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23.11.2015
The Archipelago of Bocas del Toro: discover Bocas del Toro's islands - Isla Colon, Bastimentos, Carenero, San Cristobal, Solarte, Zapatillas, Cayo de Agua, Popa.
The paradisaical islands of Bocas del Toro, Panama's top beach destination, are located in the country's northwestern Caribbean Sea. Situated near the Costa Rican border, captivating Bocas Town, home to 8,000 inhabitants, is situated in the south eastern tip of Isla Colon, the Archipelago's main island and epicenter of activity. Bocas del Toro is easily accessed by air through daily 45 minute flights from Panama City, 1 hour flights from San Jose in Costa Rica, or a 3 hour drive and 30 minute boat ride from Boquete, where our first Spanish school is located.
Many travelers also make their way to Bocas by bus, either from Panama City, David or from San José, Costa Rica.
The Archipelago of Bocas del Toro offers visitors endless opportunities in terms of beaches and water sports. On Isla Colon you'll find the following beaches: Playa El Istmito, Big Creek, Playa Mango, Paunch, Flat Rock, Bluff Beach, Starfish Beach in Bocas del Drago, La Piscina, Playa Lagarto and Mimitimbi Beach amongst others. With a consistent seasonal swell (December - March, June and July), Bocas del Toro offers visitors uncrowded, quality waves and a tropical surfing experience in Panama's warm Caribbean waters. If you're learning or want to learn to surf, we'll put you in contact with the most knowledgeable surf schools who will take care of you and take you to the best spots for learning (wave wise and crowd wise). Be it on the ocean or within the island's jungles, in Bocas del Toro you can easily have close encounters with the most beautiful species in the wild, such as manatees, dolphins, sloths, howler monkeys, rays, toucans, snakes, caimans, sea turtles (not only in the water, but also nesting or hatching in Bluff or Bastimentos), reef sharks and obviously an innumerable amount of birds, tropical fish and other sea creatures.
Located on Bastimentos Island, the Red Frog Sky Zipline Canopy Tour offers visitors a much more intense and complete experience than most zipline canopy tours in Central America. In Bocas del Toro you'll be able to find almost every single known type of coral in the Caribbean and an immense variety of tropical fish and sea life.
Bocas del Toro is a great place for beginning divers and snorkelers due to its calm, accessible waters with plenty of coral and sponge gardens to explore at shallow depths such as Crawl Cay, The Whorehouse, Buoy Line, Coral Garden, The Wreck, Marker 19, Playground and Hospital Point.
Obtaining your PADI certifications can easily be arranged and Bocas is one of the cheapest places in Central America to do so. You'll enjoy the best visibility during the drier months (February, March, August, September and October), though snorkelers and divers will always be rewarded year-round with warm waters and abundant ocean life. The more adventurous can rent a sea kayak, a stand up paddle board or go on a guided tour, and navigate to secluded beaches or find their own snorkeling spot. If you want to get close and personal with the inner secrets of each island, nothing beats a good hike through them or along their coasts.
In Bastimentos you can start a good hike in Old Bank, pass by an organic farm Up in the Hill and reach Wizard Beach. On Isla Colon there are several trails within the island's jungles and many travelers favor hiking from Bluff Beach all the way to Boca del Drago. As in many Caribbean islands, bicycles are a major form of transportation in Bocas del Toro. In Bocas del Toro's jungles and coasts you'll be able to easily encounter many different birds.
Some of our favorites sightings include Toucans, Oropendolas and different types of parrots. As with other waters sports, fishing in Bocas del Toro can truly be world class if you hit the right season.
You can fish near shore fish for Tuna, Wahoo, Grouper, King Fish, Snapper and Barrucuda, or head toward river mouths and lagoons in search of Tarpon, Snook or Jack. Instead of cycling, another way to get to know Bluff Beach is by horseback, which certainly provides you with a really nice way to get to know the coasts of Isla Colon. When there is no surf, head towards the protected waters of our mangrove islands and take advantage of Bocas del Toro's sheet glass conditions 365 days a year.
After days full of surfing, diving or simply beach relaxation, splurge on a wonderful meal and then get your groove on a go out to party hard, Caribbean style! There are several bat caves around the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, but one of the most interesting ones is located in the Bastimentos National Marine Park. At Colon Island in Panama's Bocas del Toro region in the Caribbean, STRI has established a site for education and research, providing scientists and students with access to an extraordinary diversity of marine and terrestrial biota. As if the beauty offered by Bocas del Toro's islands wasn't enough, you can also visit spectacular gardens and butterfly farms.
On the other hand, there are many other things that you can do in Bocas del Toro without spending that much. Although Bocas del Toro is Panama's most popular beach destination, it still remains virtually uncrowded when compared to similar towns in Costa Rica or Mexico. Bocas del Toro enjoys a tropical rainforest climate with temperatures ranging from 70° to 90° F (20° - 32° C). Rain tends to be more frequent late at night and early in the mornings, with clear blue skies and sunshine during the rest of the day and early in the evenings. Bocas del Toro receives an average rainfall of over 3,000 mm (130 inches) of precipitation each year. The above table represents our usual weather patterns, but with the world's current climate change it's difficult to predict what will happen on any give day. Even though Bocas del Toro can be hot and humid you shouldn't be worried when it comes to Spanish learning because your Spanish lessons will take place in air conditioned classrooms. When packing for your Bocas del Toro vacation, don't forget light cotton clothes, plenty of swim wear and a good rain jacket. The Bocas del Toro Archipelago is a scattering of 7 major islands and more than 52 cays and 200 islets off the northwestern coast of Panama. A road leads north out of town, past the fairgrounds, where the annual Feria Internacional del Mar is held, and over an isthmus. The north shore of Bastimentos is exposed to the surf and offers visitors miles and miles of stunning white and golden sand beaches such as Playa Primera or Wizard Beach, Playa Segunda, Red Frog Beach, Polo Beach and Long Beach or Playa Larga. The protected waters on the southeast side of the island, between Crawl Cay (Cayo Coral) and Punta Vieja (Old Point), are shallow and glassy, making it perfect for underwater exploration of coral playgrounds and sponges, and from here you have access to the Zapatillas Cays.
