The need to take a breath is influenced more by levels of carbon dioxide than it is by oxygen levels (Welsh, 2013). Right: Breath holding occurred at the 'normal inhale' phase of respiration, at the peak of the tidal volume. Left: Breath holding occurred at the 'normal exhale' phase of respiration, at the trough of the tidal volume. Right: Breath holding occurred at the 'deep inhale' condition, which resembles the inspiratory reserve volume. Left: Breath holding occurred at 'deep exhale' phase of respiration, which resembles the expiratory reserve volume.
Left: A trial with the subject performing breath holding during the 'normal inhale' condition with the spirometer apparatus connected to PowerLab hardware and analyzed using LabChart software.
Overall Trend: The more air that is in the lungs at the point of voluntary apnea, the longer one can hold their breath compared to the control as indicated by the positive percent change. Figure #1: The effect of holding breath at different phases of respiration on average percent change in duration of breath holding compared to a control among IPHY 3435 students (n=8). Interpretation of Results:Despite some overlap of error bars in Figure #1 (particularly between the 'normal exhale' and 'deep exhale' phases of respiration), the general trend supports our hypothesis. Sayagyi U Ba Khin had a vision of Vipassana spreading from Myanmar back to India and from there, around the world. As he taught in both Hindi and English, the teaching became accessible to many western students.
To help meet the increased demand for courses, Goenkaji appointed assistant teachers to conduct courses on his behalf from 1981. In the late 1980s and 1990s, courses began in South-East and East Asia and the huge and enthusiastic response resulted in a great demand for courses and centres being developed in those countries. Looking eastward, in the centuries after the Buddha, his teachings slowly spread throughout Asia.
However over the ensuing centuries, while the teachings penetrated deep into the local cultures, much of the specific techniques of meditation practice were lost. Although Vipassana was lost in many areas, strong efforts were made to preserve the words of the Buddha for centuries.
Today virtually all of East Asia, including Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam, China, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan and the Philippines have Vipassana courses and Vipassana meditation centres.
Thailand: Six centres, serving over 10,000 students annually, are operational in Prachinburi, near Pitsanulok, Khonkaen, Kanchanaburi, Bangkok and in Lampoon, Chieng Mai. Indonesia, Hong Kong, Cambodia, Mongolia: Each has one centre serving between 300 and 700 students annually. Non-centre courses are also held regularly in Singapore, South Korea, Philippines and Vietnam and centres are under development in some of these countries.
South Australia – with land purchased in 2008, a new centre is under development in the Clare Valley north of Adelaide. Northern New South Wales – with 135 acres of land purchased in 2009 in a secluded rainforest valley, the centre is under construction.
Thirty years after the first Vipassana course in Australia, over 30,000 people have taken a course and experienced for themselves the benefits of Vipassana.
Student numbers are growing rapidly, with about 900 students currently attending the ten day courses each year.
Courses have now been held in the Central and West Asian countries of UAE (5 courses per year), Bahrain, Oman, Iran, Lebanon, and Kyrgystan.
The Vipassana Centre in South Africa - Dhamma Pataka – was established in 2005 on 7 hectares of land near Cape Town. Translations in local languages of Kiswahili (Swahili), Afrikaans, Amharic (Ethiopia), Portuguese (Angola) are in use – besides English and Hindi. Kenya - the first course was in 2001 with about 3 courses every year since then and a Satipatthana course was held in 2009. Zimbabwe - courses were held in 2001 and 2003, two courses each year in 2005 and 2006 and one in 2007. The recurring memory of Goenkaji’s visits is of him sitting on the Dhamma seat and smilingly explaining Dhamma to a questioner, with kindness, intelligence, humour and common sense.
Vipassana courses are held in 29 countries around Europe, from Kyrgystan in the far east to Ireland in the west, from the northern snowfields of Finland to the Turkish mountains in the south. A dedicated European long-course centre, with individual meditation cells, has been developed in the UK.
For many years, Vipassana courses were being held in the United States and Canada, but no course had been organised in any Latin American country. The first Vipassana course in Cuba was held in 1996, in Bolivia in 1997, in Colombia and Peru in 1998, in Ecuador in 1999, in Uruguay in 2001, in Puerto Rico and Paraguay in 2003, in the Dominican Republic in 2004, in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Costa Rica in 2006 and in 2007, Guatemala became the nineteenth Latin American country to host a Vipassana course. Goenkaji first came to North America in 1979 to conduct a Vipassana course in Montreal, Canada. By 2008, eleven Vipassana centres had been established, offering about 200 courses and serving 10,000 students a year. Research indicates that practice of Vipassana reduces incidents of indiscipline, aggression and other anti-social attitudes in the prison; and increases general psychological wellbeing. In 2002, Goenkaji conducted the first course in North America for business executives and government officials.
INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL MEDITATION CENTER WITH BUDDHIST MEDITATION IN BURMA By DR. 26-3-53 to 29-2-56    " " "    " " "    Officer on Special Duty, Auditor General's Department   1-3-56 to 10-6-56    " " "    " " "    Officer on Special Duty, Ministry of Trade Development 11-6-56 to 20-6-56    " " "    " " "    1.
The list of some men of standing, both local and foreign, who have undergone courses at the Center may be seen on page 11. The Center Sponsors each month meditation courses of ten days duration under the personal direction of the saya. Apart from any possible meaning that the meditation Center might have for westerners is the question of its actual present meaning for those Burmans who make up the bulk of ( 7 ) its membership. Furthermore, most of those who attend the Center are occupied in business and in the professions, and the program at the Center is geared to their needs.
Her expressions (1) of onepointedness of Mind with a minute point of light and warmth at the base of the nose (Citta Visuddhi) (2) of the awareness of mental and bodily components in the process of change (Anicca) (3) of the experiencing of impermanence as suffering (Dukkha) and (4) of perceiving with inward eye the illusory nature of the separate self (Anatta) are really very commendable. You are showing a way out, teaching the individual how to find peace and complacency and how to lead himself and others to a better life.
At the very top, the noblest task possible in life is that of guiding men to the Path of liberation and Illumination. Meditation Center where she herself took a course in 1957; for her patient explanation of the techniques of meditation to those of her film-lecture audiences who became interested in Buddhist Meditation and also for her relentless effort to bring about a US Nationwide television programmed on the night of 12th April 1959. This is done till the wavelength of respiration becomes finer and finer and the Mind gets settled down to a point and the candidate secures what may be called the one-pointedness of the mind. Extract from 'Inside the Atom' by Isaac Asimov CHAPTER 1 ATOMIC CONTENTS What all things are made of There are so many things in the world that are so completely different from one another that the variety is bewildering. Experience of a state of purity of Mind (Samadhi) and of Vipassana under the leading and with the help of my Guru Sithu U Ba Khin, Accountant General of Burma. By clicking OK, you're confirming that your use won’t conflict with the restrictions found on the image page. After inhalation there are more molecules of air in the lungs, meaning it will take longer for the alveolar and arterial partial pressures to reach equilibrium since there are more molecules of air in the lungs. The independent variable was the phase of respiration and the dependent variable was the average percent change in breath holding duration as compared to a control. Each phase of respiration (experimental condition) was based off of a lung volume illustrated here.
Although this is not the best example, breath holding at the iso-volumic point (point between tidal volume peak and trough) during inhalation was attempted. There were cases of drift in most of our subjects, and though this seems like an example of drift it is not. The less air that is in the lungs at the point of voluntary apnea, the shorter one can hold their breath as indicated by the negative percent change.
Duration of breath holding was measured using a timer on LabChart software while percent change in duration of breath holding was calculated using excel. The more air that is in the lungs at the point of voluntary apnea, the longer one can hold their breath as indicated by the positive percent change. His continued efforts in India led to a dramatic growth in the number of Vipassana centres, the establishment of the Vipassana Research Institute, and courses in prisons, schools and other institutions. Thus Vipassana had circled the globe and when Goenkaji returned to Myanmar, people expressed joy at the spread of Dhamma around the world. With well over half a billion people, today Latin America is one of the most dynamic parts of the globe. Now, courses have been conducted in 11 African countries and there is a centre in South Africa. Following traditional trade routes, they spread east to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, eventually reaching China, Korea and Japan in the north-east, Sri Lanka in the south and the Indonesian archipelago in the south-east. The translations of Goenkaji’s English and Hindi teaching material in more than 50 languages have brought the teachings within the reach of millions of Asians. 2007, serves both the Chinese and Tamil-speaking local communities, with over 1300 students annually. Goenkaji first conducted courses in Australia in Sydney, New South Wales and Perth, Western Australia in 1980, for 195 students.
