusk appear to be ablaze.
Small, spiny and round, sea urchins often have sharp spindles surrounding their bodies to protect them from predators. Sea cucumbers can be found calmly crawling on the seafloor, but their goofy appearance and benign demeanor hide a dark secret. Another bottom-dwelling bioluminescent creature, the blackdragon fish has light-emitting organs arranged all along its belly to fool predators by changing its silhouette. This frightening fish is charmingly named stargazer, because its eyes are situated on top of its head.
This close-up view of the Gymnothorax undulates species of moray eel shows its distinctive pattern of light, lime-green speckles on a dark olive background. Found in deep tropical waters around the world, the coral-red armored searobins have bodies encased in heavy scales.
Named for its long, vampire-like teeth the fangtooth fish inhabits the extreme deep waters of the ocean. A parasite of sea cucumbers, this species of shrimp, called Periclimenes imperator, is characterized by its rich orange and purple coloring. The deep-sea Aequorea, or crystal jellyfish, has a translucent body and long tentacles that give it a ghostly appearance.
A deep-sea jellyfish, the blood-red Atolla wyvillei emits a spooky blue light when it is threatened by a predator.
The spotted handfish, Brachionichthys hirsutus, is a rare, endangered Australian deepwater fish. The human auditory system is usually divided into 3 parts-- the inner, middle and outer ear. The middle ear starts at the eardrum and comprises also the ossicles, which are connected to the oval window of the cochlea. Another function of the eardrum is to separate air in the auditory canal from that in the middle ear, which is connected to the larynx via the eustachian tube. It's worth spending some time examining the function of the cochlea, which is depicted schematically below. The cochlea is ultimately responsible for converting sounds to electrical signals that encode both the frequency content and spectral amplitude. The cochlea is a somewhat spiral-shaped organ comprising two fluid-filled regions, the scala vestibuli and the scala timpani.
The shape of the scala media, bounded on one side the Reissner's membrane and the other by the tectorial membrane is specialized such that the tectorial membrane vibrates maximally at locations determined by the frequency content of the sound signal. The concept of a correlation between fluid pressure wave maxima and the frequency content of a sound signal is called the Place Theory of Hearing. The critical band describes the zones of the basilar membrane that respond maximally to particular frequencies of pure tones. We can first test what happens as two identical frequencies are separated by slowly changing the frequency (pitch) of one of the function generators.
The textbook speaks of a 'courseness of tone' just when the beats get fast and just before we can distinguish two tones. We can also set up one function generator to frequency modulate the other about some central frequency. Earlier we mentioned a neural processing technique called sharpening that allows us to hear very small changes in frequency. As mentioned earlier, the amplitude response (dynamic range) of the human ear is very broad. Technically speaking, sound intensity levels are expressed in Bels (named after Alexander Graham Bell), and a decibel is one tenth of a Bel. Further, a 30 dB decrease in sound intensity is a reduction by a factor of 1,000 (divide original intensity by 1,000).


The decibel scale of SIL corresponds to what we hear, in that a 10dB increase in SIL is heard as the same change in loudness, irrespective of the starting sound level.
There are other tidbits in the textbook, including an interesting discussion of fundamental tracking. The reduced pressure between the vocal folds causes them to pull together and nearly close, causing air pressure to build up in the trachea below the folds.
The lips are generally used to set the frequencies of the lowest formants, while the tongue, soft palate and other parts are used to shape the 'vocal tube' to emphasize or deemphasize higher frequency formants. It would be helpful to see some wave shapes, Fourier spectra and spectragraphs for various formants, best simulated by singing single note vowel sounds such as 'oo,' 'ah,' and 'ee'. If there is a 'guest soprano' in class on Tuesday, we can record and examine what happens when that individual sings high notes. She underwent an eight-hour hair and makeup test to construct a more masculine look, and then presented herself to Foster. Within web design particularly, the colour of your website should represent your companies brand and the colour your company follows, along with the feeling you want to portray when your customers visit your site as well as the age group of your potential customers. As HuffPost blogger Kristen Howerton wrote when the film was first released, "'Brave' may be considered by many to be the first feminist princess movie.