A little bit over a thousand inhabitants populate Bastimentos Island most of which are concentrated in the largely Afro-Caribbean town of Old Bank on its western tip, only a 10 minute boat ride from Bocas Town on Isla Colon. The west side of the island facing Isla Colon is rather densely populated, with lots of basic houses squeezed next to each other on the waterfront and unfortunately it's not the cleanest place in Bocas. The east side of Carenero that faces Bastimentos is more deserted but certainly a lot nicer: a couple of small hotels, restaurants and a bit of beach. At one of the communities, Popa 2, you'll be able to find a restaurant and a cabin for lodging. Although you'll spend most of your time on Isla Colon, you really can't miss to visit Isla Bastimentos. Travelers can stay in Bocas Town on Isla Colon and be close to restaurants, bars and shops (and our Spanish school of course), or they can also stay outside of town in a more tranquil and quiet setting. When it comes to Bocas del Toro's cuisine, thanks to new residents from all over the world, the town of Bocas del Toro has an ample restaurant selection, with such surprising options as Thai, Japanese and Indian cuisine to complement the traditional creole seafood. When it's high season, Bocas del Toro's nightlife is really intense and something you can't miss. Thanks to the region's isolation, Bocas del Toro definitely feels like a totally different country than Panama, to the point that it can be quite difficult to buy any of Panama's local newspapers in Bocas del Toro: it's just that what happens elsewhere in Panama doesn't seem to affect Bocas and viceversa.
In past messages we have referred to Chaotic Nodes as unexpected catalytic and chaotic changes. This destabilization of your world is occurring at the ecological, social and individual levels of existence. We will turn our attention to the ramifications of these issues in a moment but let us address the other two levels first.
A second challenge to your individual stability has to do with the magnetic shifts and dimensional alterations that are unfolding on your planet. What may surprise you is that some of these challenges will arise in close friendships and intimate relationships. The first has to do with the destabilization of your nervous system making it more prone to losing its center. If you are of the opinion that being a spiritual being requires that you always be in a state of bliss and happiness then you will find this purification process deeply disturbing, but it is—quite frankly—required for individual evolution and liberation from the restrictions imposed by your religions and confining histories. What this means is that massive changes will have to occur in a very short period of time if you are collectively to avoid the 6th mass extinction. As the ecological and social aspects of this destabilization process are so complex, we wish to confine our comments to practical suggestions for you. One marker, evolutionarily speaking for transition states between dimensions as a human being, is the growing perception that life is a dream. Another way to create more coherency is to introduce more joy into your life, which is indeed paradoxical for many of you.
Our advice, like all advice, should be “taken with a grain of salt.” This is simply our perspective on this particular challenge. The climate engineers are increasingly desperate to mask the true extent of planetary meltdown by creating short term extreme chemical cool-downs. On the evening of November 4th, 2015, corporate media (like the Weather Channel) were trumpeting the big winter storm in the West.
The Taos New Mexico report below shows possible snow showers for Thursday November 5th at a temperature of 41 degrees.
Let’s go North to Montana where snow showers can apparently occur at 43 degrees after rain at 41 degrees. The map below is especially astounding and documents a very tragic event that occurred on October 4th, 2013. The next map shows the “departure from normal high temperatures” for a 2 year period from 2013 to 2015. Though there are countless sources of anthropogenic damage to the planet and the climate system, climate engineering must be considered the top of the list. The ongoing winter weather warfare is not natural in any way.
The newly produced map below reveals the most recent NASA “forecast” for planet Earth, “mostly cloudy”. This composite image of Earth’s cloud patterns shows NASA’s Aqua satellite observations from July 2002 to April 2015.
The bright white aerosolized cloud cover broadcasting out from the areas of precipitation in the map are indicative of the aerosol spraying that is taking place in each region. A massive heavily sprayed zonal flow of moisture is very visible plowing into the entire west coast, yet there is almost no precipitation showing up for the reasons already cited.
Radio frequency transmissions are a major component regarding the manipulation of the highly electrically conductive aerosol particulates being sprayed into skies around the globe. Take a good look next map below, If you think the images in the map are just “clouds” showing up on radar, they are not, and the National Weather Service admits it. The next image shows that the remaining pool of cold air at the top of the world is rapidly shrinking as the geoengineering juggernaut of insanity continues to shred the ozone layer and the climate system as a whole (along with other contributing anthropogenic factors).
The global temperature maps below reflect the true state of our rapidly warming completely geoengineered planet.
Ocean temperatures are already radically above normal, especially in the Arctic ocean as the mapping below clearly shows.
The current Arctic ice volume (ice mass) is at all time record low levels and continues to decline very rapidly due to all the record warm conditions already cited. On August 14th, 2015, there was a major event in Northern California that was organized for the purpose of exposing and halting global climate engineering programs that are decimating our planet and the entire web of life. This article features videos of 3 key speeches from this groundbreaking event, plus presentations from U.S.
Former US Forest Service biologist, Francis Mangels, has shown tremendous courage by consistently speaking out about the extremely dire heavy metal contamination we are all being exposed to from the ongoing climate engineering fallout. Mario Ramirez is a US Navy veteran who has shown tremendous courage by speaking publicly about the tyranny that is rampant within the ranks of our own government and military.
Former defense industry technician Mark McCandlish has been a very outspoken voice in the ongoing fight to expose the global climate engineering insanity. In the following presentation filmed in Hauppauge, NY, 2014, Kristen Meghan gives an informative presentation of what she had discovered about Geoengineering while serving her country, and exposes websites “Metabunk” and “Contrail Science” as government sponsored disinformation sites. In this second presentation, filmed at the 2013 Atlanta Music Liberty Festival, Kristen Meghan explains how she discovered evidence of Geoengineering programs, and reveals why she left the military — after an attempt to silence her from speaking out on employee exposures from industrial sanding operations.