1995, located on the outskirts of Melbourne, on a hill rising above the Yarra River, surrounded by a forest. Although a tiny proportion of the population, it is an indication that Vipassana is beginning to become established in Australia. It is in a very quiet rural area within one hour of Auckland, New Zealand’s biggest city. May many people continue to benefit from the invaluable gem of Vipassana at the beautiful Dhamma Medini. It lies in a valley overlooking vineyards and farm lands with a magnificent mountain backdrop. Since 2005 around sixty 10-day courses have been held at the Centre and the first 20-day course was in 2009. Children’s course instructions have been translated in Shona (Zimbabwe), Amharic (Ethiopia) and Xhosa (South Africa) language.

To stimulate this further, a special course (called the African Heritage Course) was conducted at the Global Pagoda in December 2009 for African students. Thereafter Europe benefited regularly from Goenkaji’s visits, during which he conducted courses and gave public talks, attracting thousands of people from many countries. The quality that shines through all the memories of his visits to Europe is his indefatigable service to others.
The course instructions and other literature have been translated into most European languages. 1991 on 22 acres in Herefordshire in the west of England, with established facilities for 128 students, and with an adjoining long course centre. 1988 on 40 hectares in the countryside 165km south of Paris, accommodating 100 – 140 students.
1999 on 4 acres in the hills near Barcelona, with multi-lingual facilities serving 130 students. 2000 on 11 acres in Dilson, close to the borders of Netherlands and Germany, offering multilingual courses for 85 students. 2007 in central Sweden for 70 students, easily accessible from Norway, Denmark and Finland.
A major Europe-wide collaborative project, the first phase of the long course centre, for 50 students, became operational in April 2010.
However, because of a mix-up by the local authorities, the police came and took the assistant teacher and the students to the local jail for questioning and the course ended on Day 7! In addition to the students from Venezuela, Vipassana students from a number of other Latin American countries came to sit and serve on this course. 2003, the centre is two hours from Rio de Janeiro and serves about 1000 students each year.
Since then, executive courses have been held at several centres in North America, leading to very positive results and the spread of Dhamma in the business community. We offer our heart-felt congratulations to those who have devoted their time and energy to the cause of the Center. The courses are geared to the needs and the capacities of the individual, whether he be from the east or from the west. He may also learn something of the technique for inducing such peaceful states at will, an accomplishment not to be despised in these days of hurry and of strain.
Most of those who come to receive training, or who, having received it, frequent the Center are, broadly speaking, middle class people in active middle and young adult life. If it is true that stress and suffering are generating forces in religious revival there is no doubt that Burma's responsible middle classes have had their fill of both. It is a fellowship of laity, under lay leadership, and Buddhist meditation is presented to them not as something that may be practiced only in the seclusion of the monastery but rather as an activity for Buddhist "householders" those who are immersed in family cares and public responsibilities.
I hope with all my heart that Guru U Ba Khin will have many followers and disciples in the near future, who can be helped by him as much as l have been." Dr. I shall be with Anicca as long as I live, and as often as [ do, my spirit shall gratefully acknowledge the Guruji who made it possible. You, yourself are the best example how religious belief and deep understanding of fellow beings can well be combined with the strenuous duties and responsibilities of a high position in outer life. Through my films, and my own experiences, I hope to make this clearer too, to my American lecture audiences.
Many ministers have admitted (my audiences have been for the most part in white settings) that they and their people all College men and women, have understood for the first time. They are so small, in fact, that the strongest microscope ever invented could not make them large enough to see, or anywhere near large enough. The Guru will arrange for the development of his power of concentration to onepointedness (Citta Ekaggata). This was the first measurement made for every subject and only one was taken for each individual, which was then used for subsequent percent change calculations. Parkes (2006) observed that during breath holding lung volume will stay the same if oxygen diffusion from the alveoli matches carbon dioxide production. Recording commenced; breath holding occurred at or immediately after three normal breaths with instruction by the experimenter when the subject reached the iso-volumic point. Over the next 10 years, Goenkaji tirelessly conducted over 160 Vipassana courses in India and three centres were established in Igatpuri, Hyderabad and Jaipur. Thus from 1979 onwards, the technique of Vipassana began to spread westwards around the globe as Goenkaji travelled to give courses in Europe, North America and Australia.
In only a decade and a half, almost every one of the region’s countries has hosted courses, and the demand continues to grow. These words of deepest metta come from Goenkaji when he hears about courses in so many new places and he sees the life-long wish of his teacher, Sayagyi U Ba Khin, being fulfilled. One area alone, Souvannabhumi (Myanmar) preserved Vipassana, the original meditation practice taught by the Buddha, for centuries.