Moreover, by making her skinnier, sexier and more mature in appearance, you are sending a message to girls that the original, realistic, teenage-appearing version of Merida is inferior; that for girls and women to have value -- to be recognized as true princesses -- they must conform to a narrow definition of beauty. Peggy Orenstein, the author of Cinderella Ate My Daughter who is often at the forefront of discussions about how princess culture affects young girls, thinks Merida's makeover sends a terrible message: "In the end, it wasn’t about being brave after all. The lure is actually a piece of dorsal spine packed with millions of glow-in-the-dark bacteria. This deepwater monster prefers warm tropical waters, where it sinks its fang-like teeth into prey, immobilizing them. The megamouth swims with its mouth wide open, catching and sucking in fish and krill as it glides along. Some species, which have swaying branch-like tentacles on one end of their long bodies, more closely resemble a chubby stalk of broccoli. The fish burrows its flat body underneath the sand, hiding itself so that it is still able to peek out. Most moray eels, including the Gymnothorax bathyphilus, a deepwater moray eel found in the South Pacific Ocean, have short, serrate teeth, though some species have longer, fang-like teeth. They also possess prominent spines, with barbels on their chins for luring in unsuspecting prey.
But unlike their insect cousins, giant isopods can grow to be more than 16 inches (40.6 cm) long.
The scowling fish can often be found resting on the bottom of the ocean, using its tiny fins like legs to prop itself up. She holds a bachelor’s degree in Communication from Hofstra University where she graduated with honors.
This can be compared to the human eye, which can detect light frequencies (colors) that vary by less than a factor of 2. As mentioned before, the eardrum and the ossicles provide preamplification of sound signals. Holes in the eardrum allow unwanted, rapid equilibration between canal and middle ear pressures, which ultimately reduces the preamplication of sounds, particularly for lower frequencies. It even detects phase differences between signals from the same source detected at each ear for purposes of location.
Sounds signals transmitted by the ossicles to the oval window set up pressure waves within fluids in the scala vestibuli which travel down a narrowing chamber (the scala vestibuli) and continue along the scala tympani. These localized vibrations cause shearing of the stereocillia (or hair cells) which, in turn, excite electrical impulses in the organ of corti which ultimately drive signals along the auditory nerve.
An experimental observation that two pure tones separated by an octave (a factor of 2 in frequency) excite equally-spaced regions along the sensor-studded basilar membrane.
What do we hear when, instead, if we start with identical frequencies and slowly move them apart? This is useful for observing the minimal frequency variation where we can hear a difference in tones-- called the Just Noticeable Difference (or JND). This process evidently uses the higher frequency content (think overtones) of signals to improve (fundamental) frequency resolution. The ear can sense variations in pressure of 1 part in 10,000,000,000 (10^10th) of atmospheric pressure. The decibel is set up so that every increase in sound intensity level by a factor of ten corresponds to a 10dB increase. In other words, we would interpret an increase of SIL from 10 to 20 dB as an equivalent change in loudness to that from 80 to 90 dB. This phenomenon is observed when we hear two successive overtones (but not the fundamental) of an overtone series.
Air moving faster through constrictions in the vocal folds (gaps between them, etc.) creates a reduced pressure via the Bernoulli principle.
The speaker or singer controls the frequency of the source sound by tensioning the vocal flaps, and controls amplitude by varying the average air pressure available just below the vocal folds. The latter causes serves to shorten the length of the resonant cavity-- opening ones mouth widely moves the position of the pressure node to just inside the mouth for example. Guitar players, think of how you change where you pick in order to emphasize higher overtones or not. From here we will get your feedback and work closely with you to produce the website you and your company requires.
Merida does not pine for a prince to come to her rescue, and solves her own problems without the aid of a suitor." The character was independent, had a realistic body type, and succeeded sans prince charming. The California purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) in the above photo is a needle-y species that is a deep plum color.


Its massive mouth extends past its eyes and is equipped with about 50 rows of small, sharp teeth on each jaw.
Above is a colorful shot of a purple and orange-colored sea cucumber with its tentacles spread out. As you can see in the above photo, the blackdragon fish is so toothy that even its tongue has razor-sharp teeth.