On March 27th and 28th of 2015, a major global awareness event was held in Southern California called “Cal Jam”. Learn how you can help and join us in this all important fight for the future of our planet. A ‘monster’ virus which has lain dormant in the frozen wastelands of northeastern Russia is about to be resurrected by researchers curious of its potential effects.
Scientists anticipate “reanimating” a 30,000-year-old virus to learn more about it and discover if it is harmful to animals or humans.
As BBC News reports, the Mollivirus sibericum virus is the fourth prehistoric virus to have been discovered since 2003, and experts warn climate change and thawing ice could resurrect similar – and perhaps even more dangerous – pathogens. The French National Center for Scientific Research made the discovery in the Kolyma lowland region of Russia.
The regions in which these mega microbes are being discovered are being increasingly exploited for their mineral resources, especially oil. A few viral particles that are still infectious may be enough, in the presence of a vulnerable host, to revive potentially pathogenic viruses. In the lab, Professor Claverie and his team will attempt to resurrect the newly discovered virus by placing it with a single-cell amoeba, which will serve as its host. Research has been carried out, and according to co-author Dr Chantal Abergel, the virus “comes into the cell, multiplies and finally kills the cell. Still, a lot of controversy surrounds the scientists plan to “revive” the Mollivirus sibericum virus. The recently discovered virus has more than 500 genes, and the Pandoravirus found in 2003 has 2,500. Of course, a philosophical debate will not deter scientists from doing their work, but a number of pros and cons deserve to be weighed before further research is conducted.
In 2004, United States scientists resurrected the “Spanish flu” virus, which ended up killing tens of millions of people at the start of the 20th century. Researchers from the States traveled to Alaska to take frozen lung tissues from a woman who was buried in permafrost, and teased genetic details out of the samples and from autopsy issues stored in formalin. Well, this is more than a little depressing: The politician who tried reducing NASA funding (and successfully shut it down for over two weeks) is now in charge of the senate subcommittee that effectively controls NASA. In addition to exploring the reaches of space, NASA also has done a number of climate change studies — something that Cruz also is an opponent of. Inhofe, on the other hand, is even more keen to undo emissions regulations, according to The Independent. New energy is transforming our cities into hotbeds of democracy and progressive innovation.
If you’ve been looking to the federal government for action on big challenges such as poverty, climate change, and immigration, this has been a devastating decade. Others cities face protracted water shortages due to diminishing rainfall and shrinking snowpack.
Just two weeks later, Munich Re, a major insurance company, reported that weather-related disasters in North America had increased five-fold over the previous three decades, causing $1.06 trillion worth of damage. While Congress debates whether climate change is a vast left-wing conspiracy, Houston is spending $200 million to restore wetland ecosystems in anticipation of increased flooding.
In Philadelphia, if you look up while waiting for a bus, you might find you are standing under a living roof.
Given the threat posed by runaway climate change, one would expect ambitious national and international action to reduce greenhouse pollution. Cities are responsible for a new surge in bicycling, not just on the crunchy West Coast, but in old industrial cities. Chicago, named number two, is set to meet its goal of creating 100 miles of protected bike lanes by 2015, and it will soon have the nation’s largest bike-share program. These developments are in part thanks to enlightened city officials, including those looking for low-cost ways to attract young, entrepreneurial residents.
But cities are getting more bike-friendly in large part because of persistent pressure by activists.
Chicago will have built 100 miles of protected bike lanes by next year, and the Chicago Streets for Cycling Plan 2020 calls for a 645-mile network of bikeways, up from the current 215 miles, to be in place by 2020. A citizens’ group in Minneapolis made the point about bike safety by building pop-up bicycle-only lanes, using DIY plywood planters to separate the bike riders from automobile traffic. But in many cities, strong people’s movements are electing leaders with a greater connection to the poor and middle class. But organizations like the Working Families Party have spent years building a grassroots power base, and their work paid off when they helped elect Mayor Bill de Blasio in November 2013. Seattle is leading the nation by raising its minimum wage to $15 an hour, following a successful grassroots initiative in the nearby city of Sea-Tac, and an insurgent city council race that focused on a higher minimum wage.
What is it about cities that enables them to move forward while the nation as a whole is stalled?
Benjamin Barber, political scientist and author of If Mayors Ruled the World, thinks a lot about what makes urban leaders effective problem solvers.
Perhaps this focus on getting work done explains why nearly two-thirds of Americans polled by the Pew Research Center have a favorable view of their local government, at a time when just 28 percent approve of the federal government. Along with pragmatism, cities have the advantage of multiculturalism and the innovative spark that goes with it, Barber says. Nations, on the other hand, are a more recent idea, more oriented around independence than interdependence, and more competitive.
Barber laid out a plan for a global parliament of mayors in his recent book, and now he’s working with city officials on bringing the idea to reality.
If Detroit were redefined to include the well-off suburbs, it would be the fourth most prosperous U.S. A first step in making this vision a reality is to incorporate the suburbs and central cities into metropolitan regions. From that foundation, cities could lead even in arenas like immigration that are not normally part of urban decision-making. A global parliament of cities “is a means to regulate the global economy, address climate change, deal with immigration and global trade,” he said.
It’s a bold idea that is capturing the imagination of an international group of urban leaders. Contrary to the common belief that the Earth is simply a dense planet whose only function is a resource for its inhabitants, our planet is in fact a breathing, living organism. James Lovelock published in a book in 1979 providing many useful lessons about the interaction of physical, chemical, geological, and biological processes on Earth. Throughout history, the concept of Mother Earth has been a part of human culture in one form or another. Through Gaia, the Earth sustains a kind of homeostasis, the maintenance of relatively constant conditions. The truly startling component of the Gaia hypothesis is the idea that the Earth is a single living entity.
