Whenever we come across the term cryptography, the first thing and probably the only thing that comes to our mind is private communication through encryption.
Now, one problem that a communication system can face is the loss of integrity of messages being sent from sender to receiver. What happens if Alice sends a message to Bob but denies that she has actually sent the message? The biggest problem with this technique is the distribution of key as this algorithm makes use of single key for encryption or decryption. This type of cryptography technique involves two key crypto system in which a secure communication can take place between receiver and sender over insecure communication channel.
This is what we use when we setup public key authentication in openssh to login from one server to another server in the backend without having to enter the password. So we see that how different types of cryptography techniques (described above) are used to implement the basic principles that we discussed earlier. You need to encrypt with the recipients PUBLIC key which everyone has, but only the receiver with his PRIVATE key can decrypt. Need of the hour, every one should know about this, linux sysadmins need this when they use python pearl scripts to automate things and where ever they put password it will be in hash ssh format. Can you please tell me in public key cryptography,how can we enforce that the message encrypted with bob’s public key open can only open with bob’s private key? Use this Contact Form to get in touch me with your comments, questions or suggestions about this site. This application uses persistent keys in combination with the respective algorithms to encrypt and decrypt data. Information Technology in a Global Society is a textbook for the IB Diploma ITGS course, by Stuart Gray. In a layman’s term, authentication ensures that the message was originated from the originator claimed in the message. This means that Cryptography should ensure that the messages that are received by the receiver are not altered anywhere on the communication path. Cases like these may happen and cryptography should prevent the originator or sender to act this way. The sender applies a key to encrypt a message while the receiver applies the same key to decrypt the message.
Since a pair of keys is applied here so this technique is also known as asymmetric encryption.
The private is secret and is not revealed while the public key is shared with all those whom you want to communicate with.
Rather it uses a fixed length hash value that is computed on the basis of the plain text message. In the future article of this series, we’ll cover more advanced topics on Cryptography.

I will be posting instruction guides, how-to, troubleshooting tips and tricks on Linux, database, hardware, security and web. One of the things you will find different is the number of bytes that are used in the different key and vector arrays. Students are introduced to security threats faced by users and businesses, including phishing, hacking, and malware. On the receiver side, the data can be decrypted and can be brought back to its original form. If Alice wants to send a message to bob, then Alice will encrypt it with Bob’s public key and Bob can decrypt the message with its private key. Hash functions are used to check the integrity of the message to ensure that the message has not be altered,compromised or affected by virus.
Solutions, preventative measures, and related issues such as biometrics and encryption are also clearly explained. is produced by the US government and has extensive advice on online shopping, cookies, child safety, and many other online security issues.
Suppose, Alice sends a message to Bob and now Bob wants proof that the message has been indeed sent by Alice. The concept of encryption and decryption requires some extra information for encrypting and decrypting the data.
This can be made possible if Alice performs some action on message that Bob knows only Alice can do. There may be cases when same key can be used for both encryption and decryption while in certain cases, encryption and decryption may require different keys. The following free DTP software might be useful: PagePlus SE - Serif offer a cut down version of their DTP software for free. Topics covered included secure passwords, physical computer security, social engineering, and data leak protection. They make useful lesson starters that can be used to generate discussions about best security practices.
It also examines the increasing tensions between governments and service providers such as Google and Facebook, who are rolling out encryption in an attempt to address their users' concerns.In September 2015 India proposed and then quickly withdrew a proposed law which would require Internet users to keep plaintext (unencrypted) versions of any encrypted data for 90 days and make them available to security agencies.
The proposal was quickly withdrawn after harsh criticism in the media.A great way for students to understand encryption and related issues is for them to try the technology themselves. Phone and laptop encryption guide: Protect your stuff and yourself from ArsTechnica has details on how this can be achieved. Using social media to launch a cyberattack discusses the risks of revealing personal information on social networks and explains how criminals can use this against you.
Fake femme fatale dupes IT guys at US government agency covers perhaps the canonical social engineering technique.
Security lapses at Apple and Amazon lead to an epic hack is an excellent resource explaining how a major hack was performed using a variety of techniques, including social engineering.

Many organisations have lost data, including 132 UK councils, the National Health Service (memory stick left on a train), and even  NASA (stolen laptop). Meanwhile, Computer World reports that over half of UK firms have lost data in security breaches.
Database (Wired) describes many, many problems that have occurred with e-voting machines in recent years. Nevertheless, many such databases exists, especially in the US: Family Watchdog lists details of sex offenders living in the community (US), while the Michigan Public Sex Offender Registry (PSOR) contains records of sex offenders in the state of Michigan.
Florida Department of Corrections Offender Database has online records of prison inmates, released inmates, and fugitives.
The Sensible Sentencing Trust is a similar database of offenders in New Zealand - interestingly this is not operated by the government, which could raise further issues related to privacy and integrity.
Cyber-warfare attacks may be performed by countries or nation-states to disable steal secret data, disrupt computer networks, or install malware to further spy on the targets. Cyber attackers have also seized, encrypted and held ransom medical centre patient databases (Sophos Security). Major sporting events such as The Olympics can also be tempting targets for cyber-terrorists.
ITGS students or teachers with even a passing interest in computer security should find it a worthy read. With "cyber-warfare" and "cyber-terrorism" being at the top of many Western countries' agendas, the themes raised in The Cuckoo's Egg are as relevant today as ever. Unlike the previous book, the examples in The Art of Intrusion are all real life cases, broken down and analysed so the reader can understand how they were perpetrated and how they could have been prevented.
However, it raises new threats we might never have considered - such as USB flash drives loaded with malware at the point of manufacture. Ironically, Brenner says we know that many of these threats are real because the US has tried them against its own enemies. Fictional computer security expert Jeff Aiken returns to deal with a potential security breach at the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which rapidly turns into a cat-and-mouse pursuit linked to large criminal gangs intend on performing an electronic "bank heist". One of the strengths of Russinovich's books is his realism and accuracy, which has been praised by many reviewers.
At no time while reading the novel does anything that Aiken encounters seem unrealistic or even far-fetched. Friedman and Singer do a good job of explaining not only the potential damage that could be done by cyberintrusions, but also how technology can - as is - being used as a weapon of war by powers such as the US (Stuxnet is covered in detail).
There is also a good discussion of why it is so hard to defend computers and infrastructure against cyber attacks.

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