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08.02.2016, admin
Overview of Urinary Tract Infection Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a huge public health problem – particularly among women, whose lifetime risk of having at least one UTI is higher than 50 percent. The urinary tract, the system that produces urine and carries it out of the body, includes the kidneys (where the urine is made), the bladder (where it is stored before urination), the ureters (tubes that connect the kidney to the bladder and transport urine down into it), and urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body). UTI is diagnosed through laboratory testing of a urine sample, though new methods are being developed for more rapid testing. The UCLA Department of Urology provides treatment for urological conditions of all kinds and is committed to providing the highest quality of patient care. The Department of Urology at UCLA is one of the most progressive and comprehensive urology programs in the country. 2.1The Licensed Material may not be used in any final materials distributed inside of your company or any materials distributed outside of your company or to the public, including, but not limited to, advertising and marketing materials or in any online or other electronic distribution system (except that you may transmit comps digitally or electronically to your clients for their review) and may not be distributed, sublicensed or made available for use or distribution separately or individually and no rights may be granted to the Licensed Material. 2.2One copy of the Licensed Material may be made for backup purposes only but may only be used if the original Licensed Material becomes defective, destroyed or otherwise irretrievably lost.
A urinary tract infection is an infection involving the organs that produce urine and carry it out of the body. Women are affected much more often than men because women have short urethras that allow relatively easy passage of bacteria into the bladder.
In pregnant women, temporary changes in the physiology and anatomy of the urinary tract make expectant mothers prime candidates for cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and whether you have had a urinary tract infection before.
You will be asked to give a urine sample, which will be tested in a laboratory to see if it contains bacteria or other signs of infection. Cystoscopy, an examination in which your doctor checks the inside of your bladder using a thin, hollow telescope-like instrument. With proper treatment, most uncomplicated urinary tract infections can be cured in two to three days.
People with upper tract infections are usually treated with a 10 to 14 day course of antibiotic therapy. Call your doctor if you have frequent urination, an intense urge to urinate, discomfort during urination or other symptoms of a urinary tract infection. Once a woman has been cured of cystitis, she has a 20% chance of developing a second infection. Disclaimer: This content should not be considered complete and should not be used in place of a call or visit to a health professional. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common gram-negative bacteria encountered by physicians worldwide. The most common cause of bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult women is Escherichia coli, which is part of the normal intestinal flora. Klebsiella is also found in the urine and is the origin of some urinary tract infections acquired in hospitals (nosocomial infection), particularly in certain at-risk services such as surgical services, intensive care or long stays.
The urinary tract infection is defined by the multiplication and thus the presence of more than 100,000 (10 power 5) cells per ml of a urine sample collected in the middle of urination that is to say during urination. Seventy percent of these patients have diabetes, reported by 11% to 12% of patients, Klebsiella liver abscess have other septic metastases, including pulmonary embolism or abscess, brain abscess, pyogenic meningitis, endophthalmitis, prostatic abscess, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, or psoas abscess.
This editable Main Article is under development and not meant to be cited; by editing it you can help to improve it towards a future approved, citable version. With basic microbiological technique, samples believed to contain Proteus are first incubated on nutrient agar to form colonies. Rts1 is a large conjugative plasmid isloated from Proteus vulgaris.[4] The nucleotide sequencing of Rts1 was completed at Shinshu University School of Medicine, Japan. Multiple rod-shaped bacteria between white blood cells of patient with urinary tract infection. Proteus species are highly resistant to antibiotics, so infections can be difficult to cure. Low doses of penicillin causes gram-negative bacteria to transform into filaments, but penicillin itself does no harm to cell envelopes and cell wall.