John Nelson illustrated the “Breathing Earth,” (below) which are two animated GIFs he designed to visualize what a year’s worth of Earth’s seasonal transformations look like from outer space.
Daftar 10 pulau terindah di dunia yang menyajikan keindahan yang sangat luar biasa membuat damai jiwa dengan pemandangan pulau yang indah dan mengagumkan.
Indonesia memang memiliki banyak pulau, bisa disebut negara seribu pulau yang terbentang dari sabang sampai merauke namun yang di bahas di sini bukanlah pulau-pulau indah yang ada di Indonesia melainkan pulau terindah dari berbagai negara di dunia. 115 pulau-pulau di Seychelles terletak 1.500 kilometer sebelah timur daratan Afrika di lepas pantai Kenya dan Tanzania. Kepulauan Maldive adalah rantai atol karang di Samudera Hindia yang terletak sekitar 400 kilometer di lepas pantai barat daya India. Ko Lipe adalah sebuah pulau kecil sekitar 70 kilometer barat daya Thailand di Laut Andaman dekat perbatasan Malaysia. Bali adalah sebuah pulau yang terkenal di Indonesia yang berlokasi di Indonesia bagian barat hanya beberapa km sebelah timur dari Jawa.
Fiji adalah sebuah pulau Melanesia di Pasifik Selatan, sekitar 2000 kilometer sebelah timur laut Selandia Baru. Terletak di Samudra Pasifik bagian selatan, Tahiti adalah pulau terbesar di kepulauan Kepulauan Society. The Big Island, yang terbesar dari Kepulauan Hawaii, meliputi area seluas 4.028 kilometer persegi dengan titik tertinggi di Mauna Kea. The Cook Islands terdiri dari 15 pulau-pulau kecil, terutama terbentuk oleh aktivitas gunung berapi, di Samudra Pasifik Selatan yang mencakup lahan seluas 92,7 kilometer persegi. Terletak sekitar 25 mil (40 kilometer) dari pantai Afrika Timur, kepulauan Zanzibar terdiri dari pulau utama Pemba dan Unguja bersama dengan banyak pulau-pulau kecil. Itulah 10 pulau paling indah di dunia dengan keindahan pantai, flora dan laut di sekitar pulau tersebut menjadikannya pulau terindah dengan pemandangan yang menyejukan jiwa dan menenangkan hati. John Kuhn, of the famous Alamo letter and rallying cry at the Save Texas Schools Rally in 2011, has written a book that will completely confirm or convert you to the cause of protecting the great democratizer, public education, from its assault by government, business, and so-called reformers. When I first began teaching more than 25 years ago, hands-on exploration, investigation, joy and love of learning characterized the early childhood classroom. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography.
These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication.
Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east.
4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, .


23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia.
Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object. After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings.
A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map.
These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals.
Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. The archipelago separates Bahia Almirante (Almirante Bay) and Laguna de Chiriqui from the open Caribbean Sea. Whether you'll be spending your entire Panama Spanish learning vacation in Bocas del Toro or only part of it, please get in touch with us and we'll help you plan the most efficient travel logistics so that you make the most out of your trip to Central America.
With so many beaches to choose from, you can literally go to a different beach every day during your vacation in Bocas del Toro!
On Carenero, the neighboring island of Isla Colon, you'll also find several white sand beaches and on Bastimentos Island you'll be able to enjoy Playa Primera (Wizard Beach), Playa Segunda, Red Frog Beach, Playa Polo and Playa Larga (Long Beach). Or of you're an intermediate, advanced or pro surfer, and would like to hit the more challenging breaks, we can also arrange a surfing guide or outfitter adequate to your level of skills and experience. If you've ziplined in Mexico or Costa Rica before and think you've done it all, think again and don't miss this amazing island zipline canopy tour. There is also more challenging cave, wall and wreck diving for experienced scuba divers such as Manuel's Wall, Tiger Rock, The Zapatillas, Shashe and Wash Rock. If you'd just like to snorkel you can obviously bring your own mask and go on a boat tour to many snorkeling spots, or you can also rent or purchase snorkeling gear in town. Sea kayaking and SUP are great ways to work out and explore the islands of Bocas on your own.
On Isla Colon you can't miss a cycle from town to Bluff Beach or if you'd like a bit more of a challenge, cycle all the way and back to Boca del Drago (or even around the entire island). Here you'll find the only known nesting place in the Caribbean of the Red-billed Tropic Bird (Phaeton aethereus). Tourists normally cruise to Dolphin Bay, Crawl Cay and other popular places by covered pangas, but you can also choose to do the same but in style by sailing in a catamaran.
To get there you'll go up a small creek in a cayuco and once you reach it you'll find a cave full of bats with wonderful rock formations. This station is situated among areas of undisturbed forest, a remarkable coastal lagoon system, and numerous islands and reefs. In Bocas del Toro you'll be able to learn Spanish and live an unforgettable beach vacation in Panama's Caribbean. Being situated below 10 degrees north latitude, Bocas del Toro is completely a hurricane free zone and is visited by vacationers all year round. In average, there will be some rain on 50% of the days of any given month (we are in the tropics!) and from time to we do experience heavy downpours just as any island in the Caribbean. During the last 3 years for example, June, July and August, which tend to be wetter months, have been particularly dry. The beautiful people make their way through Bocas del Toro's streets in flip flops, bikinis and board shorts, which will be your normal and daily attire and will help you keep fresh enough. And once in Bocas, if a day starts a bit cloudy or rainy, no need to worry: it's very probable that the wind from the north will blow the clouds away and the sun will come out! The region has all the elements you could dream of in a Caribbean fantasy: postcard perfect white and golden sand beaches lined up with coconuts and palm trees, thatched-roofed huts, emerald waters treasured with with abundant sea-life, a thick tropical rainforest, seasonal consistent-quality surf breaks and a soft ocean breeze. This last beach attracts various species of sea turtles in the nesting season and due to its remoteness is only fully enjoyed by a handful of privileged local surfers and very few visitors.