Although it may look scary, the endangered fangtooth only grows to about 6 inches (16 cm) in length. The dynamic range-- the difference between the quietest and loudest sounds we can hear-- is about 130dB (decibels, we'll get to these in a while) which corresponds to a factor of 10^12th (that's 10,000,000,000,000).
The eardrum is also equipped with a specialized muscle-- the tensor tympani muscle-- which can help dampen loud sounds and protect the inner ear.
The cochlea is where pressure waves in fluids, excited by movement of the stirrup bone against the oval window, are converted into electrical impulses that travel up the auditory nerve to the brain.
The round window at the far end of the combined chambers is set up to minimize reflections of pressure waves which would travel backwards. The stereocillia and organ of corti rest upon the basilar membrane which is about 3.5 cm long and contains about 30,000 nerve endings (hair cells). It also corresponds to about 15 percent in frequency, slightly less than a minor third in musical terms. We can experiment by discerning what our frequency resolution is for square waves as opposed to sine waves (the latter have minimal overtone content when produced by our function generator). Loud sounds cause pain (the effective upper limit) at about 1 part in 10,000 (10^4th) of atmospheric pressure. Because the dynamic range of human hearing is very large (factor of 1,000,000), and because the frequency response of the ear is non-linear (the same ratio between two frequency stimuli is always perceived to be the same musical interval), we use the logarithmic decibel (dB) to express sound intensity level (SIL).
You will often see loudspeaker specifications indicating the frequencies where sound intensity is halved, or decreased by 3dB. The neural mechanism of the ear recognizes the two overtones as part of a harmonic series and will be heard as the fundamental. Those sound waves are filtered by changing the shape of the vocal tract comprising the larynx, the pharynx above it, the mouth and the nasal cavity.
An analogy is a perfume atomizer, where air is blown across a small opening above a bottle of perfume and the low pressure at the orifice draws out very small beads of perfume into the air stream. Thus, the vocal folds are regularly closing and opening, creating sound by varying pressure in the larynx above. The resonant frequencies of this chamber are controlled by altering the shape of these cavities and, thus, serve to filter the sounds produced.
Although most sea slugs are less than 2 inches in length, some species can grow to be more than 12 inches (30.48 cm) long. Although many stargazers dwell in shallow water, Northern stargazers live in the deep waters off the Atlantic Coast. This mechanism isn't foolproof, there is a time lag between when loud sounds are sensed and when the muscle is completely activated. Sound pressure waves within the scala vestibuli are propagated through the Reissner's membrane into the scala media, which contains a fluid with different properties than those in the other scala. The neural mechanism has evolved to receive this broad range of pitch and narrow it down to a more precise frequency range-- a process called sharpening.
The rate at which the folds open and closed is controlled by tension which is controlled by muscles. Thinking about the boundary conditions of this chamber, we note that the bottom of the larynx, just above the vocal folds is a pressure antinode.
The principal vocal formants are at these frequencies, but can be manipulated simply by manipulating the tube diameter at the position of nodes and antinodes for various overtones.
Another page at (hyperphysics, Georgia State University {I presume this is what gsu stands for}) is also informative.
The pinna collects more sound that would normally be available at the opening of the auditory canal, thus providing a modicum of preamplification.
Dynamic range also varies according to frequency, with greater sensitivity between about 1000 and 6000 Hertz (approximately, this varies by individual). Instead of producing the fundamental with a very large pipe, the overtones for that fundamental frequency are played at the right proportions (using a smaller pipe) to trick the ear into hearing the fundamental (low) frequency.
Some men can produce a falsetto voice-- producing nearly sinusoidal sound by highly tensioning the vocal folds.
The other end, at the opening of the mouth, is a pressure node like the end of an open tube. The area of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) is about 15 times that of the oval window dividing the inner and middle ear. We recall from earlier lectures that the overtone series for this type of chamber are odd harmonics. The overtone content (amplitudes of the odd harmonic overtones) can be adjusted by shaping the resonant cavities, forming vocal formants. The ossicles-- three bones called the hammer, anvil and stirrup, also provide about 3x preamplification. Lamar, twin of Laverne Cox, played the character before she undergoes a sex change to become Sophia.



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