Today across Asia there are 19 centres offering over 360 courses and serving 4,000 students annually. 1989, is in Kyoto prefecture, and is set in a secluded valley surrounded by forested hills. Located on 40 acres at the highest point of the Blue Mountains, it has well-established facilities and is landscaped with ponds, paths and gardens. Located in the Sunshine Coast hinterland, with comfortable facilities for 52 students amid sub-tropical gardens in 65 acres of bushland. The sheer number of new students (over 3000 each year) taking courses, the establishment of regular long courses (20, 30 and 45 days), and the emergence of a strong old student community, together indicate the depth and strength of the roots of Vipassana in this land. The land is over 100 acres and has large areas of forest, which makes it very conducive for meditation. While only one African country (South Africa) has an established Vipassana centre, there are non-centre courses in many countries. The 43 participants of the course came from many African countries (including countries where no Vipassana course has been held so far). Annually, over 210 ten-day courses, and a number of 20-day, 30-day and 45-day courses are held in Europe. Earlier collaborative ventures include the purchase of the first European Vipassana centre in 1988 in France and the joint acquisition of a Centre in Belgium by the Belgian, Dutch and German Trusts. Even though the course ended prematurely, it was an important course as a number of students from the course later completed a full ten-day course and are now helping with organizing courses in Panama.
With the successful completion of this course it became obvious that the time had ripened for Dhamma to start spreading throughout Latin America.
Officer on Special Duty, Ministry of Trade Development 21-6-56 to 31-3-58    " " "    " " "    1. Officer on Special Duty,  Ministry of Trade Development                                                       3.
They are engaged in by a wide variety of people, ranging from an ex president of the Burmese Republic to an attendant at a gas Station. To do so, as it seems to the writer, what is required is not a willingness to renounce one's traditional religious faith - or even one's agnosticism - but an open-minded determination to experience something new. Almost without exception they are old enough to remember the war years and the Japanese occupation, the tragic murder of General Aung San and the stormy years of the birth of the new republic. Few Americans appreciate the suffering and destruction that the war and postwar periods have witnessed in Burma, or the amount of dislocation of Communications and of economic life that still prevail. Your fellowship has meant more to me than any other single thing during my happy months in Burma.
As a foreigner in Burma, one cannot get acquainted with Burma, its life and notions without also studying this side of the Burmese character." Mr.
How few men can truly help others - and of those and of all the world what a mere handful do. In the endless cycles of birth and death a week or two in the search of Nibbana is not even a drop in the ocean. Believe me, Guruji, words are utterly inadequate to suggest the tremendous acceptance and appreciation of Buddhist meditation, thanks to you, my Guruji. I am typing on a sheet of paper made of wood pulp and am wearing clothes made of cotton, wool, leather, and other materials. The particles are so small that there are more of them in a grain of sand than there are grains of sand on a large beach. The International Meditation Center is founded with the sole object of promoting the practice of Buddhist Meditation according to the teachings of the Lord Buddha.
It is the responsibility of the candidate to restrain himself properly to ensure, that the eight Precepts (Uposatha Sila) are duly observed. For this purpose, the training to be given will be in accordance with the principles enunciated in the Anapana Sati Sutta or the Visuddhi Magga Athakatha as may be found suitable to the candidate. In other words, he is in a state of perfect physical and mental calm, as in the case referred to by the Buddha in His dialog with Pukkusa of Malla while halting at a place on His way to Kusinara for the Maha-Parinibbana.
Since there are fewer air molecules in the lungs, less time is needed for alveolar and arterial partial pressures to reach equilibrium. However, this carbon dioxide cannot be released, so the carbon dioxide partial pressure gradient decreases. To calculate the duration of breath holding the trace was highlighted at the cessation of flow and the restarting of flow, which indicated the subject was holding their breath. The first was the use of individual iso-volumic points as a control (and baseline measurement for calculating percent change). Soon afterwards, he was welcomed enthusiastically for courses in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Japan. The first 20 day course in Australia was held there in 1986 and pagoda cells were opened in 1990. Also, after seeing the announcement of this course in the Vipassana Newsletter, students from other countries in Latin America became interested in organizing courses in their own countries. In October and November 1994, courses were given in Brazil and Argentina and again in Venezuela.
Donaldson Correctional Facility in Alabama, a maximum security prison noted for being a violent and brutal facility, with significant benefits. The sizes of the Vipassana courses at both centre and non-centre course locations have grown larger every year and the need for new centres continues to increase.
Deputy Chairman, State Agricultural Marketing Board                                                       4.