A urinary tract infection (UTI) is usually caused when bacteria from the digestive tract get into the urethra, multiply, and move into the bladder. Women are believed to be more prone to bladder infections because their shorter urethras make it easier for germs to migrate into the bladder.
A “clean-catch” urine specimen is obtained by cleansing the area around the urethral opening and collecting a urine sample in mid-stream, when it is less likely to be contaminated by bacteria in the genital area.
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These structures include the kidneys, ureters (long, slender tubes connecting the kidneys with the bladder), bladder and urethra.
Bacteria normally found in the intestine are the main cause of lower urinary tract infections. Kidney and bladder infections can pose a serious risk to pregnant women and their unborn children, because they increase the risk of premature contractions or delivery and sometimes death of the fetus or newborn infant. Your urine sample also may be sent to the laboratory to identify the specific type of bacteria and the specific antibiotics that can be used to eliminate the bacteria. To prevent the spread of intestinal bacteria from the rectum to the urinary tract, women always should wipe toilet tissue from front to the back after having a bowel movement. Those with severe upper tract infections may require hospital treatment with antibiotics given through a vein (intravenously).
You also should seek medical attention if you have symptoms of a kidney infection, such as fever, nausea, vomiting and pain in the side or back. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
This is a common nosocomial pathogen causing urinary tract infections, nosocomial pneumonia, and intraabdominal infections. This is the body for about 85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections and 50% of nosocomial infections of the urinary tract. It seems that inadequate cleaning of the hands of hospital staff, perhaps a poor sterilization of objects used, but also the use of broad spectrum antibiotics (used to fight many bacteria) and an altered anatomical barrier explain this phenomenon. Proteus isolated from the vomit of patients with meat-poison caused diarrhea and death when fed to mice.
Women are also more at risk than men after sexual intercourse, which can push bacteria into the urethra. When there are recurrent infections, further testing may be done in an effort to determine the underlying cause. Upon download of any film Licensed Material, you will be invoiced a non-refundable access service fee of one hundred fifty dollars ($150) USD or such other local currency amount as Getty Images may apply from time to time. These bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra and bladder, where they grow, invade the tissue and cause infection. Upper urinary tract infections usually occur because bacteria travel up from the bladder into the kidney. Also, the use of contraceptive diaphragms and spermicides may change the normal bacterial environment around the urethra and make infection more likely. Your doctor also will ask if you have any other medical problems, such as diabetes, which can make you more likely to develop infections. If you have a fever or other symptoms of an upper tract infection, your doctor may order a blood test to determine your white blood cell count. Drinking cranberry juice may deter bacterial growth by decreasing the ability of bacteria to stick to the urethra. If you keep getting infections, you should talk to your doctor about using antibiotics after sex to lower the risk of developing urinary tract infections. Most uncomplicated lower tract infections are treated with a three-day course of antibiotics, although women who are pregnant, or who have diseases such as diabetes that suppress the immune system, usually need to take antibiotics for longer.
This is especially true if nausea, vomiting and fever increase the risk of dehydration and prevent the person from taking oral antibiotics.
It is especially important for any pregnant woman who has symptoms of an upper or lower urinary tract infection to call her doctor immediately.


If a woman has three or more episodes of cystitis within one year and the structure or anatomy of the urinary tract is normal, her doctor may prescribe a special antibiotic regimen to decrease the risk of future infections. The alteration of anatomical barriers may be due to extensive burns or therapeutic interventions (tracheotomy, intubation, urinary catheter, intravenous catheter, prosthesis etc.). The classic clinical picture is dramatic: toxic presentation with sudden onset, high fever and hemoptysis (currant jelly sputum).
The products of 141 of these showed significant sequence similarity to known proteins and among these, 99 were homologous to proteins whose functions are known or predicted.
When different cultured Proteus was fed to mice, neither sickness nor immunity was present. Pregnant women are at risk of developing urinary tract infections that are asymptomatic; in addition, their urinary tract infections are more likely to travel to the kidneys. However, it is particularly common in pregnant women and can cause pre-term labor or other problems if not treated. The Licensed Material may only be used in materials for personal, noncommercial use and test or sample use, including comps and layouts.
If Licensed Material featuring a person is used (i) in a manner that implies endorsement, use of or a connection to a product or service by that model; or (ii) in connection with a potentially unflattering or controversial subject, you must print a statement that indicates that the person is a model and is used for illustrative purposes only. Sometimes, they occur when bacteria travel from other areas of the body through the bloodstream and settle in the kidney.
Chest radiographic abnormalities such as bulging interlobar fissures and abscess cavities are prominent. An interesting finding was the presence of tus-like genes that could be involved in replication termination. To prevent transmission of nosocomial pathogens within hospitals, the persistence of nosocomial pathogens on surfaces was assessed. If not treated, the infection can travel up to the kidneys, where it can cause more serious and potentially permanent damage. Not drinking enough fluids can increase the risk by reducing the amount of urination, which helps to clear bacteria from the system. Treatment is usually a combination of antibiotics, drinking lots of fluids and urinating frequently.
Although very similar, these three sub-species to cause respiratory tract infections very different and is more or less virulent. However, the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia Klebsiella has apparently declined in the United States.
Key strategies for preventing infections include drinking lots of water (some studies have also found that cranberry juice helps), urinating often and completely, and, for women, urinating immediately after sexual intercourse.
Anyone with a condition that obstructs the flow of urine, such as a kidney or urinary stone, a congenital abnormality in children or an enlarged prostate in men, is at increased risk. This cures most urinary tract infections within a couple of days (though it is usually recommended that antibiotics be taken beyond the point that the symptoms subside); more complicated infections and those involving the kidney take longer, and in some cases require hospitalization. Catheters placed in the urethra and bladder also make individuals more prone to urinary tract infections, as does any disorder that affects the immune system, including diabetes.
Besides an enlarged prostate, risks specific to men include an uncircumcised penis, anal intercourse, and unprotected sex with a woman who has a vaginal infection.
Ammonia causes the urine to become very alkaline (pH >7), and may cause the formation of renal stones. Some of the symptoms of Proteus infection include flank pain, hematuria, and persistent alkaline urine. In addition, case reports and small series from Korea, Singapore, Japan, India and Thailand have been published.



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