The southwest is blessed with mangrove islands of extraordinary beauty and Bastimentos itself is home to a dense tropical rainforest with many exotic and endangered species, including the famous red poison-dart frog (Oophaga pumilio).
Quebrada de Sal or Salt Creek, on the south east is another significant population and both are worth visiting to get to flavour the local culture. It's a tranquil location if you'd like a quieter setup than Bocas Town but still close enough to where everything happens. The north side of the island has one of the best waves of the archipelago, a long, barreling reef break. Hospital Point is named for an old hospital built by the United Fruit Company to treat plantation workers suffering from yellow fever and malaria. On the northwest of the island at Punta Limon Beach, there are fossil deposits of coral and clams, which are part of a 3 million year old vein of coast's cliff. You should even consider spending a weekend or two on Isla Bastimentos during your Spanish language holiday.
You can stay at budget hostels, mid range boutique hotels and bed & breakfasts, or at luxurious oceanfront hotels.
Big Creek, the Paunch area, Bluff Beach and Isla Carenero (a 2 minute boat ride from the main island) are all great options for those looking for a more natural environment.
You can enjoy a local traditional lunch for as little as $3 or you can also splurge at several fancier restaurants. People tend to start out at TungaBar, El Toro Loco and then head to La Iguana Surf Club or Aqua Lounge.
We have also noted in past communications that multiple Chaotic Nodes are emerging, and their interaction is what we are referring in this message as destabilization.
The acidification of your oceans, the overuse of pesticides, chemical agents and fossil fuels are all interacting to create an ecological Chaotic Node of immense proportions. This is a complex situation but addressing the most rudimentary levels we would say you are witnessing a clash of cultural values as well as the impact of both climate change and war on migrations of human populations, some of which are being caused by circumstances and some of which are being manipulated by power brokers behind the scenes. One of these levels has to do with the poisoning of your planet’s environment that we mentioned earlier. They are living intelligences that evolve, and they are evolving very rapidly in ways that will make your current medical methodologies for dealing with them ineffective. Because your nervous system operates according to the principles of bio-electromagnetism, the neural networks in your nervous systems are being challenged by these shifts and alterations. You may find that seemingly insignificant external events can set off tsunamis of emotional responses. And the second level has to do with the process of catalytic evolution that you are undergoing as a human being at this point in time. By this we were referring to a metaphor meaning that in the last hour before an irrevocable shift occurs it is possible to change an outcome. If this occurs for you, you will experience your life and the events of your life as having a dreamlike insubstantial quality. For one, we suggest you work with the sound meditation A Bridge Between the Worlds (see Tom’s comments below) on a regular basis as a means to introduce this type of coherent emotion into your nervous system.
Having stated this caveat, our suggestion is to cleave away from your life the thought forms of self-sacrifice and martyrdom. This type of truth speaking and self-revealing is, in our opinion, critical for your successful transition through the current and on-going period of global destabilization. It is important to remember that private defense contractor (and geoengineering entity) Raytheon, does all the weather modeling for NOAA (whose personnel are all under a federal “gag order” along with all NWS employees). The small cool section is a huge departure from the rest of the country, but still there are no below freezing temperatures shown. The extreme climate forcing being pushed on planet Earth by the climate engineers is tearing the climate system apart and wreaking havoc on the biosphere as a whole. In the combination format map the more heavily aerosolized cloud cover shows up as the brightest white. Historically, counterclockwise swirls of low pressure storms constantly pounded the Pacific Northwest with heavy precipitation. Though “official sources”, of course, completely deny any connection between the radio frequency transmitters and weather modification, available date says otherwise.
2015 saw the lowest Arctic ice “maximum” ever recorded. So how is it that the Arctic ice “extent” (surface area) hit it’s minimum for the year on September 11th, 2015 (4th lowest extent ever recorded), and has increased since? Few are yet willing to face the fact that our planet will very soon not support life unless there is a complete change of direction on many fronts, starting with the complete cessation of the climate engineering insanity. Numerous experts spoke out at this event including attorneys, former government scientists, a former defense industry technician, former military personnel, a prominent Northern California neurologist, and a CEO for one of the largest environmental and engineering consulting firms in the world.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) farm service agency agricultural crop loss adjustor and co-founder of the Agriculture Defense Coalition (ADC). Because Francis is a former government scientist, his ongoing lab testing has been extremely helpful in the battle to expose climate engineering. I have great respect for Mario, he is setting an example of honesty that will help to compel other honorable armed services personnel to step forward and tell their story.
Wells (radio host for the acclaimed “Caravan to Midnight” show), to all the speakers who participated in this event and shared their knowledge, to each and every activist that contributed countless hours, and of course our gratitude to all those that attended the event. This gathering brought together several thousand concerned citizens from all arenas of the global community.
The 25 minute presentation below is an outline of the threat posed by global climate engineering.
Not only does it have 523 genetic proteins and measures 0.6 microns, it can also be seen using light microscopy.
As Upriser shares, the rate at which they are exploited will no doubt increase as the areas become more accessible due to melting ice and climate change. If we are not careful, and we industrialize these areas without putting safeguards in place, we run the risk of one day waking up viruses such as small pox that we thought were eradicated.
Different than most viruses circulating today, these ancient pathogens are not only bigger, they’re far more complex genetically. Their work allowed the team to reconstruct the code for the virus’ eight genes – but at what cost?
More than that, one of the most vocal climate-change detractors is now in charge of the United States Senate’s Environmental committee.
He once told CNN that climate change was a hoax and a bogus theory that was designed to be immune to detractors. Big money’s dominance of elections, obstructionism by the Tea Party, and climate denial have brought action in Washington to a near standstill.
And cities are subject to the urban heat island effect that can raise temperatures to lethal levels. 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy slammed into the East Coast, flooding lower Manhattan, filling subway tunnels, twisting up the boardwalk along the beaches in the Rockaways, and turning Long Island and New Jersey communities into disaster zones. The 4,000-acre Bayou Greenways project will absorb and cleanse floodwater while creating space for trails and outdoor recreation.