There is no compulsion exercised at the Center to make Buddhists out of Christians or Jews. The leading members of the International Center, therefore, have been led by many vicissitudes of fortune to learn how to live in good times and in bad, in safety and in peril.
For Buddhists are not organized in congregations as are most western religious groups - indeed, the need for such organized gatherings is hardly felt in the country districts where a whole village may, in effect, compose the community of faithful laity which Supports and frequents a particular monastery.
Though I may not have been able to learn very deeply about the Dhamma, I have learned from you and from your Center how to find a deep pool of quiet in the midst of the activities of a busy life. And yet, sir, when the Sankharas of this body fail, I shall have only these few moments, the most noble ones of my life, to sustain me till I reach the final goal! I have reached close to some ten thousand persons in these three years and am in the process of confronting thousands more.
This is developed by focusing ones attention to a spot on the upper lip just beneath the nose synchronizing the inward and outward motion of respiration with (a) the silent sound of 'Amen' in the case of Christians, (b) 'Aum' in the case of Hindus, (c) 'Allah' in the case of Mohammedans and (d) 'Sat-Nam' in the case of Sikhs. It is a practical demonstration of the theory of atomic reactions in Man which are vividly described by Dr.
I myself am made up of skin, muscle, blood, bone, and other living tissues', each different from the others. There are more of them in a glass of water than there are glasses of water in all the oceans of the world. With a view to ( 27 ) promoting Sila, he should further restrain the sense-centers (Indriya Samvara) by keeping himself alone, 'as far as practicable, in a cave or a secluded spot.
The extracted oxygen is not replaced by an equal amount of carbon dioxide and the lungs gradually contract by 200-500 milliliters per minute when holding breath.
The procedure was repeated for each phase of respiration and percent change calculations were done on excel. This allowed us to compare the duration of breath holding between conditions of inhalation and exhalation more accurately since the iso-volumic point is theoretically the volume between all the volumes associated with all of the phases of respiration tested. Inspired by his visits, students established the first western Vipassana centres in the early 1980s.
After the African Heritage Course 8 Africans attended the Gratitude Gathering at the Global Pagoda.
The next year courses were conducted in Panama, Chile, and Mexico, as well as Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela. Officer on Special Duty, Ministry of Trade Development                                                       3. Principal, Government Institute for Accounts and Audit  17-3-59 to 31-8-59    " " "    " " "    1.
Nottingham, Professor of Sociology, who was in Burma from June 1957 to February 1958 as a Fulbright Lecturer on Sociology at the Rangoon University took a course of meditation for (10) days at the International Meditation Center, Inyamyaing, during the month of August 1957. The saya invites his students freely to take and use what appears to them to be good and, should they so wish, to leave the rest. In the quest for that calm of spirit that would enable them not merely to exist with the unawareness of mere animals, but to turn their experiences to positive account, some have been discovering anew the ancient truths of their Buddhist faith. The Center, the people associated with the Center, and Guruji U Ba Khin can only command first place among my memories. Yes, to you belongs the credit for this seemingly providential development in my life and in the lives of so many more.
Isaac Asimov, Associate Professor of Biochemistry at the Boston University School of Medicine, in his book Inside the Atom".
Through a glass window I can see sidewalks made of crushed stone and roads made of a tarry substance called asphalt.
If they knew and understood them all, a great many of the problems of health and disease, of life. It is open to members of the Association and also to foreigners who are really anxious to experience the "Nibbanic Peace Within." 3.
The success in the development of the power of concentration to perfection (Samma Samadhi ) depends entirely on the right exertion (Samma Vayama) and the right mindfulness (Samasati) of the candidate concerned. He took advantage of his short stay in Burma by coming in contact with Sithu U Ba Khin and obtaining from him a practical course in Buddhist Meditation.
The fact that each individual served as their own control (single-subject design) played a role in attaining more accurate results as we saw how the dependent variable changed for all independent variable conditions in each individual; the values of percent change in duration of breath holding were then averaged. The paper is an exposition of her own experiences during the course of meditation at the Center. The atmosphere of tolerance and of active loving-kindness that surrounds the western visitor to the Center does much to strengthen the appeal of the mental and spiritual discipline.