Philadelphia is dealing with excessive storm water runoff by encouraging rain gardens, green roofs—large and small—and absorbent streets that allow water to soak through into the soil. But cities are out in front, taking action to reduce their own climate impacts with or without federal support. For more than 20 years, Critical Mass bike rides have taken over streets in more than 300 cities around the world, with large groups riding together and claiming the right to a safe ride. But Los Angeles, San Francisco, New Haven, Conn., and New York City are issuing identification cards to undocumented residents, allowing them to open bank accounts, sign leases, and access city services.
Some neglect poor and minority neighborhoods or steer polluting projects and noisy highways to those areas. The top 1 percent of New Yorkers took in 32.3 percent of the city’s total personal income in 2009, according to the city’s comptroller. Today, de Blasio is working to boost the minimum wage and is requiring developers to offer affordable housing. Both were hit hard by the foreclosure crisis and the predatory lending that especially targets poor people and people of color.
Popular movements across the country are pressing for better pay and human rights for the working poor. If more cities begin issuing their own immigration documents, “you’re going to have a fast track to citizenship inside cities, since 85 or 90 percent of undocumented workers are in cities,” Barber said.
When we think of the Earth holistically, as one living entity of its own, instead of the sum of its parts, it takes on a new meaning.
Everybody has heard of Mother Earth, but have you ever stopped to think who (or what) Mother Earth is?
Nelson–a data visualizer, stitched together from NASA’s website 12 cloud-free satellite photographs taken each month over the course of a year.
It travels through Siberia, Canada, and northern Europe, heading towards the equator located around the circle’s edge, but ends before the top of Africa. Berikut ini adalah pulau-pulau paling indah di dunia yang akan membuat Anda takjub akan keindahan dari pulau-pulau tersebut dengan keunikan tersendiri dari setiap pulau. Kepulauan ini terdiri dari pulau granit, pulau karang dan gundukan karang membentang di busur 3.000 kilometer ke utara dan timur.
Pulau-pulau yang terbentuk dari dua rantai 26 atol karang yang terdiri dari 1192 pulau tersebar lebih dari 90.000 kilometer persegi.
Pulau ini dalam Taman Nasional Tarutao Marine dan dikenal karena pantainya yang masih asli, pemandangan yang belum terjamah dan suasana santai dan nyaman.
Bali meliputi sekitar 5600 kilometer persegi, dengan pegunungan hutan lebat dan danau yang dilengkapi pantai yang indah. Pada ketinggian 13.796 kaki, Mauna Kea adalah gunung tertinggi di dunia ketika mengukur dari dasar dasar laut hingga puncak. Pulau-pulau yang diri diatur melalui sistem pemerintahan parlementer-jenis dengan asosiasi bebas dengan Selandia Baru. Arbitrarily impose cut scores on those exams that cast students, teachers and schools as failing, as was done by NYS Education Commissioner John King and Regent Meryl Tisch. Once they are on board, go after them anyway, and deregulate the teacher licensing process so that it's easier to hire temps. In New York State, the legislature is providing generous subsidies to charter schools in New York City, which enroll 6% of students, at the expense of the 94% whose schools will lose funding to subsidize the rent of the charters.
If I had used a highlighter to mark significant passages and hard-hitting barbs, every page of this book would be permeated yellow. If you wonder why I'm able to write this during work hours, it's because my library is shut down for the third day this week for state testing. The spirit of standardization is alive in the land, and teachers feel they are under assault if they do not conform and comply. A Ia€™d describe our current period as a time of testing, data collection, competition and punishment.
The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223). Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities.
Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents.
The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts.
Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text. Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map.
Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace. Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated. When planning to study Spanish at any of our Spanish schools (or at several of them!), we will help you make these flight arrangements at no extra cost. On the east of Bastimentos there are more unnamed beaches and all the rest of the islands (Solarte, Cristobal, Popa, Cayo de Agua) have their fair amount of amazing beaches. In several quality breaks you'll find some localism (remember, it's not your wave), which you can avoid if you surf early (yes, people party hard in Bocas).
Besides being able to experience 7 ziplines way up in the rainforest with stunning views of the surrounding sea, you'll be challenged by a Tarzan Swing and Traversable Canopy Net, a Treetop Challenge Course, a Swaying Sky Bridge and a Vertical Rappel. Other dive sites, which are more exposed to currents and swell, vary in difficulty depending on the time of the year such as Polo Beach, Dolphin Rock and the Paunch area. On good days the visibility can reach 25 meters, and less than 3 meters when it has been raining a lot.
Also on Bastimentos you can start several hikes through the jungle from Salt Creek: a bat's cave, Long Beach, Playa Pelicano or Sendero Caiman, you choose!
Bicycles can be purchased or rented by the day or the week on the island so that you can easily get around town. Swan's Cay is a rocky formation approximately 70 meters long, with a rounded quarter moon shape, pierced by two openings through one end, and rises 55 meters at the highest point.
If you'd like to offshore fish, within 10 miles of Bastimentos island, you'll already be hitting the 9,000 feet depth marker and it does not take long to get to the billfish (although less abundant than in Panama's Pacific). Yoga classes in Bocas del Toro take place at the Bocas Yoga Studio with Laura Kay and at the Energy Club next to the Main Park. With a chilled out Caribbean vibe, nightlife in Bocas del Toro offers visitors an authentic taste of what it's like to party by the beach. To reach the other side and get into the cayuco again you'll have to go through chest high water. This doesn't mean that when it rains you can't enjoy the outdoors because there will be parts of almost every day when it's not raining. It is very rare that rain will keep you from going out all day long, and even less frequent that this could happen for several days in a row. On the other hand, some of the best surfing is to be had on rainy days or when it's cloudy (it's wind swell after all).
And there is always a beach close by and chilled coconut water to keep you cool and enjoying the sun.
And if it does rain all day long, appreciate it and be thankful: we have an incredible amount of lush vegetation in Panama due to this rainfall. The area west of Calle 3 is mainly residential, as is the section on the northwest waterfront. The east fork heads up the east coast of the main island, becoming increasingly rough but leading to the island's best beaches such as Big Creek, Flat Rock and Bluff, which is an important turtle nesting area, and surf breaks such as Tiger Tail, Paunch and Dumpers. There are a few homes behind Hospital Point, and also a small indigenous community but most of the island is covered with rainforest. The "Trail of Sandubidi" runs from the community through the rain forest for about 2 kilometers. If you'd like to experience a more tranquil environment, Isla Carenero offers an attractive alternative to Colon Island as it's less developed but still really close to Isla Colon so that you can get to your Spanish classes in time! If you learn Spanish at our Spanish School in Bocas del Toro you'll have access to very convenient rates as we have negotiated lower rates for our students' extended stays. Like everything in Bocas, dining is casual and the pace is slow, so be patient for your meal.


And as a result of climate change and deforestation, new forms of bacteria and viruses are being spread globally. Some of you, especially those who are energetically sensitive, will be prone to this more than others. You will still have to deal with the realities of your physical existence, but there will be an increasing sense that your physical existence has an unreal quality about it.
Coherent states of emotion are an antidote to the destabilization of your nervous system caused by the various factors that we mentioned previously. Sacrifice, martyrdom and self-forgetting are what seem to be valued most in many societies, but from our perspective these are the greatest errors, at least from the perspective of spiritual evolution. There is only one temperature reading on the entire map that is even at the freezing mark, and that is not where the snow is falling.
This is yet another ridiculously unprecedented scenario showing conditions that are unbelievably out of balance. Record high temperatures in the East are expected to continue in some regions until mid November. Yet, this map documented a snowstorm in South Dakota that killed up to 100,000 cows, how is that possible when temperatures were almost 90 degrees in regions surrounding the event?
It has been the most anomalously below normal zone in the entire world since 2013 (2012 was the warmest year ever recorded in the US). The goal of SRM (solar radiation management) is to blot out as much sky as possible for the stated purpose of global warming mitigation, but even NASA admits the “aircraft clouds” are making global warming worse overall, not better.
Now, more often than not, there are just large drifting massive canopies of heavily aerosolized cloud cover with some rain in the most dense areas of moisture build up. The map below from October 7, 2015, is only one example of the radio frequency bombardment occurring on a constant basis. Places in the western US are thus “forecasted” to be a record shattering 20 to 25 degrees above normal which has already been the case for an extremely long time.
Geoengineering is fueling countless catastrophic scenarios on our planet including mass methane release in the Arctic.
Rosalind has spoken on the floor of the United Nations about the climate engineering issue (at the 60th Annual Conference on Climate Change) and has fought long and hard to expose the the truth about many dire issues.
Meghan audited chemicals as part of her USAF duties, and when she heard about the “chemtrails conspiracy”, she wanted to prove it wrong — but the opposite happened. Many that attended were from the medical and chiropractic professions, and a number of speakers presented information on critical issues that we face.
It is also an appeal for all of us to pull together in the critical effort to expose and halt the spraying of our skies with highly toxic aerosols which is contaminating every breath we take.
I also wish to thank all the other speakers at the Cal Jam event as well as all those who attended. In 2003, researchers discovered the Minivirus, followed by the Pandoraviruses in 2013, and Pithovirus sibericum which was discovered last year.
All the work was done in a top-security lab at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), yet still wasn’t contained. To quote Neil deGrasse Tyson, the good thing about science is that it’s true, whether or not you believe in it.
Many are located along coastlines, where rising sea levels coupled with giant storms bring flooding and coastal erosion. From New York to Seattle, cities are adopting efficient building standards, taxing carbon, switching to energy-efficient street lighting, promoting local food, and financing building-scale conversion to solar energy. In September, the mayors of Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and Houston announced the Mayors National Climate Change Action Agenda. Others promote policies that displace the most vulnerable residents, making desirable land available to the wealthy and well-connected. And thousands of new prekindergarten slots opened up this fall, with the goal of universal access to free pre-K.
And both cities are now exploring using eminent domain to reduce home mortgages to current market value and restructure loans so that current homeowners can retain ownership.
Instead he sees mayors and other city leaders reaching consensus on solutions and then bringing the policy ideas home. If Detroit, for example, were redefined to include the well-off suburbs, instead of being bankrupt, it would be the fourth most prosperous metropolitan region of the United States, Barber said. Our planet functions as a single organism that maintains conditions necessary for its survival. James Hutton (1726-1797), the father of geology, once described the Earth as a kind of superorganism. The Mediterranean Sea is the visible body of water on the top left hand side, and the Great Lakes make up a small network of dark blue shapes on the land mass to the right. Salah satu tempat paling terpencil di bumi, Seychelles tetap tak berpenghuni sampai tahun 1740-an dan pulau-pulau yang sekarang menjadi pemimpin dunia dalam konsep pariwisata alam. Republik Maladewa adalah negara terendah di dunia dengan ketinggian rata-rata hanya 1,5 meter (4 ft 11 in) di atas permukaan laut, sehingga menimbulkan kekhawatiran terendam karena perubahan permukaan laut yang ditimbulkan oleh perubahan iklim.
Tempat yang asik untuk diving dan snorkeling, 25 persen dari spesies ikan tropis dunia dapat ditemukan di terumbu karang.
Bali dikenal karena budaya yang khas dan unik yang merupakan berbaur Cina, India dan pengaruh Hindu. Pantai berpasir cantik menampilkan terumbu karang dan perairan jernih sepanjang garis pantai perimeter, juga meliputi hutan di pedalaman.
The charter cause is backed by billionaire hedge fund managers who spent $5 million on attack ads against Mayor de Blasio. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly.
Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot.
Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery. Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research.
In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time.
Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes. Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top. Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world.