It would be difficult for me personally to return thanks for the incalculable benefits received both in this setting and from this relationship." "          "          "          "          "          " "I am firmly convinced that you were destined to show me the intimacies of Buddhist meditation at its very best. With the light of the Dhamma as our guide, may we all soon win the Deathless." Miss Marion Dix. It is very painful to depart from this blessed place after living under your loving care and constant guidance. The achievement of Appana Samadhi (Attainment-Concentration) or Upacara Samadhi (Neighborhood- Concentration) is a reward which goes only to highly developed candidates). His experience is narrated in a brief statement made by him on the eve of his departure from Rangoon. Therefore, large lung volumes decrease the discomfort and increase the duration of breath holding (Whitelaw, McBride, and Ford, 1985).Like the beating heart, humans have a central respiratory rhythm that they cannot voluntarily stop. The second strength was the use of LabChart software and PowerLab hardware to measure individual lung volumes and iso-volumic point, which allowed for accurate measurement of breath holding duration.
Van Amersfoort, President of the Netherlands Buddhist Association, 38, Adelheidstraat, The Hague, Holland. I shall be carrying with me many many sweet memories, but Guruji, I shall forever be praying for your unfailing noble presence which alone gives strength and confidence to my feeble mind. In this particular group of presentations, the consensus was that Buddhism was easily the best of the lot. This, together with the explanatory remarks thereon of U BA Khin, will give the reader a clear and concise account of the course of training in practical Buddhist Meditation being given at the International Meditation Center, Inyamyaing, Rangoon.
Breath holding is voluntarily holding the chest at a certain volume while suppressing expression of the central respiratory rhythm. Without having the trace to tell us what phase of respiration the individual was in, we would not have reliable results.
Nottingham recently received a grant from the American Philosophical Society to help in the preparation of a manuscript on "Trends of Change in Burmese Buddhism." The International Meditation Center which was founded in 1952 is growing from strength to strength and its success may be judged from the appreciation of the foreigners of various walks of life.
Hover, Mechanical Engineer and Research Specialist, (Missile and Space Craft Industry) 14713, So La Mesa Drive, La Mirada, California, USA. Not only are they all going on at the same time, but there are different reactions in different parts of the body and different reactions at different times in the same part of the body. Although a timer was originally going to be used, the timer on the LabChart software was used instead.
All of them - wood, metal, silk, glass, flesh and blood, all of them - are made up of small, separate particles. It is only when you get down on your hands and knees on that beach and look closely that you see it is really made up of small, separate grains of sand.
Conditions that increase the central respiratory rhythm often cause breath holding to cease.
The trace for the volume for most subjects experienced a fair amount of drift and it was therefore difficult to instruct the subject on when to commence breath holding.
At phases of respiration with lower volumes of air in the lungs, the percent change in duration of breath holding will be more negative compared to the control among humans. Instead, the trace for flow was used for all trials and the duration of breath holding was the time between the point at which flow ceased and when it began again. Although many of the subjects' traces for volume experienced drift, there were some cases where this drift may not have actually been drift and may have been due to a different physiological phenomenon (Parkes 2006).
Having an unreliable control could potentially impact the results to a significant degree and as such, measures should be taken in the future to prevent this. Our final limitation was the distraction from other experiments and stimuli, which may have had an effect on the dependent variable. The need of the subjects to follow experimenter instructions must be emphasized in the future so that duration of breath holding is measured at the desired phase of respiration.
This will also allow for a more accurate iso-volumic point measurement as our control which will result in more reliable data.
Sutterlin, Schroijen, Constantinou, Smets, and Van den Bergh (2013) conduced a similar experiment in terms of methodology (i.e.
The researchers of this study wanted to test how reliable the breath holding test (BHT) is for testing anxiety levels.
They had measurements for duration of breath holding conducted in year one (BHT1) and another in year two (BHT2).
The BHT in this study was most similar to our 'normal exhale' condition and so the means were compared. The difference was that in the comparison study, the subjects were instructed to hold their breath as long as they could even if they felt discomfort.
The present study gave the vague instructions of 'hold your breath as long as you can' with no mention of when to cease breath holding.
This could have caused some subjects to cease breath holding when they felt the slightest bit of discomfort while others may have tried to push through the discomfort. In either case, this could potentially affect the accuracy and validity of our results.A question that may be interesting to pose in the future is the effect of the iso-volumic point during inhalation versus during at exhalation on breath holding duration. The researchers of the present study arbitrarily chose to use the iso-volumic point as one inhaled as the control, assuming inhalation and exhalation would provide the same result since the lung volume would be the same. Although no literature search was conducted due to this observation coming to light so recently, it would be interesting to see the if there is a physiological or psychological effect on the duration of breath holding if the iso-volumic point is at inhalation or exhalation.

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Comments to «Vipassana meditation center toronto»

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