They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books.
God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories.
The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries.
Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. Uncrowded waves, colorful coral reefs, abundant marine life (dolphins, turtles, tropical fish, manatees) and a vibrant island nightlife, Bocas del Toro is truly a Caribbean Shangri-la.
Many of them are safe and protected from currents year round, while others are more exposed to the surf when the swell is up. Some of the most spectacular beaches can be found in the Zapatillas Cays and in Escudo de Veraguas. On the southern side, sheltered from the northeastern trade winds, there is a small sandy beach below a higher level area.
We will happily arrange a fishing charter for you whether you'd like to nearshore fish or go deep sea fishing. In other words, children won't become crazy and adults won't become cranky because of the rain during their vacation time in Bocas del Toro. When it does, it normally means there is a hurricane going on in the Caribbean up north and Bocas del Toro will ONLY get some heavy rain but NO HURRICANES at all. Even if it's raining, with Bocas del Toro's warm Caribbean temperatures, you shouldn't be stopped from enjoying the outdoors and as mentioned above, most of the time there will be parts of the day when it's not raining.
Most of the archipelago's hotels, restaurants, tour outfitters and services are in Bocas Town which can be walked from tip to tip in about 25 minutes.
The west fork leads to a road that cuts diagonally across the island, passing La Gruta, a cave popular with those into bats. An enclosed bay on the islands south-east waters, known as Laguna Bocatorito, or Dolphin Bay is an important breeding site for the bottlenose dolphin. Popa has very few tourists (only a couple boutique resorts) and the indigenous live a pretty basic lifestyle on the island.
We obviously help our Spanish students make arrangements to stay at the best hotels in Bocas del Toro and we have negotiated special prices for them when they stay for several weeks or months. Local specialties include lobster, whole-fried snapper, octopus, and shrimp served with patacones (fried plantain slices) or yuca frita (fried cassava strips). The deepest catacombs of your subconscious are being turned over like a plow cutting through a field.
This is a temporary effect, but it produces the desired headlines and deception in regard to the overall picture. The majority of the map shows record or near record highs for a 6 pm temperature reading for November 4th. I captured the temperature map above before it was taken offline, the map reflects another example of engineered winter. The engineered deception of the US population is a major goal for the geoengineers, we must all learn to see through it. Make your voice heard in the critical battle to stop the ongoing omnicide being inflicted on our planet by climate engineering. A “Scientific American” published study states “geoengineering could turn skies white“. Wherever there is moisture, there will generally be the most consistent and heaviest spraying.
This map does not reflect the much larger radio frequency transmitters known as “ionosphere heaters” (which have an even greater effect on the overall climate system). What is the true extent of climate engineering experimentation currently occurring in the Arctic? Cal Jam was truly a gathering of people who are committed to making the world a better place. Despite all the progress we’ve made so far with things like unmanned, deep-space space-flight and our efforts toward limiting the negative effects that humans have had on the environment, any future plans are now up in the air. The result, he said, would be a sort of horizontal, pragmatic, noncoercive form of global governance.
So if enough cities agreed on a minimum wage, companies would just have to pay it, thus helping to alleviate poverty and inequality. If all goes as hoped, Barber said, 600 mayors could join him in London in September 2015 to launch a pilot parliament. Ini telah menjadi tujuan wisata populer sejak 1930-an dengan budaya pulau yang romantis melalui tulisan antropolog Margaret Mead. Diperkirakan bahwa Diaspora Polinesia yang pertama kali dijajah pulau Pasifik mulai dari sini.
Terletak di Provinsi Aklan, pulau-pulau lokasi wisata yang paling populer adalah Pantai Putih dan Pantai Bulabog, ditemukan di sisi berlawanan dari pulau ini. It's also highly personal with stories about how this good ole Texas Baptist farm boy woke up to the attack on teachers and public schools and how current policies play out in real children's lives. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god.
The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words.
Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map.
Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus.
As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps.
Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added.
It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features. Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360.
In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
Bushes and other vegetation cover the summit, and there is a small clump of coconut palms at the low end. The road dead-ends at Boca del Drago, on the north-west of the island, about 14 kms away from Bocas Town.
It is one of Bocas del Toro's most enjoyable attractions because dolphins swim up close to visiting boats and prance about. It is certainly a charming village of wooden houses built on stilts over the Caribbean Sea.
This is essentially a very disturbing state to deal with especially for those of you who think of yourselves as spiritual beings. More record highs are expected in the East during the coming week and perhaps off and on during the rest of November. This has the effect of greatly diminishing the overall precipitation that otherwise would have occurred and scattering the aerosolized cloud cover over vast areas (though deluges can also increase where too much moisture accumulates). Though industrialized civilization is already in its final stages and will soon collapse, we could yet salvage a planet that could sustain life. Any major scientific progress is now at the mercy of Republican senators Ted Cruz and James Inhofe.
Conference of Mayors, the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, and the Urban Sustainability Directors Network. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow.
At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254].
400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity.
Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions.
A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning.
Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. A designated bird sanctuary, Isla Pajaros, also has brown booby (Sula leucogaster etesiaca), the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis), the frigate (Fregata magnificens) and many types of gulls and terns.
Boca del Drago is a a little beach area on the northwest side of the island and home to Starfish Beach. With their actions and words over the recent years, the pair have proved just how little they understand about each area they’re now controlling. I am passionate about inspiring my children to become lifelong readers, who make the best citizens. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. All the rest of the island is covered with thick jungle and tropical rainforest, and most of the rest of its coasts are surrounded by beautiful sandy beaches. The greatest single leap we could collectively make in the right direction is to expose and halt the weather warfare assault. On the other hand, I am disheartened by your editorial board's continued assault on public schools. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples.
There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi.
Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. Researchers state without question, even conservative researchers like Eric Hanushek, that the influence of family far exceeds that of the teacher, yet reformers have turned teachers into their targets while doing nothing to improve the lives of children or families.
On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes.
14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.



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